Sanhedrin 110bסנהדרין ק״י ב
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110bק״י ב
1 א

א"ל כל תלתין יומין מהדרא להו גיהנם כבשר בתוך קלחת ואמרי הכי משה ותורתו אמת והן בדאים:

The Arab said to him: Every thirty days Gehenna returns them to this place like meat cooking in a cauldron, and they say this: Moses and his Torah are truth, and they are liars.

2 ב

דור המדבר אין להם חלק לעולם הבא וכו': ת"ר דור המדבר אין להם חלק לעולם הבא שנאמר (במדבר יד, לה) במדבר הזה יתמו ושם ימותו יתמו בעולם הזה ושם ימותו בעולם הבא ואמר (תהלים צה, יא) אשר נשבעתי באפי אם יבואון אל מנוחתי דברי ר"ע

§ The mishna teaches: The members of the generation of the wilderness have no share in the World-to-Come. The Sages taught: The members of the generation of the wilderness have no share in the World-to-Come, as it is stated: “In this wilderness they shall be consumed, and there they shall die” (Numbers 14:35). “They shall be consumed” indicates in this world; “and there they shall die” indicates for the World-to-Come. And the verse states with regard to the generation of the wilderness: “Wherefore I took an oath in My anger that they should not enter into My rest” (Psalms 95:11), indicating that they will not be privileged to gain eternal rest; this is the statement of Rabbi Akiva.

3 ג

ר"א אומר (הן באין) לעולם הבא שנאמר (תהלים נ, ה) אספו לי חסידי כורתי בריתי עלי זבח אלא מה אני מקיים אשר נשבעתי באפי באפי נשבעתי וחוזרני בי

Rabbi Eliezer says: They come to the World-to-Come, as it is stated: “Gather My pious together to Me, those that have entered into My covenant by offering” (Psalms 50:5). Those who left Egypt entered into an eternal covenant with God at Mount Sinai. But how do I realize the meaning of the phrase “Wherefore I took an oath in My anger”? It must be understood: In My anger I took an oath, and I reconsidered and dissolved the oath when My anger subsided.

4 ד

רבי יהושע בן קרחה אומר לא נאמר פסוק זה אלא כנגד דורות הבאים אספו לי חסידי אלו צדיקים שבכל דור ודור כורתי בריתי (עלי זבח) אלו חנניה מישאל ועזריה שמסרו עצמן לתוך כבש האש עלי זבח [אלו] ר"ע וחביריו שמסרו עצמן לשחיטה על דברי תורה

Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa says: This verse was stated to the generation of the wilderness only with regard to future generations, and should be understood in this manner: “Gather My pious together to Me”; these are the righteous that are in each and every generation. “Those that have entered into My covenant by offering”; these are Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah, who submitted themselves to the fiery furnace to sanctify God’s name. “By offering”; this is a reference to Rabbi Akiva and his colleagues, who gave themselves up to slaughter over matters of Torah.

5 ה

ר"ש בן מנסיא אומר באים הן לעולם הבא שנא' (ישעיהו לה, י) ופדויי ה' ישובון ובאו ציון ברנה אמר רבה בר בר חנה א"ר יוחנן שבקה ר"ע לחסידותיה שנאמר (ירמיהו ב, ב) הלוך וקראת באזני ירושלים לאמר זכרתי לך חסד נעוריך אהבת כלולותיך לכתך אחרי במדבר בארץ לא זרועה ומה אחרים באים בזכותם הם עצמן לא כל שכן:

Rabbi Shimon ben Menasya says: The generation of the wilderness comes to the World-to-Come, as it is stated: “And the redeemed of the Lord shall return and come singing into Zion” (Isaiah 35:10), meaning that those whom God redeemed will yet come to Zion. Rabba bar bar Ḥana says that Rabbi Yoḥanan says: Rabbi Akiva abandoned his piety and uncharacteristically interpreted the verses harshly, as it is stated with regard to the generation of the wilderness: “Go and cry in the ears of Jerusalem saying, so says the Lord: I remember for you the affection of your youth, the love of your espousals, how you went after Me in the wilderness, in a land that was not sown” (Jeremiah 2:2). Now, if others come into the World-to-Come in the merit of the generation that left Egypt and followed God in the wilderness, is it not all the more so that the generation of the wilderness themselves have a share in the World-to-Come?

6 ו

מתני׳ עשרת השבטים אינן עתידין לחזור שנא' (דברים כט, כז) וישליכם אל ארץ אחרת כיום הזה מה היום הולך ואינו חוזר אף הם הולכים ואינן חוזרים דברי ר"ע ר"א אומר כיום הזה מה יום מאפיל ומאיר אף עשרת השבטים שאפילה להן כך עתידה להאיר להם:

MISHNA: The ten tribes are not destined to return to Eretz Yisrael, even during the messianic era, as it is stated: “And He cast them into another land, as it is this day” (Deuteronomy 29:27). Just as the day passes never to return, so too, the ten tribes go into exile and do not return; this is the statement of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Eliezer says: “As it is this day,” meaning just as the day darkens and then the sky brightens the next day, with regard to the ten tribes as well, although it is dark for them now, so it is destined to brighten for them.

7 ז

גמ׳ ת"ר עשרת השבטים אין להם חלק לעוה"ב שנאמר (דברים כט, כז) ויתשם ה' מעל אדמתם באף ובחמה ובקצף גדול ויתשם ה' מעל אדמתם בעוה"ז וישליכם אל ארץ אחרת לעוה"ב דברי ר"ע ר"ש בן יהודה איש כפר עכו אומר משום ר"ש אם מעשיהם כיום הזה אינן חוזרין ואם לאו חוזרין

GEMARA: The Sages taught in a baraita (Tosefta 13:12): The ten tribes have no share in the World-to-Come, as it is stated: “And the Lord rooted them out of their land in anger, and in wrath, and in great indignation; and He cast them into another land, as it is this day” (Deuteronomy 29:27). “And the Lord rooted them out of their land” indicates in this world; “and cast them into another land” indicates for the World-to-Come; this is the statement of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Shimon ben Yehuda of the village of Akko says in the name of Rabbi Shimon: If their actions continue to be “as it is this day” and they continue to sin, they do not return to Eretz Yisrael. And if not, and they repent, they return to Eretz Yisrael.

8 ח

רבי אומר באים הם לעוה"ב שנאמר (ישעיהו כז, יג) ביום ההוא יתקע בשופר גדול וגו' אמר רבה בר בר חנה א"ר יוחנן שבקה ר"ע לחסידותיה שנא' (ירמיהו ג, יב) הלוך וקראת את הדברים האלה צפונה ואמרת שובה משובה ישראל נאם ה' ולא אפיל פני בכם כי חסיד אני נאם ה' לא אטור לעולם

Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: The members of the ten tribes come to the World-to-Come, as it is stated: “And it shall come to pass on that day, that a great shofar will be sounded, and they shall come who were lost in the land of Assyria and who were dispersed in the land of Egypt, and they shall worship the Lord at the holy mountain in Jerusalem” (Isaiah 27:13). Rabba bar bar Ḥana says that Rabbi Yoḥanan says: Here too, Rabbi Akiva abandoned his piety and uncharacteristically interpreted the verses harshly, as it is stated with regard to the ten tribes: “Go and proclaim these words toward the north, and say: Return you faithless Israel, says the Lord; I will not frown upon you; for I am merciful, says the Lord, and I will not bear a grudge forever” (Jeremiah 3:12). The prophet prophesies about the return of the ten tribes to Eretz Yisrael.

9 ט

מאי חסידותיה דתניא קטני בני רשעי ישראל אין באין לעוה"ב שנא' (מלאכי ג, יט) כי הנה היום בא בוער כתנור והיה כל זדים וכל עושי רשעה קש ולהט אותם היום הבא אמר ה' צבאות אשר לא יעזוב להם שורש וענף שורש בעוה"ז וענף לעוה"ב דברי רבן גמליאל

§ The Gemara asks: What is the characteristic piety of Rabbi Akiva mentioned above? The Gemara answers: It is as it is taught in a baraita: The minor children of the wicked of the Jewish people, who died with neither their own virtue nor the virtue of their parents, do not come into the World-to-Come, as it is stated: “For behold the day is coming; it burns like a furnace, and all the arrogant and all who do wickedly shall be straw; and the day that is coming shall burn them up, says the Lord of hosts, so that it will leave them neither root nor branch” (Malachi 3:19). “Root” and “branch” are referring to descendants; they will have neither a root in this world nor a branch in the World-to-Come; this is the statement of Rabban Gamliel.

10 י

ר"ע אומר באים הם לעוה"ב שנא' (תהלים קטז, ו) שומר פתאים ה' שכן קורין בכרכי הים לינוקא פתיא ואומר (דניאל ד, כ) גודו אילנא וחבלוהי ברם עיקר שרשוהי בארעא שבוקו ואלא מה אני מקיים לא יעזוב להם שורש וענף שלא יניח להם לא מצוה ולא שיורי מצוה ד"א שורש זו נשמה וענף זה הגוף

Rabbi Akiva says: They come into the World-to-Come, as it is stated: “The Lord preserves the simple [peta’im]” (Psalms 116:6), as in the cities overseas the residents call a child patya. And the verse states with regard to Nebuchadnezzar: “Hew down the tree and destroy it; yet leave the stump of its roots in the earth” (Daniel 4:20). If that is the case with regard to Nebuchadnezzar, all the more so it is the case with regard to the wicked people of Israel. But how do I realize the meaning of the phrase: “So that it will leave them neither root nor branch”? It means that God will not leave for the wicked a mitzva nor the remnants of a mitzva for which they will be rewarded. Rabbi Akiva dug deep to find a way into the World-to-Come for these children. Alternatively, “root”; this is referring to the soul. “Nor branch”; this is referring to the body.

11 יא

אבל קטני בני רשעי עובדי כוכבים ד"ה אין באין לעוה"ב ור"ג נפקא ליה (ישעיהו כו, יד) מותאבד כל זכר למו

But everyone agrees that the minor children of the wicked of the nations of the world will not come into the World-to-Come, as they have no virtue at all. And Rabban Gamliel derives this matter concerning those children from the verse: “And you have caused all their memory to perish” (Isaiah 26:14).

12 יב

אתמר קטן מאימתי בא לעוה"ב ר' חייא ור"ש בר ר' חד אמר משעה שנולד וחד אמר משעה שסיפר מ"ד משעה שנולד שנא' (תהלים כב, לב) יבואו ויגידו צדקתו לעם נולד כי עשה ומ"ד משעה שסיפר דכתיב (תהלים כב, לא) זרע יעבדנו יסופר לה' לדור

It was stated: With regard to a minor who dies, from when, i.e., from what stage, does he come into the World-to-Come? There is a dispute between Rabbi Ḥiyya and Rabbi Shimon bar Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. One of them says: From the moment that he is born, and the other one says: From the moment that he begins to talk. The Gemara elaborates: The one who says: From the moment that he is born, derives it from that which is stated: “They shall come and shall declare His righteousness to a people that shall be born, that He has done this” (Psalms 22:32). And the one who says: From the moment that he begins to talk, derives it from that which is written: “Their seed shall serve Him; it shall be told of the Lord to the coming generation” (Psalms 22:31), as from the moment he talks, he belongs to God.

13 יג

אתמר רבינא אמר משעה שנזרע דכתיב זרע יעבדנו ר"נ בר יצחק אמר משעה שנימול דכתיב (תהלים פח, טז) עני אני וגוע מנוער נשאתי אימיך אפונה

It was stated that additional amora’im expressed opinions about the same matter. Ravina says: From the moment that the child is conceived, even before his birth, he can enter the World-to-Come, as it is written: “Their seed shall serve Him” (Psalms 22:31); even as seed the child merits to enter the World-to-Come. Rabbi Naḥman bar Yitzḥak says: From the moment that he is circumcised, as it is written: “I am poor and close to death from youth; I suffered your terrors [emekha], I am numb” (Psalms 88:16). From the moment that one bears the mark that the Jewish people have due to fear of God [eima], he turns to God and he belongs to Him.

14 יד

תנא משום ר"מ משעה שיאמר אמן שנא' (ישעיהו כו, ב) פתחו שערים ויבא גוי צדיק שומר אמוני' אל תקרי שומר אמונים אלא שאומר אמן

It is taught in the name of Rabbi Meir: From the moment that the child will say amen, as it is stated: “Open the gates, so that the righteous nation that keeps faithfulness may enter” (Isaiah 26:2). Do not read the verse as “that keeps faithfulness [shomer emunim]”; rather, read it as: That says amen [she’omer amen]. From the moment he says amen, the gates to the World-to-Come open.