Sanhedrin 103bסנהדרין ק״ג ב
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103bק״ג ב

(תהלים צא, יד) כי בי חשק ואפלטהו אשגבהו כי ידע שמי יקראני ואענהו עמו אנכי בצרה אחלצהו ואכבדהו אורך ימים אשביעהו ואראהו בישועתי

“Because he has desired Me, therefore I will deliver him; I will set him on high, because he has known My name. He shall call upon Me, and I will answer him; I will be with him in trouble; I will deliver him, and honor him. With long life I will satisfy him, and show him My salvation” (Psalms 91:14–16).

אמר ר"ש בן לקיש מאי דכתיב (איוב לח, טו) וימנע מרשעים אורם וזרוע רמה תשבר מפני מה עי"ן של רשעים תלויה כיון שנעשה אדם רש מלמטה נעשה רש מלמעלה

Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish says: What is the meaning of that which is written: “And He will withhold their light from the wicked [resha’im], and the high arm shall be broken” (Job 38:15)? For what reason is the letter ayin of the word resha’im suspended slightly above the rest of the letters? It is suspended so that the word will be read rashim, meaning poor people. It means: Once a person becomes poor on earth below and the number of his enemies grows, he becomes poor in Heaven above, as he is certainly a sinner and that is why he is hated.

ולא נכתביה כלל ר' יוחנן ור"א חד אמר מפני כבודו של דוד וחד אמר משום כבודו של נחמיה בן חכליה

The Gemara challenges: If that is the meaning, let the ayin not be written at all and let the verse say: Rashim. Rabbi Yoḥanan and Rabbi Elazar both explain why the ayin was not omitted. One says: It was due to the desire to preserve the honor of David, who had numerous enemies below despite the fact that he was a righteous person and had a place in the World-to-Come. And one says: It was due to the desire to preserve the honor of Nehemiah, son of Hacaliah, who also had numerous enemies below, despite his righteousness.

תנו רבנן מנשה היה שונה חמשים וחמשה פנים בתורת כהנים כנגד שני מלכותו אחאב שמנים וחמשה ירבעם מאה ושלשה

§ The Sages taught in a baraita: Manasseh, king of Judea, would study fifty-five different aspects in interpreting Torat Kohanim, the halakhic midrash on Leviticus, corresponding to the years of his reign, indicating that he possessed great knowledge. Ahab was greater and studied eighty-five aspects, and Jeroboam was greater still and studied one hundred and three aspects.

תניא היה ר"מ אומר אבשלום אין לו חלק לעוה"ב שנאמר (שמואל ב יח, טו) ויכו את אבשלום וימיתוהו ויכוהו בעוה"ז וימיתוהו לעוה"ב תניא ר"ש בן אלעזר אומר משום ר"מ אחז ואחזיה וכל מלכי ישראל שכתוב בהן ויעש הרע בעיני ה' לא חיין ולא נידונין

It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Meir would say: Absalom has no share in the World-to-Come, as it is stated: “And they smote Absalom and they killed him” (II Samuel 18:15). “And they smote Absalom” is referring to death in this world, while “and they killed him” is referring to death in the World-to-Come. It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says in the name of Rabbi Meir: Ahaz and Ahaziah, kings of Judea, and all of the kings of the kingdom of Israel about whom it is written: “And he did evil in the eyes of the Lord” (see, e.g., I Kings 15:34), neither live in the World-to-Come nor are sentenced to Gehenna.

(מלכים ב כא, טז) וגם דם נקי שפך מנשה הרבה מאד עד אשר מלא את ירושלים פה לפה לבד מחטאתו אשר החטיא את יהודה לעשות הרע בעיני ה' הכא תרגימו שהרג ישעיה במערבא אמרי שעשה צלם משאוי אלף בני אדם ובכל יום ויום הורג (את) כולם כמאן אזלא הא דאמר רבה בר בר חנה שקולה נשמה של צדיק אחד כנגד כל העולם כולו כמ"ד ישעיה הרג

It is stated: “And Manasseh shed a great deal of innocent blood, until he filled Jerusalem from one end to another [peh lafeh], beside his sin that he made Judea sin, to do evil in the eyes of the Lord” (II Kings 21:16). Here, in Babylonia, they interpret the verse to mean that he killed the prophet Isaiah (see Yevamot 49b). In the West, Eretz Yisrael, they say that Manasseh crafted an idol so large that it was a burden requiring one thousand people to carry it, and each and every day he would require them to carry it, which would kill all of them. The Gemara asks: In accordance with whose opinion is that which Rabba bar bar Ḥana says: The soul of one righteous person is equal in value to the entire world? It is in accordance with the opinion of the one who says: He killed Isaiah.

כתיב (דברי הימים ב לג, ז) פסל וכתיב (דברי הימים ב לג, כב) פסילים א"ר יוחנן בתחלה עשה לו פרצוף אחד ולבסוף עשה לו ארבעה פרצופים כדי שתראה שכינה ותכעוס

It is written that Manasseh crafted “an idol” (II Chronicles 33:7), and it is written that Manasseh crafted “idols” (II Chronicles 33:19). Rabbi Yoḥanan says: Initially, he crafted one face [partzuf ] for the idol, and ultimately, he crafted four faces for it so that the Divine Presence would see it from each side and become angry.

אחז העמידו בעלייה שנאמר (מלכים ב כג, יב) ואת המזבחות אשר על הגג עליית אחז וגו' מנשה העמידו בהיכל שנאמר (מלכים ב כא, ז) וישם את פסל האשרה אשר עשה בבית אשר אמר ה' אל דוד ואל שלמה [בנו] בבית הזה ובירושלים אשר בחרתי מכל שבטי ישראל אשים את שמי לעולם אמון הכניסו לבית קדשי הקדשים שנאמר (ישעיהו כח, כ) כי קצר המצע מהשתרע והמסכה צרה כהתכנס

Ahaz placed that idol in the upper chamber in the Temple, as it is stated: “And the altars that were on the roof of the upper chamber of Ahaz” (II Kings 23:12). Manasseh placed it in the Sanctuary itself, as it is stated: “And he set the graven image of the ashera that he had crafted, in that house of which the Lord said to David, and to Solomon his son: In this house, and in Jerusalem, which I have chosen from all the tribes of Israel, will I put My name forever” (II Kings 21:7). Amon introduced it into the Holy of Holies, as it is stated: “For the bed is too short for spreading, and the covering too narrow for when he gathers himself” (Isaiah 28:20).

מאי כי קצר המצע מהשתרע אמר רבי שמואל בר נחמני אמר רבי יונתן [כי] קצר המצע זה מלהשתרר עליו שני רעים כאחד מאי והמסכה צרה וגו' אמר רבי שמואל בר נחמני רבי יונתן כי הוה מטי להאי קרא הוה קא בכי מי שכתב בו (תהלים לג, ז) כונס כנד מי הים תעשה לו מסכה צרה

What is the meaning of the phrase “For the bed is too short for spreading”? Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani says that Rabbi Yonatan says that it means: For his bed is too narrow for two colleagues to spread upon it together, as it is impossible that service of God and idol worship will coexist there. What is the meaning of the phrase “and the covering [masekha] too narrow [tzara] for when he gathers himself [kehitkanes]”? Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani says: When Rabbi Yonatan would reach this verse he would cry. He about whom it is written: “He gathers [kones] the waters of the sea like a rampart” (Psalms 33:7), shall a graven image [masekha] be a rival [tzara]?

[אחז בטל את העבודה] וחתם את התורה שנאמר (ישעיהו ח, טז) צור תעודה חתום תורה בלמודי מנשה קדר את האזכרות והרס את המזבח אמון [שרף את התורה] והעלה שממית על גבי המזבח אחז התיר את הערוה מנשה בא על אחותו

Ahaz nullified the Temple service and sealed the Torah, prohibiting its study, as it is stated: “Bind up the testimony, seal the Torah among my disciples” (Isaiah 8:16). Manasseh excised the mentions of God’s names from sacred books and destroyed the altar. Amon burned the Torah and sacrificed a gecko, an impure creeping animal, upon the altar. Ahaz permitted engaging in sexual intercourse with forbidden relatives, and announced that marriage between those relatives is permitted. Manasseh exploited that pronouncement and engaged in sexual intercourse with his sister.

אמון בא על אמו שנאמר (דברי הימים ב לג, כג) כי הוא אמון הרבה אשמה רבי יוחנן ור"א חד אמר ששרף את התורה וחד אמר שבא על אמו אמרה לו אמו כלום יש לך הנאה ממקום שיצאת ממנו א"ל כלום אני עושה אלא להכעיס את בוראי

Amon engaged in sexual intercourse with his mother, as it is stated: “But Amon increased his guilt” (II Chronicles 33:23), indicating that he performed a greater and more disgraceful transgression than anyone else. Rabbi Yoḥanan and Rabbi Elazar disagreed about his transgression; one says that he burned the Torah, and one says that he engaged in sexual intercourse with his mother. His mother said to him: Do you have any pleasure by engaging in intercourse from the place from which you emerged? He said to her: I am doing this only to express insolence to my Creator, not for my pleasure.

כי אתא יהויקים אמר קמאי לא ידעי לארגוזי כלום אנו צריכין אלא לאורו יש לנו זהב פרויים שאנו משתמשין בו יטול אורו אמרו לו והלא כסף וזהב שלו הוא שנאמר (חגי ב, ח) לי הכסף ולי הזהב נאם ה' צבאות אמר להם כבר נתנו לנו שנאמר (תהלים קטו, טז) השמים שמים לה' והארץ נתן לבני האדם

When Jehoiakim came along and reigned, he said: My predecessors did not know how to express insolence to God. Do we need God even for his light? Since we have parvayim gold that we use that shines, let God take His light from the world. They said to him: Aren’t the silver and the gold His, as it is stated: “The silver is mine and the gold is mine says the Lord of hosts” (Haggai 2:8)? Jehoiakim said to them: He has already given it to us, as it is stated: “The heavens are the heavens of the Lord, but the earth He has given to the children of men” (Psalms 115:16).

א"ל רבא לרבה בר מרי מפני מה לא מנו את יהויקים משום דכתיב ביה (דברי הימים ב לו, ח) ויתר דברי יהויקים ותועבותיו אשר עשה והנמצא עליו מאי והנמצא עליו רבי יוחנן ור"א חד אמר שחקק שם עבודת כוכבים על אמתו וחד אמר שחקק שם שמים על אמתו

§ Rava said to Rabba bar Mari: For what reason did the tanna’im not enumerate Jehoiakim among the kings who have no share in the World-to-Come? One would imagine that he has no share in the World-to-Come, because it is written concerning him: “And the rest of the acts of Jehoiakim and his abominations that he did, and that which was found on him” (II Chronicles 36:8). The Gemara explains: What is the meaning of the phrase “and that which was found on him”? Rabbi Yoḥanan and Rabbi Elazar disagree; one says that he etched the name of idols on his penis due to his devotion to them, and one says that he etched the name of Heaven on his penis in a display of contempt.

א"ל במלכים לא שמעתי בהדיוטות שמעתי מפני מה לא מנו את מיכה מפני שפתו מצויה לעוברי דרכים שנאמר כל העובר ושב אל הלוים

Rabba bar Mari said to Rava: With regard to the list of kings, I did not hear why Jehoiakim was excluded; but with regard to the list of commoners, I heard why a certain sinner was excluded. For what reason did the tanna’im not enumerate Micah among those with no share in the World-to-Come? After all, he crafted idols that the Jewish people worshipped (see Judges, chapter 17). It is due to the fact that his bread was available for passersby, as it is stated: All those who pass by the Levites. He would provide sustenance to all hosted in his house.

(זכריה י, יא) ועבר בים צרה והכה בים גלים א"ר יוחנן זה פסלו של מיכה תניא רבי נתן אומר מגרב לשילה ג' מילין והיה עשן המערכה ועשן פסל מיכה מתערבין זה בזה

With regard to that which is written: “And He shall pass through the sea with affliction and shall strike the waves in the sea” (Zechariah 10:11), Rabbi Yoḥanan says: This affliction is a reference to the idol of Micah, as Micah passed through the sea during the exodus from Egypt. It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Natan says: The distance from Gerav, where Micah resided, to Shiloh, where the Tabernacle was at that time, was three mil, and the smoke from the arrangement of wood on the altar in Shiloh and the smoke from the worship of the idol of Micah would intermingle with each other.

בקשו מלאכי השרת לדוחפו אמר להן הקב"ה הניחו לו שפתו מצויה לעוברי דרכים ועל דבר זה נענשו אנשי פלגש בגבעה אמר להן הקב"ה בכבודי לא מחיתם על כבודו של בשר ודם מחיתם

The ministering angels sought to dismiss him from the world. The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to them: Leave him, as his bread is available for travelers. And it is for this matter, the sin of Micah’s idol, that the people involved in the incident of the concubine in Gibeah were punished. The tribes of Israel waged war with the tribe of Benjamin and forty thousand of them were killed. The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to them: You did not protest for My honor and took no action to destroy Micah’s idol, but you protested for the honor of one of flesh and blood who was killed? Therefore, the other tribes were initially unsuccessful, and many of their soldiers were killed.

א"ר יוחנן משום רבי יוסי בן קסמא גדולה לגימה שהרחיקה שתי משפחות מישראל שנאמר (דברים כג, ה) על דבר אשר לא קדמו אתכם בלחם ובמים ורבי יוחנן דידיה אמר מרחקת את הקרובים ומקרבת את הרחוקים ומעלמת עינים מן הרשעים ומשרה שכינה על נביאי הבעל ושגגתו עולה זדון

Rabbi Yoḥanan says in the name of Rabbi Yosei ben Kisma: Great is eating, as it distanced two clans from the Jewish people, as it is stated: “An Ammonite or a Moabite shall not enter into the assembly of the Lord…because they met you not with bread and with water” (Deuteronomy 23:4–5). And Rabbi Yoḥanan himself says: Food distances the near, and draws near the distant, and averts eyes from the wicked, sparing them from punishment, and causes the Divine Presence to rest on the prophets of the Baal; and an unwitting transgression with regard to it is at times considered an intentional transgression.

מרחקת את הקרובים

The Gemara elaborates: The fact that it distances the near is derived