Chapter 5 ה׳
1 א

הוּא הָיָה עִם דָּוִיד בַּפַּס דַּמִּים (דברי הימים א יא, יג), רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אָמַר בַּחֲקַל סוּמַקְתָּא. רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָנִי אָמַר בַּפַּס דַּמִּים, שֶׁמִּשָּׁם פָּסְקוּ דָמִים. (דברי הימים א יא, יג): וְהַפְּלִשְׁתִּים נֶאֶסְפוּ שָׁם לַמִּלְחָמָה וַתְּהִי חֶלְקַת הַשָֹּׂדֶה מְלֵאָה שְׂעוֹרִים, כָּתוּב אֶחָד אוֹמֵר שְׂעוֹרִים, וְכָתוּב אֶחָד אוֹמֵר (שמואל ב כג, יא): עֲדָשִׁים, רַבִּי יַעֲקֹב אָמַר עֲדָשִׁים הָיוּ אֶלָּא שֶׁהָיְתָה עִנְבוּתָן דּוֹמִין לִשְׂעוֹרִין. רַבִּי לֵוִי אָמַר הַפְּלִשְׁתִּים שֶׁבָּאוּ גְּבוֹהִים כִּשְׂעוֹרִים וְהָלְכוּ נְמוּכִים כַּעֲדָשִׁים. (דברי הימים א יא יד): וַיִּתְיַצְּבוּ בְתוֹךְ הַחֶלְקָה וַיַּצִּילוּהָ, וְכָתוּב אֶחָד אוֹמֵר (שמואל ב כג, יב): וַיַּצִּילֶהָ, אֶלָּא מְלַמֵּד שֶׁהֶחֱזִירוּהָ לִבְעָלֶיהָ, שֶׁהָיְתָה חֲבִיבָה עֲלֵיהֶם כְּשָׂדֶה מְלֵאָה כַּרְכּוֹם. רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן אָמַר שָׁנָה אַחַת הָיְתָה וּשְׁתֵּי שָׂדוֹת הָיוּ. פְּשִׁיטָא לֵיהּ לְאַבֵּד וְלִתֵּן דָּמִים מַה צְּרִיכָה, אִין תֹּאמַר לְאַבֵּד אֲבָל לֹא לִתֵּן דָּמִים, עַד כַּדּוּן הִיא צְרִיכָה אֵי זוֹ מֵהֶן לְאַבֵּד שֶׁל עֲדָשִׁים אוֹ שֶׁל שְׂעוֹרִים, שֶׁל עֲדָשִׁים אֹכֶל אָדָם, שֶׁל שְׂעוֹרִים אֹכֶל בְּהֵמָה. שֶׁל עֲדָשִׁים אֵין הָעֹמֶר קָרֵב מֵהֶן, וְשֶׁל שְׂעוֹרִים קָרֵב מֵהֶן. שֶׁל עֲדָשִׁים אֵין מַפְרִישִׁין מֵהֶן חַלָּה, שֶׁל שְׂעוֹרִים מַפְרִישִׁין חַלָּה. רַבָּנָן אָמְרִין שָׂדֶה אַחַת הָיְתָה וּשְׁתֵּי שָׁנִים הָיוּ, וַהֲלֹא נִלְמַד מִשֶּׁל אֶשְׁתָּקַד, שֶׁאֵין לְמֵדִין מִמַּעֲשֶׂה. (דברי הימים א יא, יז): וַיִּתְאָו דָּוִיד וַיֹּאמַר מִי יַשְׁקֵנִי מַיִם, רַבִּי חִיָּא אָמַר הֲלָכָה נִצְרְכָה לוֹ. וַיִּבְקְעוּ הַשְּׁלשָׁה, וְלָמָּה שְׁלשָׁה שֶׁאֵין הֲלָכָה מִתְבָּרֶרֶת אֶלָּא בִּשְׁלשָׁה. וַיִּשְׁאֲבוּ מַיִם מִבּוֹר בֵּית לֶחֶם אֲשֶׁר בַּשַּׁעַר וַיִּשְׂאוּ וַיָּבִאוּ אֶל דָּוִיד וְלֹא אָבָה דָוִיד לִשְׁתּוֹתָם. וְלֹא אָבָה שֶׁתִּקָּבַע הֲלָכָה לִשְׁמָן, עֲשָׂאָהּ מַסֶּכְתָּא וּקְבָעָהּ הֲלָכָה לְדוֹרוֹת, מֶלֶךְ פּוֹרֵץ לַעֲשׂוֹת לוֹ דֶרֶךְ וְאֵין מְמַחִין בְּיָדוֹ. בַּר קַפָּרָא אָמַר חַג הָיָה, וְנִסּוּךְ הַמַּיִם הָיָה, וּוִתּוּר בָּמָה הָיָה. וַיִּבְקְעוּ הַשְּׁלשָׁה, וְלָמָּה הָיוּ שְׁלשָׁה, אֶחָד הוֹרֵג וְאֶחָד מְפַנֶּה אֶת הַהֲרוּגִים, וְאֶחָד מַכְנִיס הַצְּלוֹחִית בְּטָהֳרָה. רַבִּי חוֹנְיָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יוֹסֵף הִלְכוֹת שְׁבוּיָה נִצְרְכָה לֵיהּ. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בְּרַבִּי אָמַר בִּנְיַן בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ תָּבַע.

"He was with David at Pas-dammim (1 Chronicles 11:13)": Rabbi Yochanan said "in the red field". Rabbi Samuel son of Nachmani said "in Pas Dammim, because from there blood was split (pasqu damim). "And there the Philistines were gathered together to battle, where was a plot of ground full of barley (1 Chronicles 11:13)" and scripture further says: "And the Philistines were gathered together into a troop, where was a plot of ground full of lentils (2 Samuel 23:11)". Rabbi Jacob said: "lentils" this is because the lentils were like barley". Rabbi Levi said: "the Philistines that gathered were as tall as barley and they walked as high as lentils". "But they stood in the midst of the plot, and defended it (1 Chronicles 11:14)" and scripture further says "But he stood in the midst of the plot, and defended it (2 Samuel 23:12)". This teaches that they returned it to its owners and it was precious to them like a field full of saffron. Rabbi Samuel the son of Nachman said: "it was one year and there were two fields." The simple explanation for it is to destroy and to shed blood; why is it necessary to state this? Indeed, you would say to destroy but not to shed blood. And so it was necessary to say from where this came, "to destroy" either lentils or barley, as man eats lentils and animals eat barley. From lentils the omer is not offered, and from the barley it is. From lentils challah is not dedicated, and from barley it is. The rabbis said: "there was one field and two years; has it not been learned "from the previous year" that there is no teaching from experience?" "And David longed, and said: 'Oh that one would give me water to drink of the well of Beth-lehem, which is by the gate!' (1 Chronicles 11:17)". Rabbi Chiyya said: "halakhah is needed for this. "And the three broke through the host of the Philistines, and drew water out of the well of Beth-lehem, that was by the gate, and took it, and brought it to David; but David would not drink of it (1 Chronicles 11:18)". And he did not want that the halakhah become permanent in reference to that, as if he had made a legal subject and the halakhah became permanent for the future, "that a king may break the law to make a way for himself and there is no one to stop him". The son of Kappara said: "it was a festival and the water was a libation and he was overly zealous for what it was. "And the three broke through": and why were there three? One was killing, and one was clearing away the corpses, and on was purifying the flask. Rabbi Chonya in the name of Rabbi Joseph: "the law of the captive applies to this". Rabbi Shimon in the name of Rabbi said: "the [law of] the building of the Temple applies".

2 ב

וַתִּפֹּל עַל פָּנֶיהָ וַתִּשְׁתַּחוּ אָרְצָה וגו' (רות ב, י), מְלַמֵּד שֶׁנִּתְנַבְּאָה שֶׁהוּא עָתִיד לְהַכִּירָהּ כְּדֶרֶךְ כָּל הָאָרֶץ.

"Then she fell on her face, and bowed down to the ground (Ruth 2:10)" this teaches that she prophesied she was going to be familiar like the way of the whole earth.

3 ג

וַיַּעַן בֹּעַז וַיֹּאמֶר לָהּ הֻגֵּד הֻגַּד לִי (רות ב, יא), לָמָּה שְׁתֵּי פְּעָמִים הֻגֵּד הֻגַּד לִי, הֻגַּד לִי בַּבַּיִת, הֻגַּד לִי בַּשָֹּׂדֶה. כֹּל אֲשֶׁר עָשִׂית אֶת חֲמוֹתֵךְ אַחֲרֵי מוֹת אִישֵׁךְ, שֶׁאֵין תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר בְּחַיֵּי אִישֵׁךְ. וַתַּעַזְבִי אָבִיךְ וְאִמֵּךְ וְאֶרֶץ מוֹלַדְתֵּךְ זוֹ אִיפַרְכִיָּא שֶׁלָּךְ. וַתַּעַזְבִי אָבִיךְ וְאִמֵּךְ מֵעֲבוֹדַת כּוֹכָבִים שֶׁלָּךְ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ירמיה ב, כז): אֹמְרִים לָעֵץ אָבִי אַתָּה וְלָאֶבֶן אַתְּ יְלִדְתָּנִי. וְאֶרֶץ מוֹלַדְתֵּךְ, זוֹ שְׁכוּנָתָהּ. וַתֵּלְכִי אֶל עַם אֲשֶׁר לֹא יָדַעַתְּ תְּמוֹל שִׁלְשׁוֹם, שֶׁאִלּוּ תְּמוֹל שִׁלְשׁוֹם, לֹא הָיִית.

"And Boaz answered and said unto her: 'It hath fully been told (hugad hugad) to me (Ruth 2:11)." Why is the verb "been told (hugad)" repeated two times? It "was told to me" in the house; it "was told to me" in the field. "All that you have done for your mother-in-law since the death of your husband": surely this also includes the life of her husband. "and how you left your father and your mother, and the land of your birth": "the land of your birth" this is your prefecture. "And left your father and your mother": from your idolatry, as it is said "Who say to a tree: 'You are my father', and to a stone: 'You have brought us forth' (Jeremiah 2:27)". "And the land of your birth": this is her village. "And have come unto a people that you did not know yesterday": if "yesterday", you would not have been [accepted].

4 ד

יְשַׁלֵּם ה' פָּעֳלֵךְ וּתְהִי מַשְׂכֻּרְתֵּךְ שְׁלֵמָה מֵעִם ה' (רות ב, יב), אָמַר רַבִּי חָסָא אֲשֶׁר בָּאת לַחֲסוֹת תַּחַת כְּנָפָיו. אָמַר רַבִּי אָבוּן שָׁמַעְנוּ שֶׁיֵּשׁ כְּנָפַיִם לָאָרֶץ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה כד, טז): מִכְּנַף הָאָרֶץ זְמִרֹת שָׁמַעְנוּ. וּכְנָפַיִם לַשֶּׁמֶשׁ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (מלאכי ג, כ): וְזָרְחָה לָכֶם יִרְאֵי שְׁמִי שֶׁמֶשׁ צְדָקָה וּמַרְפֵּא בִּכְנָפֶיהָ. וּכְנָפַיִם לַחַיּוֹת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (יחזקאל ג, יג): וְקוֹל כַּנְפֵי הַחַיּוֹת. וּכְנָפַיִם לַכְּרוּבִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (מלכים א ח, ז): כִּי הַכְּרוּבִים פֹּרְשִׂים כְּנָפַיִם. וּכְנָפַיִם לַשְֹּׂרָפִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה ו, ב): שְׂרָפִים עֹמְדִים מִמַּעַל לוֹ שֵׁשׁ כְּנָפַיִם. בֹּא וּרְאֵה כַּמָּה גָדוֹל כֹּחָן שֶׁל צַדִּיקִים, וְכַמָּה גָדוֹל כֹּחָהּ שֶׁל צְדָקָה, וְכַמָּה גָדוֹל כֹּחָן שֶׁל גּוֹמְלֵי חֲסָדִים, שֶׁאֵין חָסִין לֹא בְצֵל שַׁחַר, וְלֹא בְצֵל כַּנְפֵי אֶרֶץ, וְלֹא בְצֵל כַּנְפֵי שֶׁמֶשׁ, וְלֹא בְצֵל כַּנְפֵי חַיּוֹת, וְלֹא בְצֵל כַּנְפֵי כְּרוּבִים, וְלֹא בְצֵל כַּנְפֵי שְׂרָפִים, אֶלָּא בְּצֵל מִי שֶׁאָמַר וְהָיָה הָעוֹלָם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים לו, ח): מַה יָּקָר חַסְדְּךָ אֱלֹהִים וּבְנֵי אָדָם בְּצֵל כְּנָפֶיךָ יֶחֱסָיוּן.

"Hashem recompense your work, and be your reward complete from Hashem, the God of Israel, under whose wings you have come to take refuge (Ruth 2:12)." Rabbi Chasa said: Solomon will be your reward". "Under whose wings (kenafayv) you have come to take refuge": Rabbi Avun said: "We have heard that there are wings (kenafayim) of the earth, as it is said "From the uttermost part (kenaf)of the earth have we heard songs (Isaiah 24:16)". And there are wings for the sun, as it is said "But unto you that fear My name shall the sun of righteousness arise with healing in its wings (kenafeyha)(Malachi 3:20)". And there are wings to the chayyot (class of angels) as it is said "and the noise of the wings of the chayyot (Ezekiel 3:13). And there are kings to the cherubim, as it is said "for the cherubim spread out their wings (1 Kings 8:7)". And there are wings to the seraphim, as it is said "seraphim were standing above and each had six wings (Isaiah 6:2)". Come and see how great is the strength of the righteous and how great the strength of righteousness, and how great the strength of those who complete good deeds, because they take refuge not in the shadow of dawn, or the shadow of the "wings" of the earth, nor in the shadow of the wings of the sun, nor in the shadow of the wings of the chayyot, the cherubim or the seraphim. Rather, they are in the shadow of he who spoke and the universe was, as it is said "How precious is your lovingkindness, O God! and the children of men take refuge in the shadow of your wings (Psalm 36:8)"".

5 ה

וַתֹּאמֶר אֶמְצָא חֵן בְּעֵינֶיךָ אֲדֹנִי וגו' וְאָנֹכִי לֹא אֶהְיֶה כְּאַחַת שִׁפְחֹתֶךָ (רות ב, יג), אָמַר לָהּ חַס וְשָׁלוֹם אֵין אַתְּ מִן הָאֲמָהוֹת, אֶלָּא מִן הָאִמָּהוֹת. וְדִכְוָותָהּ (במדבר לב, מב): וְנֹבַח הָלַךְ וַיִּלְכֹּד אֶת קְנָת וְאֶת בְּנֹתֶיהָ וגו', מְלַמֵּד שֶׁלֹא עָמַד לָהּ אוֹתוֹ הַשֵּׁם. וְדִכְוָותָהּ (זכריה ה, יא): וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי לִבְנוֹת לָה בַיִת בְּאֶרֶץ שִׁנְעָר. מְלַמֵּד שֶׁאֵין לַשֶּׁקֶר תְּשׁוּעָה.

"And she said: 'Let me find favor in your sight, my lord; for that thou hast comforted me, and for that thou hast spoken to the heart of your handmaid, though I be not as one of your handmaidens' (Ruth 2:13)". He said to her "be silent" and "peace" you are not from the handmaidens (amahot) but rather from the mothers (imahot). And similarly "And Nobah went and took Kenath, and the villages thereof, and called it Nobah, after his own name (Numbers 32:42) this teaches that her own name did not remain to her. And similarly: "And he said to me 'To build her a house in the land of Shinar; and when it is prepared, she shall be set there in her own place (Zechariah 5:11)": this teaches that there is not salvation for falsehood [since "to her" could also be read as "no": "to not build a house"].

6 ו

וַיֹּאמֶר לָה בֹעַז לְעֵת הָאֹכֶל גּשִׁי הֲלֹם (רות ב, יד), רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן [נ"א רבי יונתן] פָּתַר בָּהּ שִׁית שִׁטִּין מְדַבֵּר בְּדָוִד, גּשִׁי הֲלֹם, קְרוֹבִי לַמַּלְכוּת, וְאֵין הֲלֹם אֶלָּא מַלְכוּת, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (שמואל ב ז, יח): כִּי הֲבִאֹתַנִי עַד הֲלֹם. וְאָכַלְתְּ מִן הַלֶּחֶם, זוֹ לַחְמָהּ שֶׁל מַלְכוּת. וְטָבַלְתְּ פִּתֵּךְ בַּחֹמֶץ, אֵלּוּ הַיִּסּוּרִין, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים ו, ב): ה' אַל בְּאַפְּךָ תוֹכִיחֵנִי. וַתֵּשֶׁב מִצַּד הַקֹּצְרִים, שֶׁנּוֹצְדָה מִמֶּנּוּ הַמַּלְכוּת לְשָׁעָה, דְּאָמַר רַב הוּנָא כָּל אוֹתָן שִׁשָּׁה חֳדָשִׁים שֶׁהָיָה דָּוִד בּוֹרֵחַ מִפְּנֵי אַבְשָׁלוֹם לֹא עָלוּ מִן הַמִּנְיָן, שֶׁהָיָה מִתְכַּפֵּר לוֹ בִּשְׂעִירָה כְּהֶדְיוֹט. וַיִּצְבָּט לָהּ קָלִי, שֶׁחָזְרָה לוֹ מַלְכוּתוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים כ, ז): עַתָּה יָדַעְתִּי כִּי הוֹשִׁיעַ ה' מְשִׁיחוֹ. וַתֹּאכַל וַתִּשְׂבַּע וַתֹּתַר, אוֹכֵל בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה, וְאוֹכֵל לִימוֹת הַמָּשִׁיחַ, וְאוֹכֵל לֶעָתִיד לָבוֹא. דָּבָר אַחֵר, גּשִׁי הֲלֹם, מְדַבֵּר בִּשְׁלֹמֹה, גּשִׁי הֲלֹם, קְרוֹבִי לַמַּלְכוּת. וְאָכַלְתְּ מִן הַלֶּחֶם, זוֹ לַחְמָהּ שֶׁל מַלְכוּת. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (מלכים א ה, ב): וַיְהִי לֶחֶם שְׁלֹמֹה לְיוֹם אֶחָד. שְׁלשִׁים כֹּר סֹלֶת וְשִׁשִּׁים כֹּר קָמַח. וְטָבַלְתְּ פִּתֵּךְ בַּחֹמֶץ, זֶה לִכְלוּךְ מַעֲשִׂים. וַתֵּשֶׁב מִצַּד הַקֹּצְרִים, שֶׁנּוֹצְדָה לוֹ מַלְכוּתוֹ לְשָׁעָה, דְּאָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָאי בַּר חֲנִינָא מַלְאָךְ יָרַד בִּדְמוּת שְׁלֹמֹה וְיָשַׁב לוֹ עַל כִּסְאוֹ. וְהָיָה מְחַזֵּר שְׁלֹמֹה עַל פִּתְחֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאוֹמֵר (קהלת א, יב): אֲנִי קֹהֶלֶת [בן דוד] הָיִיתִי מֶלֶךְ עַל יִשְׂרָאֵל בִּירוּשָׁלָיִם, מֶה הָיְתָה אַחַת מֵהֶן עוֹשָׂה, הָיְתָה נוֹתֶנֶת לְפָנָיו קְעָרָה שֶׁל גְּרִישִׂין וּמַכָּה אוֹתוֹ בְּקָנֶה עַל רֹאשׁוֹ וְאוֹמֶרֶת לוֹ וְלֹא שְׁלֹמֹה יוֹשֵׁב עַל כִּסְּאוֹ וְאַתָּה אוֹמֵר אֲנִי שְׁלֹמֹה מֶלֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵל. וַיִּצְבָּט לָהּ קָלִי, שֶׁחָזְרָה לוֹ מַלְכוּתוֹ. וַתֹּאכַל וַתִּשְׂבַּע וַתֹּתַר, אוֹכֵל בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה, אוֹכֵל לִימוֹת הַמָּשִׁיחַ, אוֹכֵל בָּעוֹלָם הַבָּא. דָּבָר אַחֵר, גּשִׁי הֲלֹם, מְדַבֵּר בְּחִזְקִיָּהוּ, גּשִׁי הֲלֹם, קְרוֹבִי לַמַּלְכוּת. וְאָכַלְתְּ מִן הַלֶּחֶם, זוֹ לַחְמָהּ שֶׁל מַלְכוּת. וְטָבַלְתְּ פִּתֵּךְ בַּחֹמֶץ, אֵלּוּ הַיִּסּוּרִין, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה לח, כא): וַיֹּאמֶר יְשַׁעְיָהוּ יִשְׂאוּ דְּבֶלֶת תְּאֵנִים. וַתֵּשֶׁב מִצַּד הַקֹּצְרִים, שֶׁנּוֹצְדָה לוֹ מַלְכוּתוֹ לְשָׁעָה, כְּמָה דְתֵימָא (ישעיה לז, ג): וַיֹּאמֶר חִזְקִיָּהוּ יוֹם צָרָה וְתוֹכֵחָה. וַיִּצְבָּט לָהּ קָלִי, שֶׁחָזְרָה לוֹ מַלְכוּתוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברי הימים ב לב, כג): וַיִּנַּשֵֹּׂא לְעֵינֵי כָל הַגּוֹיִם מֵאַחֲרֵי כֵן. וַתֹּאכַל וַתִּשְׂבַּע וַתֹּתַר, אוֹכֵל בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה, אוֹכֵל לִימוֹת הַמָּשִׁיחַ, אוֹכֵל לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא. דָּבָר אַחֵר, גּשִׁי הֲלֹם, מְדַבֵּר בִּמְנַשֶּׁה, גּשִׁי הֲלֹם, קְרוֹבִי לַמַּלְכוּת. וְאָכַלְתְּ מִן הַלֶּחֶם, זוֹ לַחְמָהּ שֶׁל מַלְכוּת. וְטָבַלְתְּ פִּתֵּךְ בַּחֹמֶץ, שֶׁלִּכְלֵךְ מַעֲשָׂיו כַּחֹמֶץ מִמַּעֲשִׂים רָעִים. וַתֵּשֶׁב מִצַּד הַקֹּצְרִים, שֶׁנּוֹצְדָה לוֹ מַלְכוּתוֹ לְשָׁעָה, דִּכְתִיב (דברי הימים ב לג, י): וַיְדַבֵּר ה' אֶל מְנַשֶּׁה וְאֶל עַמּוֹ וְלֹא הִקְשִׁיבוּ, וַיָּבֵא ה' עֲלֵיהֶם אֶת שָׂרֵי הַצָּבָא אֲשֶׁר לְמֶלֶךְ אַשּׁוּר וַיִּלְכְּדוּ אֶת מְנַשֶּׁה בַּחֹחִים, רַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר כַּהֲנָא אָמַר כִירוֹמָנִיקָאָה. אָמַר רַבִּי לֵוִי בַּר חַיָּתָא עָשׂוּ לוֹ מוּלָה שֶׁל נְחשֶׁת, וְהָיוּ מַסִּיקִין הָאוּר מִתַּחְתָּיו, וְהָיָה צוֹוֵחַ צֶלֶם פְּלָן צֶלֶם פְּלָן שֵׁזֵבְנִי, כֵּיוָן שֶׁרָאָה שֶׁלֹא הוֹעִילוּהוּ כְּלוּם, אָמַר זָכוּר הָיִיתִי שֶׁהָיָה אַבָּא מַקְרֵא אוֹתִי (דברים ד, ל): בַּצַּר לְךָ וּמְצָאוּךָ וגו' כִּי אֵל רַחוּם ה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ, אֲנָא צָוַוח לֵיהּ, אִין עָנֵי הָא טָב, וְאִין לָא עָנֵי הָא כֹּלָה חָדָא הִיא כָּל אַפַּיָא שָׁוִין. בְּאוֹתָהּ שָׁעָה עָמְדוּ מַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת וְסָתְמוּ כָּל הַחֲלוֹנוֹת שֶׁל מַעְלָה, וְאָמְרוּ לְפָנָיו רִבּוֹן הָעוֹלָם, אָדָם שֶׁהֶעֱמִיד צֶלֶם בַּהֵיכָל אַתָּה מְקַבְּלוֹ בִּתְשׁוּבָה. אָמַר לָהֶם אִם אֵינִי מְקַבְּלוֹ בִּתְשׁוּבָה הֲרֵינִי נוֹעֵל פֶּתַח בִּפְנֵי כָּל בַּעֲלֵי תְּשׁוּבָה. מֶה עָשָׂה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא חָתַר לוֹ חֲתִירָה מִתַּחַת כִּסֵּא כְבוֹדוֹ מִמָּקוֹם שֶׁאֵין מַלְאָךְ יָכוֹל לִשְׁלֹט, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (דברי הימים ב לג, יג): וַיִּתְפַּלֵּל אֵלָיו וַיֵּעָתֶר לוֹ וַיִּשְׁמַע תְּחִנָּתוֹ. אָמַר רַבִּי לֵוִי בַּעֲרַבְיָא צָוְחִין לַחֲתִירָה עֲתִירָה. וַיִּצְבָּט לָהּ קָלִי, שֶׁחָזְרָה לוֹ מַלְכוּתוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברי הימים ב לג, יג): וַיְשִׁיבֵהוּ יְרוּשָׁלָיִם לְמַלְכוּתוֹ, וּבַמֶּה הֵשִׁיבוֹ, רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אַחָא בָּרוּחַ הֱשִׁיבוֹ, הֵיאַךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר מַשִּׁיב הָרוּחַ. וַתֹּאכַל וַתִּשְׂבַּע וַתֹּתַר, אוֹכֵל בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה, אוֹכֵל לִימוֹת הַמָּשִׁיחַ, אוֹכֵל לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא. דָּבָר אַחֵר, מְדַבֵּר בְּמֶלֶךְ הַמָּשִׁיחַ, גּשִׁי הֲלֹם, קְרוֹבִי לַמַּלְכוּת. וְאָכַלְתְּ מִן הַלֶּחֶם, זֶה לַחְמָהּ שֶׁל מַלְכוּת. וְטָבַלְתְּ פִּתֵּךְ בַּחֹמֶץ, אֵלּוּ הַיִּסּוּרִין, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה נג, ה): וְהוּא מְחֹלָל מִפְּשָׁעֵינוּ. וַתֵּשֶׁב מִצַּד הַקֹּצְרִים, שֶׁעֲתִידָה מַלְכוּתוֹ לִצּוֹד מִמֶּנּוּ לְשָׁעָה. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (זכריה יד, ב): וְאָסַפְתִּי אֶת כָּל הַגּוֹיִם אֶל יְרוּשָׁלָיִם לַמִּלְחָמָה וְנִלְכְּדָה הָעִיר. וַיִּצְבָּט לָהּ קָלִי, שֶׁהִיא עֲתִידָה לַחֲזֹר לוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה יא, ד): וְהִכָּה אֶרֶץ בְּשֵׁבֶט פִּיו. רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי לֵוִי כַּגּוֹאֵל הָרִאשׁוֹן כָּךְ גּוֹאֵל הָאַחֲרוֹן, מַה גּוֹאֵל הָרִאשׁוֹן נִגְלָה וְחָזַר וְנִכְסָה מֵהֶן, וְכַמָּה נִכְסָה מֵהֶן, שְׁלשָׁה חֳדָשִׁים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות ה, כ): וַיִּפְגְּעוּ אֶת משֶׁה וְאֶת אַהֲרֹן, אַף גּוֹאֵל אַחֲרוֹן נִגְלֶה לָהֶם וְחוֹזֵר וְנִכְסֶה מֵהֶם, וְכַמָּה נִכְסֶה מֵהֶם, רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא בְּשֵׁם רַבָּנָן אַרְבָּעִין וַחֲמִשָּׁה יוֹם, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (דניאל יב, יא): וּמֵעֵת הוּסַר הַתָּמִיד וגו', וּכְתִיב (דניאל יב, יא): אַשְׁרֵי הַמְחַכֶּה וְיַגִּיעַ וגו', אִילֵין יְתֵירַיָא מָה אִינּוּן, רַבִּי יִצְחָק בֶּן קְצַרְתָּה מִשּׁוּם רַבִּי יוֹנָה אֵלּוּ אַרְבָּעִים וַחֲמִשָּׁה יָמִים שֶׁיִּשְׂרָאֵל קוֹטְפִים מַלּוּחַ וְאוֹכְלִים, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (איוב ל, ד): הַקֹּטְפִים מַלּוּחַ עֲלֵי שִׂיחַ. לְאֵיכָן הוּא מוֹלִיכָן מִן הָאָרֶץ לְמִדְבַּר יְהוּדָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (הושע ב, טז): הִנֵּה אָנֹכִי מְפַתֶּיהָ וְהֹלַכְתִּיהָ הַמִּדְבָּר, מַאן דְּאָמַר לְמִדְבַּר סִיחוֹן וְעוֹג, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (הושע יב, י): עוֹד אוֹשִׁיבְךָ בָאֳהָלִים כִּימֵי מוֹעֵד, וְכָל שֶׁהוּא מַאֲמִין לוֹ, וְחָיָה. וּמִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מַאֲמִין לוֹ הוֹלֵךְ לְאֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם וְהֵן מְמִיתִין אוֹתוֹ. אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק בַּר מַרְיוֹן בַּסּוֹף הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא נִגְלָה עֲלֵיהֶם וּמוֹרִיד לָהֶן מָן, וְאֵין כָּל חָדָשׁ תַּחַת הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, גּשִׁי הֲלֹם, מְדַבֵּר בְּבֹעַז, קְרוֹבִי לְהָכָא, וְאָכַלְתְּ מִן הַלֶּחֶם, זֶה לַחְמָן שֶׁל קוֹצְרִים. וְטָבַלְתְּ פִּתֵּךְ בַּחֹמֶץ, דֶּרֶךְ הַקּוֹצְרִים לִהְיוֹתָן טוֹבְלִין בַּחֹמֶץ פִּתָּן, אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹנָתָן מִכָּאן שֶׁמּוֹצִיאִין מִינֵי חֻמְצָנִין לַגְּרָנוֹת. וַתֵּשֶׁב מִצַּד הַקֹּצְרִים, בְּצַד הַקּוֹצְרִים וַדַּאי. וַיִּצְבָּט לָהּ קָלִי, קַלִּיל זְעֵיר בִּשְׁתֵּי אֶצְבְּעוֹתָיו. אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק אַתְּ שָׁמַע מִינָהּ תַּרְתֵּי, אוֹ בְּרָכָה שָׁרְתָה בְּאֶצְבְּעוֹתָיו שֶׁל אוֹתוֹ צַדִּיק, אוֹ בְּרָכָה שָׁרְתָה בְּמֵעֶיהָ שֶׁל אוֹתָהּ צַדֶּקֶת, מִמַּה דִּכְתִיב: וַתֹּאכַל וַתִּשְׂבַּע וַתֹּתַר, נִרְאִין הַדְּבָרִים שֶׁהַבְּרָכָה שָׁרְתָה בְּמֵעֶיהָ שֶׁל אוֹתָהּ צַדֶּקֶת. אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק בַּר מַרְיוֹן בָּא הַכָּתוּב לְלַמֶּדְךָ שֶׁאִם אָדָם עוֹשֶׂה מִצְוָה יַעֲשֶׂנָּה בְּלֵבָב שָׁלֵם, שֶׁאִלּוּ הָיָה רְאוּבֵן יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מַכְתִּיב עָלָיו (בראשית לז, כא): וַיִּשְׁמַע רְאוּבֵן וַיַּצִּילֵהוּ מִיָּדָם, בִּכְתֵפוֹ הָיָה מוֹלִיכוֹ אֵצֶל אָבִיו. וְאִלּוּ הָיָה יוֹדֵעַ אַהֲרֹן שֶׁהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מַכְתִּיב עָלָיו (שמות ד, יד): הִנֵּה הוּא יֹצֵא לִקְרָאתֶךָ בְּתֻפִּים וּבִמְחוֹלוֹת הָיָה יוֹצֵא לִקְרָאתוֹ. וְאִלּוּ הָיָה יוֹדֵעַ בֹּעַז שֶׁהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מַכְתִּיב עָלָיו: וַיִּצְבָּט לָהּ קָלִי וַתֹּאכַל וַתִּשְׂבַּע וַתֹּתַר, עֲגָלוֹת מְפֻטָּמוֹת הָיָה מַאֲכִילָהּ. רַבִּי כֹּהֵן וְרַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ דְּסִכְנִין בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי לֵוִי לְשֶׁעָבַר הָיָה אָדָם עוֹשֶׂה מִצְוָה וְהַנָּבִיא כּוֹתְבָהּ, וְעַכְשָׁיו כְּשֶׁאָדָם עוֹשֶׂה מִצְוָה מִי כּוֹתְבָהּ, אֵלִיָּהוּ כּוֹתְבָהּ וּמֶלֶךְ הַמָּשִׁיחַ וְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא חוֹתֵם עַל יְדֵיהֶם, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (מלאכי ג, טז): אָז נִדְבְּרוּ יִרְאֵי ה' אִישׁ אֶל רֵעֵהוּ וגו'.

"And Boaz said unto her at meal-time: 'Come hither, and eat of the bread, and dip your morsel in the vinegar.' And she sat beside the reapers; and they reached her parched corn, and she did eat and was satisfied, and left thereof (Ruth 2:14)". Rabbi Yonatan began: "For this verse there are six interpretations: one is David. "Come here (halom)": that is draw near to kingship", and not "here" but rather "kingship", just as it is written: "that you have brought me thus far (halom)? (2 Samuel 7:18)". "And eat from the bread": that is the bread of kingship. "And dip your morsel in the vinegar": these are the chastenings, as it is said "O Hashem, rebuke me not in Thine anger, neither chasten me in Thy wrath. (Psalm 6:2)". "And she sat beside the reapers": that is the kingship was taken from him for a time, as Rav Huna said: "it was six months when David fled before Absalom and these are not included in the count, because he was making atonement for himself with a goat like a commoner. "And they reached her parched corn": that is his kingship was renewed, as it is said "Now know I that Hashem saves His anointed (Psalms 20:7)". "And she did eat and was satisfied, and left thereof": he eats in this world, and he eats in the days of the Messiah, and he will eat in the world to come. The second explanation for "come here" is Solomon. "Come here": that is draw near to kingship. "And eat from the bread": that is the bread of kingship. As it is said "And Solomon's bread for one day was thirty measures of fine flour, and threescore measures of meal (1 Kings 5:2)". "And dip your morsel in the vinegar": this is the stain on his works. "And she sat beside the reapers": that is the kingship was taken from him for a time, as Rabbi Yochai the son of Chanina said: "an angel descended in the guise of Solomon and sat on his throne. And Solomon was going to each door Israel, saying "I, Kohelet, was king over Israel in Jerusalem (Ecclesiastes 1:12)". And what did one woman from them do? She set before him a plate of beans and she struck him with a cane on his head and said to him "Does not Solomon sit on his throne? But you are saying "I am Solomon, king of Israel"". "And they reached her parched corn": that is his kingship was renewed. "And she did eat and was satisfied, and left thereof": he eats in this world, and he eats in the days of the Messiah, and he will eat in the world to come. The third explanation for "come here" is Hezekiah. "Come here": that is draw near to kingship. "And eat from the bread": that is the bread of kingship. "And dip your morsel in the vinegar": this is the chastisements as it is said "And Isaiah said: 'Let them take a cake of figs, and lay it for a plaster upon the boil, and he shall recover.' (Isaiah 38:21)". "And she sat beside the reapers": that is the kingship was taken from him for a time, as it is said: "'Thus says Hezekiah: This day is a day of trouble, and of rebuke (Isaiah 37:3)". "And they reached her parched corn": that is his kingship was renewed, as it is said: "Hezekiah king of Judah; so that he was exalted in the sight of all nations from thenceforth (2 Chronicles 32:23)". "And she did eat and was satisfied, and left thereof": he eats in this world, and he eats in the days of the Messiah, and he will eat in the world to come. The fourth explanation for "come here" is Manasseh. "Come here": that is draw near to kingship. "And eat from the bread": that is the bread of kingship. "And dip your morsel in the vinegar": this is because he made his deeds sour like evil deeds. "And she sat beside the reapers": that is the kingship was taken from him for a time, as it is written : "And Hashem spoke to Manasseh, and to his people; but they gave no heed. Wherefore Hashem brought upon them the captains of the host of the king of Assyria, who took Manasseh with hooks (2 Chronicles 33:10-11)". Rabbi Abba, the son of Kahana said: "with shackles". Rabbi Levi the son of Chayata: "they made for him a mule of bronze and they kindled a fire under it, and he was calling out to this and that idol "save me", and when he say that it was all in vain he said "I remember that my father read to me "When you are in distress and all these things have happened to you...for Hashem your God is a merciful God (Deuteronomy 4:30-31)." I will call to him and if he answers it is good and if he does not answer, then all is the dame and the whole thing is useless. Now at that time the ministering angels stood and closed all the windows of the sky and they said before the Ruler of the universe: "The man who said up an image in your Temple, and you going to accept his repentance?" And he said to them: "If I not not accept his repentance, then see, I am closing the door in the face of all who repent. What did the Holy One, blessed be He, do? He dug a hole (chatirah) beneath his throne of glory [for the prayer to enter], a place where the angels were not able to reach; see! it is written: "And he prayed unto Him; and He was entreated (vayye'ater) of him, and heard his supplication". Rabbi Levi said: "In Arabia they call chatirah a 'atirah". "And they reached her parched corn": that is his kingship was renewed, as it is said: "and brought (heshivo) him back to Jerusalem into his kingdom (2 Chronicles 33:13)". And how was he brought (heshivo) back? Rabbi Samuel in the name of Rabbi: "by a wind"; see how he said "he sends (mashiv) the wind." "And she did eat and was satisfied, and left thereof": he eats in this world, and he eats in the days of the Messiah, and he will eat in the world to come. The fifth explanation for "come here" is the King Messiah. "Come here": that is draw near to kingship. "And eat from the bread": that is the bread of kingship. "And dip your morsel in the vinegar": this is his chastisements, as it is said: " But he was wounded because of our transgressions (Isaiah 53:5)". "And she sat beside the reapers": that is the kingship was taken from him for a time, as it is said "I have gathered all the nations against Jerusalem to wage war and the city will be taken (Zechariah 14:2)". "And they reached her parched corn": that is his kingship was renewed, as it is said "and he shall smite the land with the rod of his mouth (Isaiah 11:4)". Rabbi Berechya said in the name of Rabbi Levi: "like the first redeemer so is the second redeemer. How did the first redeemer reveal himself and then returned and was hidden from them? How long was he hidden? Three months, as it is said: "And they met Moses and Aaron (Exodus 5:20)". How does the latter redeemer reveal himself and then return and be hidden from them? How long is he hidden? Rabbi Tanchuma said in the name of the Rabbis: "45 days. See! It is written: And from the time that the continual burnt-offering shall be taken away (Daniel 12:11); and see! It is written: "Happy is he that waits, and comes (Daniel 12:12)". What are all these extra days [beyond the 45 mentioned by Daniel]? Rabbi Yitzchak son of Qetzartah on the basis of Rabbi Jonah said: "these 45 days are the days when Israel plucks the salt-bush and eats it, as is written "They pluck salt-bush with wormwood (Job 30:4)". Where will he lead them? From the Land to the Desert of Judah, as it is said: "Therefore, behold, I will allure her, and bring her into the wilderness (Hosea 2:16)". But also some said to the Wilderness of Og and Sihon, as it is said: "I will yet again make thee to dwell in tents, as in the days of the appointed season (Hosea 12:10)". And everyone who believes in him, he will live. But everyone who does not believe in him, he will go to the nations of the world and they will kill him. Rabbi Yitzchak son of Maryon said: "at the end, the Holy One, blessed be He, will be revealed to them and he will cause manna to descend for them, as there is nothing new under the sun. The sixth explanation for "come here" is Boaz. "Come here": that is come here. "And eat from the bread": that is the bread of the reapers. "And dip your morsel in the vinegar": this is the custom of reapers to dip their bread in vinegar. Rabbi Yonatan said "from this they bring in kinds of food dipped in vinegar to granaries". "And she sat beside the reapers": that is at their side and that is all that is meant. "And they reached her parched corn": they pinched a bit with two fingers. Rabbi Yitzchak said: you have heard two things regarding this: either the blessing rested in the fingers of that righteous man or in the stomach of that righteous woman, and because of this it is written "And she did eat and was satisfied, and left thereof": from these words it appears that the blessing rested in the stomach of that righteous woman". Rabbi Yitzchak the son of Maryon said: "the scripture came to teach us that if a man is going to do a mitzvah, let it be done with his whole heart. Now if Reuben had known that the Holy One, blessed be He would write about him "And Reuben heard it, and delivered him out of their hand (Genesis 37:21)" on his shoulder he would have brought him to his father. And if Aaron had known that the Holy One, blessed be He would write about him "And also, behold, he comes forth to meet you (Exodus 4:14)" with tambourines and dances he would have met him. And if Boaz had known that the Holy One, blessed be He would write about him "And they reached her parched corn, and she did eat and was satisfied, and left thereof" he would have fed her with fattened calves". Rabbi Kohen and Rabbi Joshua of Sikhnin in the name of Rabbi Levi: "Previously when a man performed a mitzvah, a prophets wrote about it. But now, when a man performs a mitzvah who writes about it? Elijah writes it and the Messiah and the Holy One, blessed be He, seal it with their hands. See! It is written: "Then they that feared Hashem spoke one with another; and Hashem hearkened, and heard, and a book of remembrance was written before Him, for them that feared Hashem, and that thought upon His name (Malachi 3:16)"".

7 ז

וַתָּקָם לְלַקֵּט. וְגַם שֹׁל תָּשֹׁלּוּ לָהּ מִן הַצְּבָתִים (רות ב, טו טז), רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן הָיָה מְבַדֵּר סְלָעִים כְּדֵי לִזְכּוֹת בָּהֶן רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בַּר בָּא. רַבֵּנוּ הָיָה מְבַקֵּר גְּרִישִׂין כְּדֵי לִזְכּוֹת בָּהֶן רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן חֲלַפְתָּא.

"And when she rose up to glean, Boaz commanded his young men, saying: 'Let her glean even among the sheaves, and put her not to shame (Ruth 2:16-17)." Rabbi Yochanan used to scatter coins at random so Rabbi Shimon the son of Ba might gather them. Our Rabbi [Yehudah] used to leave out beans so that Rabbi Shimon the son of Chalafta might gather them.

8 ח

וַתְּלַקֵּט בַּשָֹּׂדֶה עַד הָעָרֶב וגו' (רות ב, יז), וְכַמָּה הִיא אֵיפָה, רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אָמַר שְׁלשָׁה סְאִין, דִּתְנֵינַן הָאֵיפָה שְׁלשָׁה סְאִין (רות ב, יח): וַתִּשָֹּׂא וַתָּבוֹא הָעִיר.

"So she gleaned in the field until even; and she beat out that which she had gleaned, and it was about an ephah of barley (Ruth 2:17)." And how much is an ephah? Rabbi Yochanan said: "three se'im as we have learned, the ephah is three se'im (Menachot 76b). "And she took it up, and went into the city (Ruth 2:18)".

9 ט

וַתֹּאמֶר לָהּ חֲמוֹתָהּ אֵיפֹה לִקַטְתְּ הַיּוֹם (רות ב, יט), תָּנֵי בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ, יוֹתֵר מִמַּה שֶּׁבַּעַל הַבַּיִת עוֹשֶׂה עִם הֶעָנִי, הֶעָנִי עוֹשֶׂה עִם בַּעַל הַבַּיִת, שֶׁכֵּן אָמְרָה רוּת לְנָעֳמִי שֵׁם הָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר עָשִׂיתִי עִמּוֹ הַיּוֹם, וְלֹא אָמְרָה אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה עִמִּי, אֶלָּא אֲשֶׁר עָשִׂיתִי עִמּוֹ, הַרְבֵּה פְּעוּלוֹת וְהַרְבֵּה טוֹבוֹת עָשִׂיתִי עִמּוֹ בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁהֶאֱכִילַנִי פְּרוּסָה אַחַת. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹסֵי יַעַן וּבְיַעַן, הוּא יַעַן הוּא עָנִי. אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁילֹה דְּנָוֶה הָאֶבְיוֹן הוֹנָךְ בֵּיהּ. אָמַר רַב נַחְמָן כְּתִיב (דברים טז, י): כִּי בִּגְלַל הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה, גַּלְגַּל הוּא שֶׁחוֹזֵר בָּעוֹלָם עַל הַכֹּל, דָּמֵי לְגַלְגַּל אַנְטִילְיָיא דְּמָלֵא מִתְרוֹקֵן דְּמִתְרוֹקֵן מִתְמַלֵּי. בַּר קַפָּרָא אָמַר אֵין לְךָ אָדָם שֶׁאֵינוֹ בָּא לְמִדָּה זוֹ, וְאִם לֹא הוּא, בָּא בְּנוֹ, וְאִם לֹא בְּנוֹ, בָּא בֶּן בְּנוֹ. תָּנֵי רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר בֶּן יַעֲקֹב אוֹמֵר נִקְמָתָן שֶׁל עוֹבְדֵי כּוֹכָבִים בְּיַד יִשְׂרָאֵל וְנִקְמָתָן שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּיַד עֲנִיֵּיהֶן. נִקְמָתָן שֶׁל עוֹבְדֵי כּוֹכָבִים בְּיַד יִשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (יחזקאל כה, יד): וְנָתַתִּי אֶת נִקְמָתִי בֶּאֱדוֹם בְּיַד עַמִּי יִשְׂרָאֵל. נִקְמָתָן שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּיַד עֲנִיֵּיהֶן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים טו, ט): וְקָרָא עָלֶיךָ אֶל ה' וְהָיָה בְךָ חֵטְא. אָמַר רַבִּי אָבוּן הֶעָנִי הַזֶּה עוֹמֵד עַל פִּתְחֲךָ וְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עוֹמֵד עַל יְמִינוֹ, אִם נָתַתָּ לוֹ, זֶה שֶׁעוֹמֵד עַל יְמִינוֹ מְבָרֶכְךָ, וְאִם לָאו הוּא עָתִיד לִפָּרַע מֵאוֹתוֹ הָאִישׁ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קט, לא): כִּי יַעֲמֹד לִימִין אֶבְיוֹן. אָמַר רַבִּי אַבָּהוּ צְרִיכִין אָנוּ לְהַחֲזִיק טוֹבָה לָרַמָּאִין שֶׁבָּהֶן. דִּלְמָא רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן וְרֵישׁ לָקִישׁ הֲווֹ נָחֲתֵי מִסְחוּ בַּהֲדָא דֵמוּסְיָין דִּטְבֶרְיָא, וּפָגַע בְּהוֹן חַד מִסְכֵּן, אֲמַר לְהוֹן זְכוֹן בִּי, אָמְרִין לֵיהּ כִּי נָפְקִין אֲנַן זַכְיָין בָּךְ, נָפְקִין אַשְׁכַּחוּן יָתֵיהּ דְּמִית, אָמְרִין הוֹאִיל וְלָא זָכִינַן בֵּיהּ בְּחַיּוֹהִי נְטַפֵּל בְּמִיתָתֵיהּ, כִּי קָיְימִין מַסְחֲיִין יָתֵיהּ אַשְׁכְּחוּן כִּיס דְּדִנְרֵי גַּבֵּיהּ, אָמְרִין יָאוּת אָמַר רַבִּי אַבָּהוּ צְרִיכִין אָנוּ לְהַחֲזִיק טוֹבָה לָרַמָּאִין שֶׁבָּהֶן, שֶׁאִלּוּ לֹא הָרַמָּאִין שֶׁבָּהֶן, כֵּיוָן שֶׁרוֹאֶה אָדָם אֶחָד מֵהֶן שׁוֹאֵל צְדָקָה מִמֶּנּוּ וְלֹא הָיָה נוֹתֵן לוֹ מִיָּד, הָיָה נֶעֱנַשׁ לְמִיתָה.

"And her mother-in-law said unto her: 'Where hast thou gleaned to-day? (Ruth 2:19)". It was taught in the name of Rabbi Joshua: "more than what the master of the house does with the poor man, the poor man does with the master of the house, and so Ruth said to Naomi "The man's name with whom (imo) I worked today (Ruth 2:19)" and she did not say "the man who worked with me (imi)"; rather "with whom I worked": "the magnitude of deeds and magnitude of good I did with him for the sake of one small bit of food which he gave me to eat"". Rabbi Yose said "because and because (ya'an uveya'an); the word ya'an, "because" is an anagram for 'ani, "poor". Rabbi Shiloh from Naveh: "wealth depends on the poor". Rabbi Nachman: "it is written: "“Because of that (biglal) Hashem your God will bless you in all your work (Deut. 15:10)" this is a wheel (galgal) which goes around and around the world for everyone, like the wheel of a bilge-water pump that fills the empty and empties the full. Bar Kappara said "you have no man that does not come to this destiny of poverty, and if he does not come, his son does, and if not his son, then his grandson comes". It was taught that Rabbi Eliezer the son of Jacob said: "the vengeance of the Gentiles is by the hand of Israel, and the vengeance of Israel by the hand of their poor, as it is said "[and your eye be evil against thy needy brother, and you give him nought;] and he cry unto Hashem against you, and it be sin for you (Deuteronomy 15:9)"". Rabbi Avihun said: "this poor man is standing at your gate and the Holy One, blessed be He, is standing at his right hand; if you give to the poor man, the one standing at his right blesses you; if you do not, he is going to punish you because of this very man, as it is said: “Because He will stand at the right hand of the needy (Psalm 109:31)". Rabbi Abbahu said "we must strive to strengthen the poor, even to the fraudulent from them" because Rabbi Yochanan and Reish Lakish were going to bathe in the bath house of Tiberias and one of the poor harassed them, and he said to them "give me something", and they said to him "when we come out we will give you something." When they came out they found that he was dead. They said: "we were not able to help him alive, so let us help him since he is dead." When they had washed his body they found a bag of dinars under his body. And they said "it is fine". And so Rabbi Abbahu said: "we must strive to strengthen the poor, even to the fraudulent from them, for if there were not frauds among them then when one man from them asked for charity from someone and he did not give it to him rightaway then he would be immediately killed.

10 י

וַתֹּאמֶר נָעֳמִי לְכַלָּתָהּ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לַה' אֲשֶׁר לֹא עָזַב חַסְדּוֹ אֶת הַחַיִּים (רות ב, כ), שֶׁזָּן וּפִרְנֵס אֶת הַחַיִּים. וְאֶת הַמֵּתִים, שֶׁנִּטְפַּל בְּתַכְרִיכֵיהוֹן. וַתֹּאמֶר לָהּ נָעֳמִי קָרוֹב לָנוּ הָאִישׁ מִגֹּאֲלֵנוּ הוּא. אָמַר רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן בֹּעַז גְּדוֹל הַדּוֹר הָיָה, וְהָאִשָּׁה עָשְׂתָה אוֹתוֹ קָרוֹב, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: קָרוֹב לָנוּ הָאִישׁ.

"And Naomi said unto her daughter-in-law: 'Blessed be he of Hashem, who has not left off His kindness to the living and to the dead.' (Ruth 2:20)": that is the feeding and support of "the living". "And the dead" that is being attentive to their shrouds. "And Naomi said unto her: 'The man is nigh of kin unto us, one of our near kinsmen. (Ruth 2:20)". Rabbi Samuel the son of Nachman said: "Boaz was great in that generation and the woman made him a relative, as it is said "The man is nigh of kin unto us"".

11 יא

וַתֹּאמֶר רוּת הַמּוֹאֲבִיָּה גַּם כִּי אָמַר אֵלַי עִם הַנְּעָרִים אֲשֶׁר לִי תִּדְבָּקִין (רות ב, כא), אָמַר רַבִּי חָנִין בַּר לֵוִי בְּוַדַּאי מוֹאֲבִיָּה הִיא זוֹ, הוּא אָמַר: וְכֹה תִדְבָּקִין עִם נַעֲרוֹתָי. וְהִיא אָמְרָה עִם הַנְּעָרִים אֲשֶׁר לִי. וַתִּדְבַּק בְּנַעֲרוֹת בֹּעַז, אָמַר רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן מִתְּחִלַּת קְצִיר שְׂעוֹרִים עַד כְּלוֹת קְצִיר הַחִטִּים שְׁלשָׁה חֳדָשִׁים. וַתֵּשֶׁב אֶת חֲמוֹתָהּ, וַתֹּאמֶר לָהּ נָעֳמִי חֲמוֹתָהּ בִּתִּי הֲלֹא אֲבַקֵּשׁ לָךְ מָנוֹחַ. וְעַתָּה הֲלֹא בֹעַז מֹדַעְתָּנוּ.

"And Ruth the Moabitess said: 'Yea, he said unto me: You shall keep fast by my young men, until they have ended all my harvest.' (Ruth 2:21)". Rabbi Chanin the son of Levi said: "She really was a Moabitess, considering he said "you shall stay near my maidens (Ruth 2:8)". And she said instead "You shall keep fast by my young men". "So she kept fast by the maidens of Boaz [to glean unto the end of barley harvest and of wheat harvest; and she dwelt with her mother-in-law] (Ruth 2:23)". Rabbi Samuel the son of Nachman said: "from the end of the barley harvest to the end of the wheat harvest is three months". "And she dwelt with her mother-in-law...And Naomi her mother-in-law said unto her: 'My daughter, shall I not seek rest for thee, that it may be well with thee? And now is there not Boaz our kinsman (Ruth 2:23-3:2)".

12 יב

וְרָחַצְתְּ וָסַכְתְּ (רות ג, ג), וְרָחַצְתְּ מִטִּנּוֹפֶת עֲבוֹדַת כּוֹכָבִים שֶׁלָּךְ, וָסַכְתְּ אֵלּוּ מִצְווֹת וּצְדָקוֹת. וְשַׂמְתְּ שִׂמְלֹתַיִךְ עָלַיִךְ, וְכִי עֲרֻמָּה הָיְתָה, אֶלָּא אֵלּוּ בִּגְדֵי שַׁבְּתָא, מִכָּאן אָמַר רַבִּי חֲנִינָא צָרִיךְ אָדָם לִהְיוֹת לוֹ שְׁנֵי עֲטָפִים, אֶחָד לַחֹל וְאֶחָד לַשַּׁבָּת, וְכָךְ דְּרָשָׁהּ רַבִּי שִׂמְלָאי בְּצִבּוּרָא, בְּכוֹן חַבְרַיָא אָמְרוּ כַּעֲטִיפָתֵנוּ בַּחֹל כָּךְ עֲטִיפָתֵנוּ בְּשַׁבְּתָא. אֲמַר לְהוֹן צְרִיכִין אָנוּ לְשַׁנּוֹת. וְיָרַדְתְּ הַגֹּרֶן, אָמְרָה לָהּ זְכוּתִי תֵּרֵד עִמָּךְ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וְיָרַדְתְּ הַגֹּרֶן, מִכָּאן שֶׁאֵין עוֹשִׂין גְּרָנוֹת אֶלָּא בַּנָּמוּךְ שֶׁבָּעִיר. דִּלְמָא רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן חֲלַפְתָּא קִבֵּל מֵרַבִּי חִיָּא חֲדָא חֲקַל, אָמַר לוֹ כְּמִין הִיא עָבְדָא, אָמַר לוֹ מֵאָה כּוֹרִין זָרְעַת, וַאֲעָלַת וַעֲבַדַּת פִּרְיָהּ מֵאָה. אָמַר לֵיהּ לָא אֲמַר מָרִי דְּהִיא עָבְדָּא מְאָה כּוֹרִין זַרְעַת וַאֲעָלַת וַעֲבַדַּת פִּרְיָהּ מֵאָה, אֲמַר לֵיהּ אִין. אֲמַר לֵיהּ וְהִיא עֲבַדַּת פִּרְיָהּ. אֲמַר לֵיהּ הָן אַקֵימְתָּא אִדְּרָא, אָמַר בַּגָּבוֹהַּ שֶׁבָּעִיר, אָמַר לוֹ וְלֹא כֵן כְּתִיב וְיָרַדְתְּ הַגֹּרֶן, אַף עַל פִּי כֵן אֲזַל נְפִיחָהּ וְהִיא עָבְדָה שְׁאָרָא.

"Wash yourself, and anoint yourself (Ruth 3:3): "wash" yourself from the soiling of idolatry, "and anoint": this means with mitzvot and righteousness. "And put your raiment upon thee" because she was naked, but rather "Shabbat clothes". From this Rabbi Chanina said: "it is required that a man have for himself two cloaks, one for weekdays and one of Shabbat", and thus Rabbi Simlai interpreted in public and they wept saying "as we dress on weekdays, so we dress on Shabbat." He said to them, "we are required to change them up". "And descend to the threshing floor": she said to her "my merit will go down with you". Another explanation for "And descend to the threshing floor", from here that they do not make threshing floors except in the lower part in the city. It is said that Rabbi Shimon the son of Chalafta bought a certain field from Rabbi Chiyya. Rabbi Shimon said: "how much does it produce?" Rabbi Chiyya said "100 kors". So he sowed it and it grew and produced less than 100. And Rabbi Shimon said to Rabbi Chiyya: "did not my master say that this produces 100 kors? So I sowed it and it grew and produced less than 100". He replied to him: "yes". And he said "but it produced less". He responded "where did you set up the threshing floor?". He said: "in the upper city". Rabbi Chiyya responded: "isn't it written "and go down to the threshing floor" and so because of this sift the chaff and it will produce the balance".

13 יג

וִיְהִי בְשָׁכְבוֹ; וַתֹּאמֶר אֵלֶיהָ כֹּל אֲשֶׁר תֹּאמְרִי אֵלַי (רות ג, ד ה), אֵלַי קְרִי וְלֹא כְתִיב, אָמְרָה לָהּ שֶׁמָּא יָבוֹא אֶחָד מִן הַכְּלָבִים וְיִזְדַּוֵּג לִי, וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן עָלַי לְיַשֵּׁב הַדְּבָרִים.

"And it shall be, when he lies down, that you will mark the place where he shall lie, and you will go in, and uncover his feet, and lay down; and he will tell thee what you will do. And she said unto her: 'All that thou say unto me (elai) I will do. (Ruth 3:4-5)". The word elai is read but it is not written. She said to her: "What if one from the dogs should come and rape me? But still it is my duty to fulfill it according to your words."

14 יד

וַתֵּרֶד הַגֹּרֶן (רות ג, ו), בְּמוֹאָב כְּתִיב (ירמיה מח, ל): אֲנִי יָדַעְתִּי נְאֻם ה' עֶבְרָתוֹ וְלֹא כֵן בַּדָּיו, רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בַּר פַּפָּא וְרַבִּי סִימוֹן וְרַבָּנָן, רַבִּי חֲנִינָא אָמַר תְּחִלַּת עִבּוּרָהּ שֶׁל מוֹאָב לֹא הָיָה לְשֵׁם שָׁמַיִם אֶלָּא לְשֵׁם זְנוּת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר כח, א): וַיֵּשֶׁב יִשְׂרָאֵל בַּשִּׁטִּים וגו', בַּדָּיו לֹא כֵן עָשׂוּ, לְשֵׁם זְנוּת אֶלָּא לְשֵׁם שָׁמַיִם. וַתַּעַשׂ בַּדָּיו לֹא נֶאֱמַר, אֶלָּא לֹא כֵן עָשׂוּ לְשֵׁם שָׁמַיִם אֶלָּא לְשֵׁם זְנוּת. וַיֵּשֶׁב יִשְׂרָאֵל בַּשִּׁטִּים וַיָּחֶל הָעָם לִזְנוֹת, רַבָּנָן אָמְרֵי תְּחִלַּת עִבּוּרָהּ לְשֵׁם זְנוּת, וְסוֹפָהּ לְשֵׁם שָׁמַיִם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: וַתֵּרֶד הַגּוֹרֶן וַתַּעַשׂ.

"And she went down unto the threshing-floor (Ruth 3:6)". About Moab it is written: "I know his arrogance, the word of Hashem, that it is ill-founded, his boastings have wrought nothing well-founded (Jeremiah 48:30)". Rabbi Chanina the son of Kappa and Rabbi Simon and the Rabbis: Rabbi Chanina said: "the arrogance of Moab was not for the name of Heaven but for the name of promiscuity, as it is said "And Israel dwelled in Shittim and the people began to be promiscuous with the daughters of Moab (Numbers 28:1)". "His boastings have wrought nothing well-founded": in the name of promiscuity but rather in the name of Heaven". It doesn't say "and you do nothing well-founded" but rather "His boastings have wrought nothing well-founded": they did not do anything for the name of Heaven but rather for the name of promiscuity. "And Israel dwelled in Shittim and the people began to be promiscuous with": the Rabbis said that at the beginning Moab's boasting was for the name of promiscuity but in the end in the name of Heaven, as it is said "And she descended to the threshing floor and did".

15 טו

וַיֹּאכַל בֹּעַז וַיֵּשְׁתְּ וַיִּיטַב לִבּוֹ, לָמָּה וַיִּיטַב לִבּוֹ, שֶׁבֵּרַךְ עַל מְזוֹנוֹ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וַיִּיטַב לִבּוֹ, שֶׁאָכַל מִינֵי מְתִיקָה אַחַר הַמָּזוֹן, שֶׁהִיא מַרְגֶּלֶת לָשׁוֹן לַתּוֹרָה. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וַיִּיטַב לִבּוֹ, שֶׁעָסַק בְּדִבְרֵי תוֹרָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קיט, עב): טוֹב לִי תוֹרַת פִּיךָ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וַיִּיטַב לִבּוֹ, שֶׁהָיָה מְבַקֵּשׁ אִשָּׁה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי יח, כב): מָצָא אִשָּׁה מָצָא טוֹב. וַיָּבֹא לִשְׁכַּב בִּקְצֵה הָעֲרֵמָה, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה נְשִׂיאָה בְּעָא קוֹמֵי רַבִּי פִּנְחָס בַּר חָמָא, בֹּעַז גְּדוֹל הַדּוֹר הָיָה, וְאַתְּ אֲמַרְתְּ בִּקְצֵה הָעֲרֵמָה, אָמַר לוֹ לְפִי שֶׁהָיוּ אוֹתוֹ הַדּוֹר שְׁטוּפִים בְּזִמָּה, וְהָיוּ נוֹתְנִין שָׂכָר לַזּוֹנוֹת מִן הַגְּרָנוֹת, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (הושע ט, א): אַל תִּשְׂמַח יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶל גִּיל כָּעַמִּים וגו', וְאֵין דַּרְכָּן שֶׁל צַדִּיקִים לַעֲשׂוֹת כֵּן, וְלֹא עוֹד אֶלָּא לְפִי שֶׁהַצַּדִּיקִים רְחוֹקִים מִן הַגָּזֵל, וְעַל כֵּן מָמוֹנָם חָבִיב עֲלֵיהֶם.

"And when Boaz had eaten and drunk, and his heart was merry (Ruth 3:7)": why was "his heart merry"? Because he had blessed his food. Another interpretation: "And his heart was merry" because he had eaten dessert after the meal and that accustoms the tongue to Torah. Another interpretation: "And his heart was merry" because he was engaged in the words of the Torah, as it is said: "Good to me is the Torah of your mouth (Psalm 119:72). Another interpretation: "And his heart was merry" because he was seeking a wife, as it is said "He who has found a wife has found good (Proverbs 18:22)". "He went to lie down at the end of the heap of corn (Ruth 3:7)". Rabbi Judah the Nasi asked Rabbi Pinchas the son of Chama: "Boaz was a great man of his generation, but it says "at the end of the heap of corn"? And Rabbi Pinchas replied: "Because that very generation was obsessed with promiscuity, and they gave money to prostitutes from their threshing floors. See! It is written "Rejoice not, O Israel, unto exultation, like the peoples, for you have gone astray from your God, you hast loved a harlot's hire upon every corn-floor (Hosea 9:1)". And this was not the way of the righteous to do this, and further, it being the case that the mouth of the righteous is far from stolen money, so their wealth is valued by them".