Sanhedrin 43b:10סנהדרין מ״ג ב
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
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43bמ״ג ב

אריב"ל כל הזובח את יצרו ומתודה עליו מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו כיבדו להקב"ה בשני עולמים העולם הזה והעולם הבא דכתיב (תהלים נ, כג) זובח תודה יכבדנני

§ Apropos the last verse cited in this baraita, Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: With regard to anyone who slaughters his evil inclination after it has tempted him to sin, if he repents and confesses his sin, the verse ascribes him credit as though he had honored the Holy One, Blessed be He, in two worlds, this world and the World-to-Come, as it is written: “Whoever slaughters a thanks-offering [toda] honors Me [yekhabdaneni]” (Psalms 50:23), which can also be read as: Whoever slaughters his evil inclination and confesses [mitvadeh] honors Me, and the two instances of the letter nun in the word yekhabdaneni allude to the two worlds.

ואריב"ל בזמן שבית המקדש קיים אדם מקריב עולה שכר עולה בידו מנחה שכר מנחה בידו אבל מי שדעתו שפלה מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו הקריב כל הקרבנות כולן שנאמר (תהלים נא, יט) זבחי אלהים רוח נשברה ולא עוד אלא שאין תפלתו נמאסת שנאמר (תהלים נא, יט) לב נשבר ונדכה אלהים לא תבזה:

And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi also says: When the Temple is standing, if a person sacrifices a burnt-offering, he has the reward given for bringing a burnt-offering, and if he sacrifices a meal-offering, he has the reward given for bringing a meal-offering. But as for one whose spirit is humble, the verse ascribes him credit for his prayer as though he has sacrificed all the offerings, as it is stated: “The offerings of God are a broken spirit” (Psalms 51:19), which teaches that a broken spirit is equivalent to the offerings to God, in the plural. And moreover, his prayer is not rejected, as it is stated in the continuation of that verse: “A broken and contrite heart, God, You will not despise.”

מתני׳ היה רחוק מבית הסקילה כעשר אמות אומרים לו התודה שכן דרך כל המומתין מתודין שכל המתודה יש לו חלק לעוה"ב שכן מצינו בעכן שאמר לו יהושע (יהושע ז, יט) בני שים נא כבוד [לה'] אלהי ישראל ותן לו תודה (יהושע ז, כ) ויען עכן את יהושע ויאמר אמנה אנכי חטאתי וכזאת וכזאת וגו' ומנין שכיפר לו וידויו שנאמר (יהושע ז, כה) ויאמר יהושע מה עכרתנו יעכרך ה' ביום הזה ביום הזה אתה עכור ואי אתה עכור לעולם הבא

MISHNA: When the condemned man is at a distance of about ten cubits from the place of stoning, they say to him: Confess your transgressions, as the way of all who are being executed is to confess. As whoever confesses and regrets his transgressions has a portion in the World-to-Come. For so we find with regard to Achan, that Joshua said to him: “My son, please give glory to the Lord, God of Israel, and make confession to Him” (Joshua 7:19). And the next verse states: “And Achan answered Joshua, and said: Indeed I have sinned against the Lord, God of Israel, and like this and like that have I done.” And from where is it derived that Achan’s confession achieved atonement for him? It is derived from here, as it is stated: “And Joshua said: Why have you brought trouble on us? The Lord shall trouble you this day” (Joshua 7:25). Joshua said to Achan as follows: On this day of your judgment you are troubled, but you will not be troubled in the World-to-Come.

ואם אינו יודע להתוודות אומרים לו אמור תהא מיתתי כפרה על כל עונותי ר' יהודה אומר אם היה יודע שהוא מזומם אומר תהא מיתתי כפרה על כל עונותי חוץ מעון זה אמרו לו א"כ יהו כל אדם אומר כן כדי לנקות עצמו:

And if the condemned man does not know how to confess, either from ignorance or out of confusion, they say to him: Say simply: Let my death be an atonement for all my sins. Rabbi Yehuda says: If the condemned man knows that he was convicted by the testimony of conspiring witnesses, but in fact he is innocent, he says: Let my death be an atonement for all my sins except for this sin. The Sages who disagreed with Rabbi Yehuda said to him: If so, every person who is being executed will say that, to clear himself in the eyes of the public. Therefore, if the condemned man does not make such a statement on his own, the court does not suggest it to him as an alternative.

גמ׳ ת"ר נא אין נא אלא לשון בקשה

GEMARA: Since the mishna referred to Achan’s sin, the Gemara cites several statements concerning that incident. The Sages taught in a baraita: Joshua said to Achan: “Please [na] give glory to the Lord, God of Israel, and make confession to Him.” The word na” is nothing other than an expression of supplication. Why would Joshua employ an expression of supplication when approaching Achan?

בשעה שאמר הקב"ה ליהושע (יהושע ז, יא) חטא ישראל אמר לפניו רבש"ע מי חטא אמר ליה וכי דילטור אני לך הפל גורלות הלך והפיל גורלות ונפל הגורל על עכן אמר לו יהושע בגורל אתה בא עלי אתה ואלעזר הכהן שני גדולי הדור אתם אם אני מפיל עליכם גורל על אחד מכם הוא נופל אמר לו בבקשה ממך אל תוציא לעז על הגורלות שעתידה ארץ ישראל שתתחלק בגורל שנאמר (במדבר כו, נה) אך בגורל יחלק את הארץ

The baraita explains: When the Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Joshua: “Israel has sinned” (Joshua 7:11), Joshua said to Him: Master of the Universe, who is the one who has sinned? God said to him: Am I an informer [deilator]? Go cast lots and find out for yourself. Joshua then went and cast lots, and the lot fell upon Achan. Achan said to him: Joshua, do you come to execute me merely based on a lot, without any corroborating evidence? You and Elazar the priest are the two most distinguished leaders of the generation, but if I cast a lot upon the two of you, it will perforce fall upon one of you. What then can you prove from a lottery? Joshua said to him: I ask of you, do not spread slander about the lots, as Eretz Yisrael will one day be divided by lots, as it is stated: “Nevertheless, the land shall be divided by lot” (Numbers 26:55). Due to you the results of that lottery may be challenged. Therefore, Joshua used the word “na,” pleading with Achan to confess.

תן תודה אמר רבינא שחודי שחדיה במילי כלום נבקש ממך אלא הודאה תן לו תודה והיפטר מיד ויען עכן את יהושע ויאמר אמנה אנכי חטאתי לה' אלהי ישראל וכזאת וכזאת עשיתי

Joshua said to Achan: “Please give glory to the Lord, God of Israel, and make confession to Him.” Ravina says: Joshua won over Achan with his words, saying: Do we ask anything of you but a confession? Make confession to Him and be discharged. Thinking that if he confessed, he would be pardoned, Achan immediately responded: “And Achan answered Joshua, and said: Indeed I have sinned against the Lord, God of Israel, and like this and like that have I done” (Joshua 7:20).

אמר רב אסי אמר רבי חנינא מלמד שמעל עכן בשלשה חרמים שנים בימי משה ואחד בימי יהושע שנאמר כזאת וכזאת עשיתי רבי יוחנן אמר משום ר' אלעזר בר' שמעון חמשה ארבעה בימי משה ואחד בימי יהושע שנאמר אנכי חטאתי וכזאת וכזאת עשיתי

With regard to the words “And like this and like that have I done,” Rav Asi says that Rabbi Ḥanina says: This teaches that Achan misused consecrated property from three dedications, i.e., three groups of property that had been dedicated to the Lord. Two were during wars waged in the days of Moses, and one was in the days of Joshua, as it is stated: “And like this and like that have I done,” indicating that he had already committed similar offenses twice before committing the offense in Jericho. Rabbi Yoḥanan says in the name of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon: Achan misused property from five dedications, four during wars waged in the days of Moses, and one in the days of Joshua, as it is stated: “I have sinned against the Lord, God of Israel, and like this and like that have I done,” with each “and” alluding to an additional prior offense.

ועד השתא מאי טעמא לא איענוש א"ר יוחנן משום ר' אלעזר בר' שמעון לפי שלא ענש על הנסתרות עד שעברו ישראל את הירדן

The Gemara asks: If so, what is the reason that the Jewish people were not punished on Achan’s account until now? Rabbi Yoḥanan says in the name of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon: Because God did not punish the nation as a whole for hidden sins committed by individuals until the Jewish people crossed the Jordan River.

כתנאי (דברים כט, כח) הנסתרות לה' אלהינו והנגלות לנו ולבנינו עד עולם למה נקוד על לנו ולבנינו ועל עי"ן שבעד מלמד שלא ענש על הנסתרות עד שעברו ישראל את הירדן דברי ר' יהודה

The Gemara notes that this is subject to a dispute between tanna’im. The verse states: “The hidden matters belong to the Lord our God, but those matters that are revealed belong to us and to our children forever [ad olam], that we may do all the words of this Torah” (Deuteronomy 29:28). Why in a Torah scroll are there dots over each of the letters in the words “to us and to our children” and over the letter ayin in the word “forever [ad]”? The dots, which function like erasures that weaken the force of the words, teach that God did not punish the nation for hidden sins until the Jewish people crossed the Jordan River. This is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda.

א"ל ר' נחמיה וכי ענש על הנסתרות לעולם והלא כבר נאמר עד עולם אלא כשם שלא ענש על הנסתרות כך לא ענש על עונשין שבגלוי עד שעברו ישראל את הירדן אלא

Rabbi Neḥemya said to him: And does God ever punish the nation as a whole for hidden sins committed by individuals? But isn’t it already stated: “The hidden matters belong to the Lord our God…forever,” indicating that the Jewish people will never be collectively held responsible for the secret sins of individuals? Rather, the dots over the words teach that just as God did not ever punish the nation as a whole for hidden sins committed by individuals, so too, He did not punish the entire nation for sins committed publicly by individuals until the Jewish people crossed the Jordan River. The Gemara asks: But if so,