Chapter 7 ז׳
1 א

וַתִּשְׁכַּב מַרְגְּלוֹתָיו עַד הַבֹּקֶר (רות ג, יד), אָמַר רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה בְּטֶרֶם יַכִּיר אִישׁ בְּטרום כְּתִיב, מְלַמֵּד שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּהֲתָה שֵׁשׁ שָׁעוֹת כְּמִנְיַן הַוי"ו. וַיֹּאמֶר אַל יִוָּדַע כִּי בָאָה הָאִשָּׁה הַגֹּרֶן, לְמִי אָמַר, אָמַר רַבִּי מֵאִיר לְבֶן בֵּיתוֹ. רַבִּי חוּנְיָא וְרַבִּי יִרְמְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר רַב יִצְחָק, כָּל אוֹתוֹ הַלַּיְלָה הָיָה בֹּעַז שָׁטוּחַ עַל פָּנָיו וְאוֹמֵר, רִבּוֹן הָעוֹלָמִים גָּלוּי וְיָדוּעַ לְפָנֶיךָ שֶׁלֹא נָגַעְתִּי בָּהּ, כֵּן יְהִי רָצוֹן מִלְּפָנֶיךָ אַל יִוָּדַע כִּי בָאָה הָאִשָּׁה הַגֹּרֶן, וְלֹא יִתְחַלֵּל בִּי שֵׁם שָׁמַיִם.

"And she lay at his feet until the morning; and she rose up before (btrwm) one could discern another. For he said: 'Let it not be known that the woman came to the threshing-floor.' (Ruth 3:14)": Rabbi Berechya said " before (beterem) one could" but what is written is btrwm; this teaches that she waited six hours, as the count of waw [the extra w in btrwm] is six. For he said: 'Let it not be known that the woman came to the threshing-floor.' To whom did he say this? Rabbi Meir said: "to a boy of his household". Rabbi Chunya and Rabbi Jeremiah in the name of Rabbi Samuel the son of Rav Yitzchak: "All that very night Boaz was prostrated in prayer on his face, saying: "Master of Worlds, let it be revealed and known before you that I did not touch her, and so may it be your will that 'it not be known that the woman came to the threshing-floor.' and the name of Heaven not be desecrated because of me"".

2 ב

וַיֹּאמֶר הָבִי הַמִּטְפַּחַת אֲשֶׁר עָלַיִךְ (רות ג, טו), הָבָה כְּתִיב, מְלַמֵּד שֶׁהָיָה מְדַבֵּר עִמָּהּ בִּלְשׁוֹן זָכָר שֶׁלֹא יַרְגִּישׁ בּוֹ בְּרִיָה, וְאֶחֳזִי בָהּ, מְלַמֵּד שֶׁחָגְרָה מָתְנֶיהָ כְּזָכָר. וַיָּמָד שֵׁשׁ שְׂעֹרִים וַיָּשֶׁת עָלֶיהָ, אָמַר רַבִּי סִימוֹן דָּרַשׁ בַּר קַפָּרָא בְּצִפּוֹרִי, וְכִי יֵשׁ דַּרְכּוֹ שֶׁל מֶלֶךְ לִשָֹּׂא לוֹ אִשָּׁה בְּשֵׁשׁ שְׂעוֹרִים, אוֹ דַּרְכָּהּ שֶׁל אִשָּׁה לְהִנָּשֵׂא בְּשֵׁשׁ סְאִין, אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בַּר רַבִּי סִימוֹן בִּזְכוּת וַיָּמָד שֵׁשׁ שְׂעוֹרִים וַיָּשֶׁת עָלֶיהָ, זָכָה וְעָמְדוּ מִמֶּנָּה שִׁשָּׁה צַדִּיקִים, וְכָל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד בָּהֶן שֵׁשׁ מִדּוֹת, דָּוִד, חִזְקִיָּהוּ, יֹאשִׁיָּהוּ, חֲנַנְיָה, מִישָׁאֵל, וַעֲזַרְיָה, דָּנִיֵּאל, וּמֶלֶךְ הַמָּשִׁיחַ. דָּוִד, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמואל א טז, יח): יֹדֵעַ נַגֵּן בְּכִנּוֹר וְגִבּוֹר חַיִל וְאִישׁ מִלְחָמָה וּנְבוֹן דָּבָר וְאִישׁ תֹּאַר וַה' עִמּוֹ. חִזְקִיָּה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה ט, ו): לְמַרְבֵּה הַמִּשְׂרָה וּלְשָׁלוֹם אֵין קֵץ עַל כִּסֵּא וגו', וַיִּקְרָא שְׁמוֹ פֶּלֶא יוֹעֵץ אֵל גִּבּוֹר אֲבִי עַד שַׂר שָׁלוֹם. וְאִיכָּא דְאָמְרֵי לְםַרְבֵּה הַמִּשְׂרָה כְּתִיב חָסֵר מ"ם. יֹאשִׁיָּהוּ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ירמיה יז, ח): וְהָיָה כְּעֵץ שָׁתוּל עַל מַיִם וְעַל יוּבַל יְשַׁלַּח שָׁרָשָׁיו וגו'. חֲנַנְיָה מִישָׁאֵל וַעֲזַרְיָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דניאל א, ד): יְלָדִים אֲשֶׁר אֵין בָּהֶם כָּל מאוּם וְטוֹבֵי מַרְאֶה וגו'. דָּנִיֵּאל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דניאל ה, יב): כָּל קֳבֵל דִּי רוּחַ יַתִּירָה בֵּהּ. מֶלֶךְ הַמָּשִׁיחַ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה יא, ב): וְנָחָה עָלָיו רוּחַ ה' רוּחַ חָכְמָה וגו'.

"And he said, “Hold out (havi) the shawl you are wearing.” She held it while he measured out six measures of barley, and he put it on her back. When she got back to the town (Ruth 3:15)". But havah is written, the teaches that he was speaking to her in the masculine gender so that her presence with him would not be known. "She held it": this teaches that she clothed her loins like a man. "He measured out six measures of barley, and he put it on her back": Rabbi Simon said that Bar Kappara was expounding in Sepphoris: "Is it the way of a king to betroth a woman to himself with six measures of barley or is the way of a woman to be betrothed with six se'im?" Rabbi Yehudah the son of Rabbi Simon said: "by the merit of "six measures of barley, and he put it on her back" she was rewarded that six righteous men would raise from her, and each one had six good characteristics: David, Hezekiah, Josiah, Hananiah, Mishael, Azariah, Daniel, and the King Messiah. David, as it is said: "“I have observed a son of Jesse the Bethlehemite who is skilled in music; he is a stalwart fellow and a warrior, sensible in speech, and handsome in appearance, and Hashem is with him. (1 Samuel 16:18)”. Hezekiah, as it is said: "In token of abundant (marbeh) authority And of peace without limit Upon David’s throne and kingdom... He has been named “The Mighty God is planning grace; The Eternal Father, a peaceable ruler” (Isaiah 9:5-6)". And how about those who say that (marbeh) is traditionally spelled with a mem sofit? Josiah, as it is said: "For he will be as a tree planted near waters, which spreads out its roots along a brook (Jeremiah 17:8)". Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah, as it is said: "youths without blemish, handsome, proficient in all wisdom, knowledgeable and intelligent, and capable of serving in the royal palace (Daniel 1:4)". And Daniel as it is said: "extraordinary spirit, knowledge, and understanding to interpret dreams, to explain riddles and solve problems (Daniel 5:12)". And King Messiah, as it is said: "The spirit of Hashem shall alight upon him: A spirit of wisdom and insight, A spirit of counsel and valor, A spirit of devotion and reverence for Hashem (Isaiah 11:2)".

3 ג

וַיָּבֹא הָעִיר. וְלֹא הָיָה צָרִיךְ לְמֵימַר אֶלָּא וַתָּבֹא הָעִיר, וְאַתְּ אֲמַרְתְּ וַיָּבֹא הָעִיר, אֶלָּא מְלַמֵּד שֶׁהָיָה מְהַלֵּךְ עִמָּהּ שֶׁלֹא יִפְגְּעוּ בָּהּ אֶחָד מִן הַבַּחוּרִים.

"And he came to the city". There was no need to say this but rather "she came to the city"! But you said "and he came to the city" rather this teaches that he was walking with her and not one from the youths touched her.

4 ד

וַתָּבֹא אֶל חֲמוֹתָהּ וַתֹּאמֶר מִי אַתְּ בִּתִּי (רות ג, טז), וְכִי לֹא הָיְתָה מַכִּירָה, אֶלָּא אָמְרָה לָהּ מָה אַתְּ פְּנוּיָה אוֹ אֵשֶׁת אִישׁ. אָמְרָה לָהּ פְּנוּיָה. וַתַּגֶּד לָהּ אֵת כָּל אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה לָהּ הָאִישׁ.

"And when she came to her mother-in-law, she said: 'Who are you, my daughter?' (Ruth 3:16)". But how did she not recognize her? Rather she said to her "are you unmarried or a man's wife?" And Ruth said to her: "unmarried "and she told her all that the man had done to her".

5 ה

וַתֹּאמֶר שֵׁשׁ הַשְֹּׂעֹרִים הָאֵלֶּה נָתַן לִי וגו' (רות ג, יז), אָמַר רַבִּי אֲלֶכְּסַנְדְּרִי בְּכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁנִּכְנְסוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא יָצְאוּ רֵיקָנִין, בְּבִזַּת מִצְרַיִם לֹא יָצְאוּ רֵיקָנִין, בְּבִזַּת סִיחוֹן וְעוֹג לֹא יָצְאוּ רֵיקָנִין, בְּבִזַּת שְׁלשִׁים וְאֶחָד מְלָכִים לֹא יָצְאוּ רֵיקָנִין, נֶאֱמַר רֵיקָם בְּמִצְרַיִם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות ג, כא): וְהָיָה כִּי תֵלֵכוּן לֹא תֵלְכוּ רֵיקָם, וְנֶאֱמַר בְּעוֹלֵי רְגָלִים (שמות כג, טו): וְלֹא יֵרָאוּ פָנַי רֵיקָם, וְנֶאֱמַר רֵיקָם בַּצַּדִּיקִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: כִּי אָמַר אֵלַי אַל תָּבוֹאִי רֵיקָם אֶל חֲמוֹתֵךְ, לֹא כְרֵיקָם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בְּמִצְרַיִם, רֵיקָם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בַּצַּדִּיקִים, אֶלָּא כְרֵיקָם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בְּעוֹלֵי רְגָלִים, כִּי הָא דִּתְנֵינַן תַּמָּן, הָרְאִיָה, שְׁתֵּי כֶסֶף, וְהַחֲגִיגָה, מָעָה כֶסֶף.

"And she said: 'These six measures of barley he gave me; for he said to me: Go not empty-handed unto your mother-in-law.' (Ruth 3:17)". Rabbi Alexander said: "In every place Israel was gathered they did not go out empty-handed; with the spoil of Egypt they did not go out empty-handed. With the spoil of Sihon and Og they did not go out empty-handed. With the spoil of the 31 kings they did not go out empty handed, as it is said, empty-handed in Egypt, for it is said: "so that when you go, you will not go away empty-handed (Exodus 3:21)". And it is said about those who ascend for the pilgrimage festivals: "and none shall appear before Me empty-handed (Exodus 23:15)". And it is said about the righteous: "For he said to me: 'Go not empty-handed unto your mother-in-law'". But this "empty-handed" is not as it is said about Egypt, but this "empty-handed" that is said about the righteous is like to that found in connection to those who ascend for pilgrimage festivals, for, see!,it is taught that the appearance offering is two me'ot of silver and the festival offering one meah of silver.

6 ו

וַתֹּאמֶר שְׁבִי בִתִּי (רות ג, יח), רַבִּי הוּנָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר רַב יִצְחָק, הַצַּדִּיקִים הֵן שֶׁלָּהֵן, הֵן, וְלָאו שֶׁלָּהֶן, לָאו, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: כִּי לֹא יִשְׁקֹט הָאִישׁ כִּי אִם כִּלָּה הַדָּבָר הַיּוֹם.

"Then said she: 'Sit still, my daughter (Ruth 3:18)". Rabbi Huna in the name of Rabbi Samuel son of Rav Yitzchak: "the righteous their yes is yes and their no is no, as it is said: "for the man will not rest, until he have finished the thing this day".

7 ז

וּבֹעַז עָלָה הַשַּׁעַר וַיֵּשֶׁב שָׁם וְהִנֵּה הַגֹּאֵל עֹבֵר אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר בֹּעַז (רות ד, א), מָה לַאֲחוֹרֵי תַּרְעָא הֲוָה קָאֵים, אָמַר רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן, אֲפִלּוּ הָיָה בְּסוֹף הָעוֹלָם הֱטִיסוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא וֶהֱבִיאוֹ לְשָׁם, כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹא יְהֵא אוֹתוֹ צַדִּיק יוֹשֵׁב וּמִצְטַעֵר מִתּוֹךְ יִשּׁוּבוֹ. אָמַר רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה, כָּךְ דָּרְשׁוּ שְׁנֵי גְדוֹלֵי עוֹלָם, רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר וְרַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ, רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר בֹּעַז עָשָׂה אֶת שֶׁלּוֹ, וְרוּת עָשְׂתָה אֶת שֶׁלָּהּ, וְנָעֳמִי עָשְׂתָה אֶת שֶׁלָּהּ, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, אַף אֲנִי אֶעֱשֶׂה אֶת שֶׁלִּי. וַיֹּאמֶר סוּרָה שְׁבָה פֹּה פְּלֹנִי אַלְמֹנִי, רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אוֹמֵר פְּלוֹנִי אַלְמוֹנִי שְׁמוֹ, רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן אָמַר אִלֵּם הָיָה מִדִּבְרֵי תוֹרָה, אָמַר הָרִאשׁוֹנִים לֹא מֵתוּ אֶלָּא עַל יְדֵי שֶׁנָּטְלוּ אוֹתָן, וַאֲנִי הוֹלֵךְ לִטְלָהּ, חָס לִי לִטְלָהּ, לֵית אֲנָא מְעַרְבֵּב זַרְעֲיָיתִי, אֵינִי מְעָרֵב פְּסֹלֶת בְּבָנַי, וְלֹא הָיָה יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁכְּבָר נִתְחַדְּשָׁה הֲלָכָה עַמּוֹנִי וְלֹא עַמּוֹנִית מוֹאָבִי וְלֹא מוֹאָבִית.

"Meanwhile, Boaz had gone to the gate and sat down there. And now the redeemer whom Boaz had mentioned passed by. He called, “Come over and sit down here, So-and-so!” And he came over and sat down (Ruth 4:1)": so was he waiting behind there and then he appeared? Rabbi Samuel the son of Nachman said: "Even if he was at the ends of the earth, the Holy One, blessed be He, would have flown him and brought him there so that a righteous man would not be upset sitting there". Rabbi Berachya: "So expounded the two great men of the world, Rabbi Eliezer and Rabbi Joshua: Rabbi Eliezer said: "Boaz made his thing and Ruth did her thing, and Naomi did her thing, and the Holy One, blessed be He said: "So I will do my thing". And he said "Hey, so and so, go there". Rabbi Joshua said: his name was Ploni Almoni ("so and so")". Rabbi Samuel the son of Nachman said that he was ignorant of the words of the Torah. He said: "the first ones did not die but rather because they took her and I am going to go and take her? I certainly am not going to take her. I will not pollute my seed and I am not going to create unfitness for my children". And he did not know that the halakhah had been changed "Ammonite and not Ammonitess; Moabite and not Moabitess".

8 ח

וַיִּקַּח עֲשָׂרָה אֲנָשִׁים מִזִּקְנֵי הָעִיר וגו' (רות ד, ד), אָמַר רַבִּי אֲלֶכְּסַנְדְּרִי מִיכָּן שֶׁאֵין רְשׁוּת לַקָּטָן לֵישֵׁב עַד שֶׁיִּתֵּן לוֹ הַגָּדוֹל רְשׁוּת. אָמַר רַבִּי פִּנְחָס, מִיכָּן לְבַיִת זֶה שֶׁהֵן מְמַנִּין זְקֵנִים בְּבֵית הַמִּשְׁתָּאוֹת שֶׁלָּהֶן. אָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בְּרַבִּי יוֹסֵי מִכָּאן לְבִרְכַּת חֲתָנִים בַּעֲשָׂרָה. אָמַר רַבִּי יוּדָן בֶּן פָּזִי, לֹא סוֹף דָּבָר בָּחוּר לִבְתוּלָה, אֶלָּא אֲפִלּוּ אַלְמָן לְאַלְמָנָה עַד שֶׁתִּהְיֶה בַּעֲשָׂרָה.

"Then [Boaz] took ten elders of the town and said, “Be seated here”; and they sat down. (Ruth 4:2)". Rabbi Alexander said: "From here it is that there is no power for the subordinate to sit until the greater authority gives it to him." Rabbi Pinchas said: "From here is this, that for the house they appoint elders in the banquets over them". Rabbi Eliezer said for Rabbi Yose, from here is the blessing of grooms is among ten. Rabbi Yudan the son of Pazi: "There is not an end of the matter for a young man and a young woman, but even if a widower a widow, it has to be among ten".

9 ט

וַיֹּאמֶר לַגֹּאֵל חֶלְקַת הַשָֹּׂדֶה אֲשֶׁר לְאָחִינוּ לֶאֱלִימֶלֶךְ, וַאֲנִי אָמַרְתִּי אֶגְלֶה אָזְנְךָ לֵאמֹר, אִם תִּגְאַל גְּאָל (רות ד, ג ד), לַגּוֹאֵל אָמַר (רות ד, ד): וְאִם לֹא יִגְאַל, לְבֵית דִּין אָמַר. הַגִּידָה לִי וְאֵדְעָה, שֶׁא תֹאמַר יֵשׁ לִי אִשָּׁה וְיֵשׁ לִי בָנִים הֲרֵינִי כּוֹנְסָהּ לְתוֹךְ בֵּיתִי עַל מְנָת שֶׁלֹא אֶזָּקֵק לָהּ. כֵּיוָן שֶׁשָּׁמַע הַגּוֹאֵל כֵּן, אָמַר וַדַּאי דְּהִיא אֲזַלַת רוּת.

"He said to the redeemer...the piece of land which belonged to our kinsman Elimelech. I thought I should disclose the matter to you and say...If you are willing to redeem it, redeem! (Ruth 4:3-4)". He said this to the redeemer. "But if you will not redeem" he said this to the Beit Din. "tell me, that I may know": so you say that I have a wife and I have children, and I will take her into my house with the understanding that I will not have sex with her. When the redeemer heard that this was the case, he said "that is enough about her as Ruth has gone".

10 י

וַיֹּאמֶר בֹּעַז בְּיוֹם קְנוֹתְךָ הַשָֹּׂדֶה מִיַּד נָעֳמִי וּמֵאֵת רוּת הַמּוֹאֲבִיָּה אֵשֶׁת הַמֵּת קָנִיתָ (רות ד, ה), קָנִיתִי כְּתִיב, וְהָא מְסַיְּעָא לְהַהִיא דְאָמַר רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן אִלֵּם הָיָה מִדִּבְרֵי תוֹרָה, אָמַר הָרִאשׁוֹנִים לֹא מֵתוּ אֶלָּא עַל יְדֵי שֶׁנָּטְלוּ אוֹתָן וַאֲנִי הוֹלֵךְ לִטְלָהּ, חָס לִי לִטְלָהּ, לֵית אֲנָא מְעַרְבֵּב זַרְעֲיָיתִי אֵינִי מְעָרֵב פְּסֹלֶת בְּבָנַי, וְלֹא הָיָה יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁכְּבָר נִתְחַדְּשָׁה הֲלָכָה עַמּוֹנִי וְלֹא עַמּוֹנִית מוֹאָבִי וְלֹא מוֹאָבִית.

"Boaz continued, “When you acquire the property from Naomi and from Ruth the Moabite, you must also acquire (qanita) the wife of the deceased (Ruth 4:5)": "I must acquire" (qaniti) is written. This proves the point that Rabbi Samuel the son of Nachman said that he was ignorant of the words of the Torah. He said: "the first ones did not die but rather because they took her and I am going to go and take her? I certainly am not going to take her. I will not pollute my seed and I am not going to create unfitness for my children". And he did not know that the halakhah had been changed "Ammonite and not Ammonitess; Moabite and not Moabitess".

11 יא

וְזֹאת לְפָנִים בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל עַל הַגְּאֻלָּה וְעַל הַתְּמוּרָה לְקַיֵּם כָּל דָּבָר (רות ד, ז), רַבִּי חֲנִינָא פָּתַר קְרָא בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל, בְּגוֹ אַפַּיָּיא דְיִשְׂרָאֵל לְשֶׁעָבַר הָיוּ מְקַלְּסִין עַל הַגְּאֻלָּה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות טו, ב): זֶה אֵלִי וְאַנְוֵהוּ, וְעַכְשָׁיו עַל הַתְּמוּרָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קו, כ): וַיָּמִירוּ אֶת כְּבוֹדָם בְּתַבְנִית שׁוֹר אֹכֵל עֵשֶׂב, אֵין לְךָ מְנֻוָּל וּמְשֻׁקָּץ וּמְשֻׁנֶּה כְּשׁוֹר בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁאוֹכֵל עֵשֶׂב. בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה הָיוּ קוֹנִין בְּמִנְעָל וּבְסַנְדָּל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: שָׁלַף אִישׁ נַעֲלוֹ, חָזְרוּ לִהְיוֹת קוֹנִין בִּקְצָצָה, וּמַהוּ דִּין קְצָצָה, אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בַּר אָבִין כָּל מִי שֶׁהוּא מוֹכֵר שָׂדֵהוּ לְגוֹי הָיוּ קְרוֹבָיו מְבִיאִין חָבִיּוֹת מְלֵאוֹת קְלָיוֹת וֶאֱגוֹזִים וּמְשַׁבְּרִין בִּפְנֵי הַתִּינוֹקוֹת וְהַתִּינוֹקוֹת מְלַקְּטִין וְאוֹמְרִים נִקְצַץ פְּלוֹנִי מֵאֲחֻזָּתוֹ. הֶחֱזִירָהּ, הָיוּ אוֹמְרִים חָזַר פְּלוֹנִי לַאֲחֻזָּתוֹ. כָּךְ, כָּל מִי שֶׁנּוֹשֵׂא אִשָּׁה שֶׁאֵינָהּ הוֹגֶנֶת לוֹ הָיוּ הַקְּרוֹבִים מְבִיאִין חָבִיּוֹת מְלֵאוֹת קְלָיוֹת וֶאֱגוֹזִים וְשׁוֹבְרִין לִפְנֵי הַתִּינוֹקוֹת וְהַתִּינוֹקוֹת מְלַקְּטִין וְאוֹמְרִין אָבוּד פְּלוֹנִי מִמִּשְׁפַּחְתּוֹ. גֵּרְשָׁהּ, הָיוּ אוֹמְרִין חָזַר פְּלוֹנִי לְמִשְׁפַּחְתּוֹ. חָזְרוּ לִהְיוֹת קוֹנִין בְּמִנְעָל וּבְסַנְדָּל, שָׁלַף אִישׁ נַעֲלוֹ וְנָתַן לְרֵעֵהוּ, חָזְרוּ לִהְיוֹת קוֹנִים בְּכֶסֶף וּבִשְׁטָר וּבַחֲזָקָה, וּשְׁלָשְׁתָּן כְּתוּבִין בְּפָסוּק אֶחָד (ירמיה לב, מד): שָׂדוֹת בַּכֶּסֶף יִקְנוּ, הֲרֵי כֶסֶף. וְכָתוֹב בַּסֵּפֶר וְחָתוֹם, הֲרֵי עֵדֵי הַשְּׁטָר. (ירמיה לב, מד): וְהָעֵד עֵדִים, הֲרֵי עֵדֵי חֲזָקָה. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן, אֵין כֶּסֶף נִקְנֵית פָּחוֹת מִשְׁוֵה פְּרוּטָה כֶּסֶף, וְאֵין קַרְקַע נִקְנֵית בְּפָחוֹת מִשְׁוֵה פְּרוּטָה. מִלְּתֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי חֲנִינָא פְּלִיגָא, דְּאָמַר רַבִּי חֲנִינָא כָּל שְׁקָלִים שֶׁנֶּאֶמְרוּ בַּתּוֹרָה, סְלָעִים. וּבַנְּבִיאִים, לִיטְרִין. וּבַכְּתוּבִים, קַנְטֵרִין. אָמַר רַבִּי יוּדָן בֶּן פָּזִי חוּץ מִשִּׁקְלֵי עֶפְרוֹן שֶׁהָיוּ קַנְטֵרִין, וְלֹא דָמֵי, הָכָא כְּתִיב כֶּסֶף, וּמַה דְּאָמַר רַבִּי חֲנִינָא, שְׁקָלִים. וּדְלֹא כְּרַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר שֶׁהָיָה רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר הִלּוּךְ קָנָה, דְּתָנֵי אִם הָלַךְ בַּשָֹּׂדֶה בֵּין לְאָרְכָּהּ בֵּין לְרָחְבָּהּ, קָנָה עַד מָקוֹם שֶׁהָלַךְ, כְּדִבְרֵי רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים לֹא קָנָה עַד שֶׁיַּחֲזִיק, וְהַכֹּל מוֹדִים בְּמוֹכֵר שָׂדֵהוּ לַחֲבֵרוֹ כֵּיוָן שֶׁהָלַךְ קָנָה.

"Now this was formerly done in Israel in cases of redemption or exchange: to validate any transaction, one man would take off his sandal and hand it to the other (Ruth 4:7)". Rabbi Chanina interpreted this verse for Israel, as Israel first broke into praise "for redemption", as it is said "This is my God and I will praise him (Exodus 15:2)", and immediately for the "exchange", as it is said "They exchanged their glory for the image of a bull that feeds on grass (Psalms 106:20)". There is nothing for you hideous and abominable and offensive as when a bull is eating grass. At first they were buying with a shoe or sandal, as it is said "A man took off his shoe" and later they went on to buy with cutting, and what is this cutting? Rabbi Yose the son of Avin: "Everyone who sells his field to a gentile, his kinsmen would bring vessels full of beans and nuts and they broke them before the children and the children gathered them and said "so and so" is 'cut off' from his inheritance. If it was returned, they said that "so and so has returned to his inheritance". In this way anyone who takes a wife and she is not allowed to him, his kinsmen would bring vessels full of beans and nuts and they broke them before the children and the children gathered them and said "so and so" is removed from his family". If he divorced her, they said that "so and so has returned to his family". They began to buy with a shoe or sandal: a man took off his shoe and gave it to his companion", and then they began to buy with money and with deeds and with improvements. The three were written about in one verse: "Fields shall be purchased" (Jeremiah 32:44) this is money. "And deeds written and sealed (Jeremiah 32:44): these are witnesses to the deeds. "And witnesses called in (Jeremiah 32:44)": these are witnesses of the improvement. Rabbi Yose in the name of Rabbi Yochanan: "Money cannot cause purchase if it is less than a perutah of silver, and land cannot be acquired for less than a perutah". On the other hand there is the word of Rabbi Chanina, as Rabbi Chanina said: "all the shekels mentioned in the Torah are sealim. And in the prophets, litrim (a Roman libra). And in the writings: kanterim (a Roman centenarium). Rabbi Yudan the son of Pazi: "Except for the shekels of Ephron which were kanterim", but that is not similar, for there is written kesef and what Rabbi Chanina said was shekels. But it is not against Rabbi Eliezer, as Rabbi Eliezer said: "a walk acquires" and he taught: "if a man walks through a field in its length and in its breadth, he has acquired it to the place he walked to", according to the words of Rabbi Eliezer. And the sages said: "He has not acquired it until he has improved it", and everyone agrees that when a man sells his field to his friend, when he has walked it, he has acquired.

12 יב

וַיֹּאמֶר הַגֹּאֵל לְבֹעַז קְנֵה לָךְ וַיִּשְׁלֹף נַעֲלוֹ (רות ד, ח), נַעֲלוֹ שֶׁל מִי, רַב וְלֵוִי, חַד אָמַר נַעֲלוֹ שֶׁל בֹּעַז, וָחֳרִינָא אָמַר נַעֲלוֹ שֶׁל גּוֹאֵל, נִרְאִין הַדְּבָרִים כְּמַאן דְּאָמַר נַעֲלוֹ שֶׁל בֹּעַז, שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ הַלּוֹקֵחַ לִהְיוֹת נוֹתֵן עֵרָבוֹן. וְדִכְוָותָהּ (מלכים א יא, ל): וַיִּתְפֹּשׂ אֲחִיָּה בַּשַֹּׂלְמָה הַחֲדָשָׁה וגו', שִׂמְלָתוֹ שֶׁל מִי, רַב וְלֵוִי חַד אָמַר שִׂמְלָתוֹ שֶׁל יָרָבְעָם, וָחֳרִינָא אָמַר שִׂמְלָתוֹ שֶׁל אֲחִיָּה, אָמַר רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן מִסְתַּבְּרָא כְּמַאן דְּאָמַר שִׂמְלָתוֹ שֶׁל אֲחִיָּה, שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ הַצַּדִּיקִים לִהְיוֹת קוֹרְעִים בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁמַּחֲלֹקֶת בְּמַלְכוּת בֵּית דָּוִד. וְדִכְוָותָהּ (שמואל א טו, כז): וַיִּסֹּב שְׁמוּאֵל לָלֶכֶת וַיַּחֲזֵק בִּכְנַף מְעִילוֹ וַיִּקָּרַע, מְעִילוֹ שֶׁל מִי, רַב וְלֵוִי חַד אָמַר מְעִילוֹ שֶׁל שָׁאוּל, וָחֳרִינָא אָמַר מְעִילוֹ שֶׁל שְׁמוּאֵל, וּמִסְתַּבְּרָא כְּמַאן דְּאָמַר כְּנַף מְעִילוֹ שֶׁל שְׁמוּאֵל, שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ הַצַּדִּיקִים לִהְיוֹת קוֹרְעִים בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁאֵין נְטִיעָתָן מְשֻׁבַּחַת. וְדִכְוָותָהּ (דברי הימים ב יג, כ): וְלֹא עָצַר כֹּחַ יָרָבְעָם, אָמַר רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל אַתְּ סָבוּר שֶׁיָּרָבְעָם הוּא שֶׁנִּגַּף לֹא נִגַּף אֶלָּא אֲבִיָּה, וְלָמָּה נִגַּף אֲבִיָּה, עַל יְדֵי שֶׁהֶעֱבִיר הַכָּרַת פְּנֵיהֶם שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה ג, ט): הַכָּרַת פְּנֵיהֶם עָנְתָה בָּם. רַבִּי אַחָא אָמַר עַל יְדֵי שֶׁהֶעֱמִיד עֲלֵיהֶם שׁוֹמְרִים שְׁלשָׁה יָמִים שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּנּוּ צוּרָתָן, דִּתְנֵינַן אֵין מְעִידִין עַל פַּרְצוּף פָּנִים עִם הַחֹטֶם, רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן וְרֵישׁ לָקִישׁ, רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אָמַר עַל יְדֵי שֶׁחִסְדָן בָּרַבִּים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברי הימים ב יג, ח): וְעִמָּכֶם עֶגְלֵי זָהָב. רֵישׁ לָקִישׁ אָמַר עַל יְדֵי שֶׁבִּזָּה כְּבוֹד אֲחִיָּה הַשִּׁילוֹנִי, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברי הימים ב יג, ז): וַיִּקָּבְצוּ עָלָיו אֲנָשִׁים רֵקִים בְּנֵי בְלִיַּעַל, קָרָא לַאֲחִיָּה הַשִּׁילוֹנִי בֶּן בְּלִיַּעַל. וְרַבָּנָן אָמְרֵי עַל יְדֵי שֶׁבָּאת עֲבוֹדַת כּוֹכָבִים עַל יָדוֹ וְלֹא בִעֲרָהּ, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (דברי הימים ב יג, יט): וַיִּרְדֹּף אֲבִיָּה אַחַר יָרָבְעָם, וּכְתִיב (מלכים א יב, כט): וַיָּשֶׂם אֶת הָאֶחָד בְּבֵית אֵל, וַהֲרֵי הַדְּבָרִים קַל וָחֹמֶר וּמָה אִם הַמֶּלֶךְ שֶׁמּוֹנֶה אֶת הַמֶּלֶךְ נְגָפוֹ הַכָּתוּב, הֶדְיוֹט שֶׁהוּא מוֹנֶה אֶת הַהֶדְיוֹט עַל אַחַת כַּמָּה וְכַמָּה.

"So when the redeemer said to Boaz, “Acquire for yourself,” he drew off his sandal (Ruth 4:8)": whose was the sandal? Rav and Levi: one said the sandal was Boaz's and the other said the sandal was the redeemer's. The words seem to support the view of the one who said the sandal was Boaz's, because the custom of the one who takes is to give a pledge. And further: "Ahijah took hold of the new robe he was wearing and tore it into twelve pieces (1 Kings 11:30)": whose was the robe? Rav and Levi: one said the robe was Jeroboam's, and the other said the robe was Ahijah's. Rabbi Samuel the son of Nachman said: "the reasonable view supports the one who said it was Ahijah's robe, because the custom of the righteous is to tear when the House of David was divided in the kingship. And further: "As Samuel turned to leave, Saul seized the corner of his robe, and it tore (1 Samuel 15:27)": whose was the robe? Rav and Levi: one said the robe was Saul's, and the other said the robe was Samuel's. The reasonable view supports the one who said the corner of the robe was Samuel's because it is the custom of the righteous to tear when their plannings do not make profit. And further: "Jeroboam could not muster strength again during the days of Abijah. Hashem struck him down and he died (2 Chronicles 13:20)": Rabbi Samuel said you might think that Jeroboam was struck down but he was not struck down, rather it was Abijah, and why was Abijah struck down? Because he disfigured the faces of Israel, as it is said: "Their disfigured face accuses them (Isaiah 3:9)". Rabbi Acha said: "Because he stationed over them guards for three days and their appearance changed, as we have it from tradition they cannot serve as witnesses over the appearance of a face with the nose. Rabbi Yochanan and Reish Lakish: Rabbi Yochanan said: "Because he shamed them in public, as it is said "and possess the golden calves that Jeroboam made for you as gods (2 Chronicles 13:7)". Reish Lakish said: "Because he despised the glory of Ahijah the Shilonite, as it is said "Riff-raff and scoundrels gathered around him (2 Chronicles 13:8): he called Ahijah the Shilonite a "scoundrel". And the Rabbis said: "Because idolatry came into his hand and he did not destroy it, see!, it is written: "Abijah pursued Jeroboam (2 Chronicles 13:19)", and it is written: "He set up one in Bethel (1 Kings 12:29)". And see how the verses are a qal vechomer: if the king who insults a king is struck down as it is written, how much more a private person who insults a private person!"

13 יג

וַיֹּאמְרוּ כָל הָעָם אֲשֶׁר בַּשַּׁעַר וגו' (רות ד, יא), אָמַר רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה רֹב מְסֻבִּין מִשֶּׁל לֵאָה, לְפִיכָךְ הוּא עוֹשֶׂה אֶת רָחֵל עִקָּר. אָמַר רַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר כַּהֲנָא רָחֵל הָיְתָה עִקָּרוֹ שֶׁלּוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית כט, לא): וְרָחֵל עֲקָרָה, עִקָּר. תָּנֵי רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בַּר יוֹחָאי, לְפִי שֶׁאָמְרוּ דְּבָרִים כְּנֶגֶד רָחֵל, לְפִיכָךְ נִקְרְאוּ בָּנִים לִשְׁמָהּ, דִּכְתִיב (ירמיה לא, יד): רָחֵל מְבַכָּה עַל בָּנֶיהָ. וְלֹא סוֹף דָּבָר לִשְׁמָהּ, אֶלָּא אֲפִלּוּ לְשֵׁם בְּנָהּ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (עמוס ה, טו): אוּלַי יֶחֱנַן ה' שְׁאֵרִית יוֹסֵף. וְלֹא סוֹף דָּבָר לְשֵׁם בְּנָהּ, אֶלָּא אֲפִלּוּ לְשֵׁם בֶּן בְּנָהּ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ירמיה לא, יט): הֲבֵן יַקִּיר לִי אֶפְרַיִם אִם יֶלֶד שַׁעֲשׁוּעִים.

"All the people at the gate and the elders answered, “We are. May Hashem make the woman who is coming into your house like Rachel and Leah, both of whom built up the House of Israel! Prosper in Ephrathah and perpetuate your name in Bethlehem! (Ruth 4:11)": Rabbi Berachya said: "Most of those sitting there were from Leah, and so he makes Rachel the main subject". Rabbi Abba the son of Kahana said: "Rachel was primary ('iqaro), as it is said: "but Rachel was barren ('aqarah) (Genesis 29:31)": the primary one ('iqar). Rabbi Shimon the son of Yochai taught: "Because they spoke words against Rachel, so the descendants were called by her name, as it is written: "Rachel weeping for her children (Jeremiah 31:15)". And that is not the end of the matter with her name, but also in the name of her son, as it is said: "Perhaps Hashem will be gracious to the remnant of Joseph (Amos 5:15)". And that is not the end of the matter with the name of her son, but also in the name of her grandson, as it is said: "Truly, Ephraim is a dear son to Me, A child that is dandled! (Jeremiah 31:20)"".

14 יד

וִיהִי בֵיתְךָ כְּבֵית פֶּרֶץ (רות ד, יב), אָמְרוּ כָּל בָּנִים שֶׁהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עָתִיד לִתֵּן לְךָ יִהְיוּ מִן הַצַּדֶּקֶת הַזּוֹ. וְדִכְוָותָהּ (בראשית כה, כא): וַיֶּעְתַּר יִצְחָק לַה' לְנֹכַח אִשְׁתּוֹ כִּי עֲקָרָה הִיא, מַהוּ לְנֹכַח אִשְׁתּוֹ, אֶלָּא מְלַמֵּד שֶׁהָיָה יִצְחָק שָׁטוּחַ כָּאן וְרִבְקָה שְׁטוּחָה כָּאן וְאוֹמֵר רִבּוֹנוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם כָּל בָּנִים שֶׁאַתָּה עָתִיד לִתֵּן לִי יִהְיוּ מִן הַצַּדֶּקֶת הַזּוֹ. וְדִכְוָותָהּ (שמואל א ב, כ): וּבֵרַךְ עֵלִי אֶת אֶלְקָנָה וְאֶת אִשְׁתּוֹ, אָמַר בָּנִים שֶׁעָתִיד הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לִתֵּן לְךָ יִהְיוּ מִן הַצַּדֶּקֶת הַזּוֹ. וַיִּקַּח בֹּעַז אֶת רוּת וַתְּהִי לוֹ לְאִשָּׁה, אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ, עִקַּר מוֹטְרִין לֹא הָיָה לָהּ, וְגָלַף לָהּ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עִקַּר מוֹטְרִין.

"And may your house be like the house of Perez whom Tamar bore to Judah—through the offspring which Hashem will give you by this young woman (Ruth 4:12)". They said that all he children which the Holy One, blessed be He, would give to you will be from this righteous woman. And further: "Isaac pleaded with Hashem opposite his wife, because she was barren (Genesis 25:21)". What is "opposite his wife"? Rather this teaches that Isaac was prostrated on one side and Rebecca was on he other side, and he said "Master of the World, all the children which you are going to give to me, may they be from this righteous woman". And further: "Eli would bless Elkanah and his wife (1 Samuel 2:20)": he said "the children which the Holy One, blessed be He is going to give to me, may they be from this righteous woman". "So Boaz married Ruth; she became his wife, and he cohabited with her. Hashem let her conceive, and she bore a son (Ruth 4:13)". Rabbi Shimon the son of Lakish said: "there was no womb for her, but the Holy One, blessed be He, carved a womb for her".

15 טו

וַתֹּאמַרְנָה הַנָּשִׁים אֶל נָעֳמִי בָּרוּךְ ה' אֲשֶׁר לֹא הִשְׁבִּית לָךְ גֹּאֵל הַיּוֹם (רות ד, יד), מָה הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה רוֹדֶה בָּרָקִיעַ, כָּךְ יְהֵא בְּזַרְעֵךְ, רוֹדֶה וְשַׁלִּיט בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל לְעוֹלָם. אָמַר רַבִּי חוּנְיָא מִבִּרְכוֹתֵיהֶן שֶׁל נָשִׁים לֹא נִתְקַעְקְעָה בֵּיצָתוֹ שֶׁל דָּוִד בִּימֵי עֲתַלְיָהוּ. וְרַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל אָמַר שָׁמָּה כְּתִיב (בראשית יט, לב): וּנְחַיֶּה מֵאָבִינוּ זָרַע, אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן בֵּן, אֶלָּא זָרַע, אוֹתוֹ הַזֶּרַע שֶׁהוּא בָּא מִמָּקוֹם אַחֵר, וְאֵיזֶה זֶה, זֶה מֶלֶךְ הַמָּשִׁיחַ.

"And the women said to Naomi, “Blessed be Hashem, who has not withheld a redeemer from you today! May his name be perpetuated in Israel! (Ruth 4:14)": what is "today"? "Today" rises in the firmament. Thus it will be for your seed, and it will rise and rule in Israel forever. Rabbi Chuna said: "From the blessings of women the root of David was not cut off in the days of Athaliah. And Rabbi Tanchuma in the name of Rabbi Samuel said: "It is written there: "that we may maintain life through the seed of our father (Genesis 19:32)": it is not written "a son", but rather "seed", that is the seed itself which will come from another place. And where is this? This is the King Messiah".

16 טז

וְהָיָה לָךְ לְמֵשִׁיב נֶפֶשׁ וּלְכַלְכֵּל אֶת שֵׂיבָתֵךְ וגו' (רות ד, טו), רַבִּי יְהוּדָה וְרַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר מִשִּׁבְעָה רָאשֵׁי הָאָבוֹת הָאֲמוּרִין לְהַלָּן (דברי הימים א ב, טו): אֹצֶם הַשִּׁשִּׁי דָּוִד הַשְּׁבִיעִי. רַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה אָמַר מִשִּׁבְעָה הַמְפֹרָשִׁין כָּאן, פֶּרֶץ, חֶצְרוֹן, רָם, עֲמִינָדָב, נַחְשׁוֹן, שַׂלְמוֹן, בֹּעַז.

"He will renew your life and sustain your old age; for he is born of your daughter-in-law, who loves you and is better to you than seven sons (Ruth 4:15).” Rabbi Yehudah and Rabbi Nechemya: Rabbi Yehudah says: "It is from the seven heads of the fathers as it is said elsewhere: "Ozem sixth and David seventh (2 Chronciles 2:15)". Rabbi Nechemya said: "From the seven here: Perez, Hezrom, Ram, Aminadab, Nahson, Salmon, Boaz".