Sanhedrin 101bסנהדרין ק״א ב
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
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101bק״א ב

(משלי כה, א) גם אלה משלי שלמה אשר העתיקו אנשי חזקיה מלך יהודה וכי חזקיה מלך יהודה לכל העולם כולו לימד תורה ולמנשה בנו לא לימד תורה אלא מכל טורח שטרח בו ומכל עמל שעמל בו לא העלהו למוטב אלא יסורין שנאמר (דברי הימים ב לג, י) וידבר ה' אל מנשה ואל עמו ולא הקשיבו ויבא ה' עליהם את שרי הצבא אשר למלך אשור וילכדו את מנשה בחוחים ויאסרוהו בנחשתים ויוליכהו בבלה

“These too are the proverbs of Solomon, which the men of Hezekiah, king of Judea, copied” (Proverbs 25:1), indicating that Hezekiah taught Torah and disseminated it to the multitudes. And is it conceivable that Hezekiah, king of Judea, taught Torah to the entire world and to Manasseh his son he did not teach Torah? Rather, Hezekiah certainly taught Manasseh much Torah; nevertheless, from all his exertion to teach him and from all his toil to teach him, it was only afflictions that elevated him to the path of good, as it is stated: “And the Lord spoke to Manasseh and to his people but they would not heed. And the Lord brought upon them the captains of the army of the king of Assyria, who took Manasseh with hooks, and bound him with chains, and carried him to Babylonia” (II Chronicles 33:10–11).

וכתיב (דברי הימים ב לג, יב) ובהיצר לו חילה את פני ה' אלהיו ויכנע מאד מלפני (ה') אלהי אבותיו ויתפלל אליו ויעתר לו וישמע תחינתו וישיבהו ירושלים למלכותו וידע מנשה כי ה' הוא האלהים הא למדת שחביבין יסורין

And it is written thereafter: “And when he was in distress, he sought the Lord his God, and humbled himself greatly before the God of his fathers, and he prayed to Him and He was entreated of him, and He heard his supplication, and brought him back to Jerusalem into his kingdom; then Manasseh knew that the Lord He was God” (II Chronicles 33:12–13). You learned from this that afflictions are cherished.

ת"ר שלשה באו בעלילה אלו הן קין עשו ומנשה קין דכתיב (בראשית ד, יג) גדול עוני מנשוא אמר לפניו רבונו של עולם כלום גדול עוני מששים ריבוא שעתידין לחטוא לפניך ואתה סולח להם עשו דכתיב (בראשית כז, לח) הברכה אחת היא לך אבי מנשה בתחילה קרא לאלוהות הרבה ולבסוף קרא לאלהי אבותיו:

Apropos Manasseh’s repentance, the Gemara cites that the Sages taught in a baraita: Three came with a demand, and these are they: Cain, Esau, and Manasseh. Cain came with a demand, as it is written: “My sin is too great to bear” (Genesis 4:13). Cain said before God: Master of the Universe, is my transgression greater than the transgression of the 600,000 who are destined to sin before You with the Golden Calf, and You will nevertheless forgive them? There should be atonement for my transgression as well. Esau came with a demand, as it is stated: “Have you but one blessing, my father?” (Genesis 27:38). With regard to Manasseh, initially he called to multiple gods, and his prayers were not answered, and ultimately he called to the God of his forefathers with the demand: If God does not answer my prayer, then apparently all the gods are equal to the God of my forefathers.

אבא שאול אומר אף ההוגה את השם באותיותיו וכו': תנא ובגבולין ובלשון עגה:

§ The mishna teaches: Abba Shaul says: Also among those who have no share in the World-to-Come is one who pronounces the ineffable name of God as it is written, with its letters. It is taught in a baraita: This is referring to one who pronounces the name in the outlying areas outside the Temple, and in colloquial [aga] language, for no particular purpose.

שלשה מלכים וארבעה הדיוטות וכו': ת"ר ירבעם שריבע עם ד"א ירבעם שעשה מריבה בעם דבר אחר ירבעם שעשה מריבה בין ישראל לאביהם שבשמים בן נבט בן שניבט ולא ראה

In the mishna, the tanna enumerated three kings and four commoners who have no share in the World-to-Come. The Sages taught in a baraita: Jeroboam [Yorovam] is an abbreviation for one who debased the Jewish people [riba am]. Alternatively, Yorovam is an abbreviation for one who engendered strife among the people [meriva ba’am], causing the schism between the kingdoms of Judea and Israel. Alternatively, Yorovam is an abbreviation for one who engendered strife between the Jewish people [meriva bein ha’am] and their Heavenly Father, as he instituted the worship of the golden calves (I Kings 12:28–31). He is called son of Nebat because he is the son who looked [nibat] in an effort to assess the situation but did not see the situation accurately.

תנא הוא נבט הוא מיכה הוא שבע בן בכרי נבט שניבט ולא ראה מיכה שנתמכמך בבנין ומה שמו שבע בן בכרי שמו

It is taught in a baraita: Based on a homiletic interpretation of their names, these three biblical figures are deemed to be the same person. He is called Nebat, he is called Micah, and he is called Sheba, son of Bichri. Nebat, who looked [nibat] but did not see, believed that he was destined for greatness, and that was achieved only by his son. Micah, who was crushed [nitmakhmekh] in the building of the storage cities of Pithom and Raamses, was miraculously saved. And what is his actual name? His name is Sheba, son of Bichri.

תנו רבנן שלשה ניבטו ולא ראו ואלו הן נבט ואחיתופל ואיצטגניני פרעה

The Sages taught in a baraita: Three looked but did not see and as a result were mistaken in their prognostications. And these are they: Nebat, and Ahithophel, and the astrologers of Pharaoh.

נבט ראה אש שיוצאת מאמתו הוא סבר איהו מליך ולא היא ירבעם הוא דנפק מיניה

The Gemara elaborates: Nebat saw fire that emerges from his penis. He thought that it meant that he would rule. But that is not so. It meant that it would be Jeroboam who would emerge from him and rule.

אחיתופל ראה צרעת שזרחה לו על אמתו הוא סבר איהו מלך ולא היא בת שבע בתו הוא דנפקא מינה שלמה

Ahithophel saw leprosy that glowed on his penis and he thought that he would rule. But it is not so. Instead from Bathsheba his daughter, i.e., his son’s daughter, came Solomon the king.

איצטגניני פרעה דאמר רבי חמא ברבי חנינא מאי דכתיב (במדבר כ, יג) המה מי מריבה המה שראו איצטגניני פרעה וטעו ראו שמושיען של ישראל במים הוא לוקה אמר (שמות א, כב) כל הבן הילוד היאורה תשליכוהו והן לא ידעו שעל עסקי מי מריבה לוקה

The astrologers of Pharaoh saw and were mistaken, as Rabbi Ḥama, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, says: What is the meaning of that which is written: “These are the waters of contention” (Numbers 20:13)? These are the waters that the astrologers of Pharaoh saw, and they erred concerning them. As they saw in the stars that the savior of Israel would be stricken by water, Pharaoh said: “Every son that is born you shall cast into the river” (Exodus 1:22), assuming that any potential savior would be drowned. And they did not know that it was over matters involving the waters of Meribah that Moses would be stricken and would not be allowed to enter Eretz Yisrael.

ומנא לן דלא אתי לעלמא דאתי דכתיב (מלכים א יג, לד) ויהי בדבר הזה לחטאת בית ירבעם ולהכחיד ולהשמיד מעל פני אדמה להכחיד בעולם הזה ולהשמיד לעולם הבא

The Gemara resumes its discussion of Jeroboam. And from where do we derive that Jeroboam does not enter into the World-to-Come? It is derived from a verse, as it is written: “And by this matter there was a sin to the house of Jeroboam, and to eradicate it and to destroy it from off the face of the earth” (I Kings 13:34). It can be interpreted to mean: To eradicate it in this world, and to destroy it for the World-to-Come.

אמר רבי יוחנן מפני מה זכה ירבעם למלכות מפני שהוכיח את שלמה ומפני מה נענש מפני שהוכיחו ברבים שנאמר (מלכים א יא, כז) וזה הדבר אשר הרים יד במלך שלמה בנה את המלוא סגר את פרץ עיר דוד אביו אמר לו דוד אביך פרץ פרצות בחומה כדי שיעלו ישראל לרגל ואתה גדרת אותם כדי לעשות אנגריא לבת פרעה

Rabbi Yoḥanan says: For what virtue was Jeroboam privileged to ascend to monarchy? It is due to the fact that he rebuked Solomon for his sins. And for what misdeed was he punished and lost everything? It is due to the fact that he rebuked Solomon and humiliated him in public, as it is stated: “And this was the cause that he lifted his hand against the king: Solomon built the Millo, and repaired the breaches of the city of David his father” (I Kings 11:27). Jeroboam said to Solomon: David, your father, created breaches in the wall so that the Jewish people could ascend for the pilgrimage Festival, and you sealed them in order to marshal forced labor [angarya] for the daughter of Pharaoh, your wife.

ומאי וזה אשר הרים יד במלך אמר רב נחמן שחלץ תפיליו בפניו אמר רב נחמן גסות הרוח שהיה בו בירבעם טרדתו מן העולם שנאמר (מלכים א יב, כו) ויאמר ירבעם בלבו עתה תשוב הממלכה לבית דוד אם יעלה העם הזה לעשות זבחים בבית ה' בירושלים ושב לב העם הזה אל אדוניהם אל רחבעם מלך יהודה והרגוני ושבו אל רחבעם מלך יהודה

And what is the meaning of the phrase “and this was the cause that he lifted his hand against the king”? Rav Naḥman says: He removed his phylacteries before Solomon, thereby demonstrating that he does not consider Solomon his superior. Rav Naḥman says: The arrogance that existed in Jeroboam drove him from the World-to-Come, as it is stated: “And Jeroboam said in his heart: Now shall the kingdom return to the house of David. If this people go up to offer sacrifices in the House of the Lord in Jerusalem, then shall the heart of this people turn again to their lord, even to Rehoboam, king of Judea, and they shall kill me and return to Rehoboam, king of Judea” (I Kings 12:26–27).

אמר גמירי דאין ישיבה בעזרה אלא למלכי בית יהודה בלבד כיון דחזו ליה לרחבעם דיתיב ואנא קאימנא סברי הא מלכא והא עבדא ואי יתיבנא מורד במלכות הואי וקטלין לי ואזלו בתריה מיד (מלכים א יב, כח) ויועץ המלך ויעש שני עגלי זהב ויאמר אליהם רב לכם מעלות ירושלים הנה אלהיך ישראל אשר העלוך מארץ מצרים וישם את האחד בבית אל ואת האחד נתן בדן

Jeroboam calculated and said: It is learned as a tradition that sitting in the Temple courtyard is permitted only for kings of the house of Judah alone. Once they see Rehoboam, who is sitting, and they see me standing, they will think: This, Rehoboam, is king, and that, Jeroboam, is the servant. And if I sit there, I will be considered a traitor against the throne, and they will kill me and follow him. Immediately, the following took place: “And the king took counsel, and made two calves of gold, and said to them: It is too much for you to ascend to Jerusalem; behold your gods, Israel, who brought you up from the land of Egypt. And he placed the one in Bethel and the other he placed in Dan” (I Kings 12:28–29).

מאי ויועץ אמר רבי יהודה שהושיב רשע אצל צדיק אמר להו חתמיתו על כל דעבידנא אמרו ליה הין אמר להו מלכא בעינא למיהוי אמרו ליה הין כל דאמינא לכו עבידתו אמרו ליה הין אפילו למפלח לעבודת כוכבים אמר ליה צדיק ח"ו אמר ליה רשע לצדיק ס"ד דגברא כירבעם פלח לעבודת כוכבים אלא למינסינהו הוא דקא בעי אי קבליתו למימריה

What is the meaning of the phrase “and the king took counsel”? Rabbi Yehuda says: It means that he assembled the elders of the kingdom of Israel and seated a wicked person alongside a righteous person and consulted them. He said to the elders: Do you sign a writ of authorization for all that I am doing? They said to him: Yes. He said to them: I want to be the king. They said to him: Yes. Jeroboam said to them: Will you do everything I tell you to do? They said to him: Yes. He said to them: Even to worship idols? A righteous man said: Heaven forfend; idol worship is unacceptable. The wicked man seated alongside him said to the righteous man: Does it enter your mind that a man like Jeroboam would worship idols? Rather, he merely seeks to test those sitting here, to determine if they accept and will obey his pronouncements.