Rosh Hashanah 9aראש השנה ט׳ א
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
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9aט׳ א

ורבנן שנת חמשים אתה מונה ואי אתה מונה שנת חמשים ואחת לאפוקי מדר' יהודה דאמר שנת חמשים עולה לכאן ולכאן קא משמע לן דלא

And the Rabbis, who do not require an additional verse to derive that the Jubilee Year does not extend until Yom Kippur of the fifty-first year, derive a this halakha from the verse: You count the fiftieth year as the Jubilee Year alone, but you do not count the fiftieth year as the Jubilee Year and also as the first year of the next Sabbatical cycle. This halakha comes to exclude the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, who said that the fiftieth year is counted for here and for there, both as the Jubilee Year and also as the first year of the next Sabbatical cycle. Lest someone think that that is the case, therefore, the verse teaches us that this is not so; rather, the fiftieth year is the Jubilee Year, and the following year is the first year of the next Sabbatical cycle.

ודמוסיפין מחול על קדש מנלן

§ Apropos of the discussion of extending the Jubilee year, the Gemara asks: From where do we derive the principle that one extends a sanctified time period by adding from the profane to the sacred at both ends?

דתניא (שמות לד, כא) בחריש ובקציר תשבות ר"ע אומר אינו צריך לומר חריש וקציר של שביעית שהרי כבר נאמר (ויקרא כה, ד) שדך לא תזרע וגו' אלא חריש של ערב שביעית הנכנס לשביעית וקציר של שביעית היוצא למוצאי שביעית

As it is taught in a baraita: The verse states: “In plowing and in harvest you shall rest” (Exodus 34:21). Rabbi Akiva says: It is unnecessary to state this about plowing and harvesting during the Sabbatical Year, as it is already stated: “But in the seventh year shall be a Shabbat of solemn rest for the land, a Shabbat for the Lord; you shall neither sow your field, nor prune your vineyard” (Leviticus 25:4). Rather, the verse: “In plowing and in harvest you shall rest,” is referring to plowing in the year preceding the Sabbatical Year going into the Sabbatical Year, i.e., plowing in the sixth year that will benefit the crops growing in the Sabbatical Year, and about harvesting of the Sabbatical Year going into the year that follows the Sabbatical Year, i.e., harvesting grain that grew in the Sabbatical Year in the eighth year. This teaches that there is a requirement to add extra time to the sanctity of the Sabbatical Year, and not work the land both before and after.

ר' ישמעאל אומר מה חריש רשות אף קציר רשות יצא קציר העומר שהוא מצוה

The baraita continues: Rabbi Yishmael says that the verse: “In plowing and in harvest you shall rest,” is not referring to the prohibition against farming the land during the Sabbatical Year as Rabbi Akiva explains. Rather, he interprets it according to the simple meaning of the verse, as referring to the prohibition against performing labor on Shabbat. The reason that the verse mentions these two particular forms of labor is to teach that just as the type of plowing that is prohibited during the Sabbatical Year is an otherwise voluntary act, as plowing is never required by the Torah, so too, the harvesting that is prohibited during that year is only voluntary harvesting. This comes to exclude the harvesting of the omer from the prohibition, as it is a mitzva. The barley for the omer must be harvested on the sixteenth of Nisan. Consequently, it is permitted to harvest the omer even during the Sabbatical Year.

ורבי ישמעאל מוסיפין מחול על קדש מנ"ל נפקא ליה מדתניא (ויקרא כג, לב) ועניתם את נפשותיכם בתשעה יכול בתשעה תלמוד לומר בערב אי בערב יכול משתחשך ת"ל בתשעה הא כיצד מתחיל ומתענה מבעוד יום מלמד שמוסיפין מחול על קדש

The Gemara asks: If so, from where does Rabbi Yishmael derive this principle that one extends a sacred time period by adding from the profane to the sacred both before and after? The Gemara answers: He derives it from that which is taught in a baraita: The verse states, in reference to Yom Kippur: “And you shall afflict your souls on the ninth of the month in the evening” (Leviticus 23:32). One might have thought that one must begin to fast the entire day on the ninth of the month. Therefore, the verse states: “In the evening.” But if it is so that Yom Kippur begins in the evening, one might have thought that one need only begin to fast from when it is dark, after nightfall, when the tenth day of the month begins. Therefore, the verse states: “On the ninth.” How so; how is this to be accomplished? One begins to fast on the ninth of the month while it is still day. This teaches that one extends a sacred time period by adding at the beginning from the profane to the sacred.

אין לי אלא בכניסתו ביציאתו מנין ת"ל (ויקרא כג, לב) מערב עד ערב

From here I have derived only that this addition is made at the beginning of Yom Kippur. But from where do I derive that a similar addition is made at the end of Yom Kippur? The verse states: “From evening to evening shall you rest on your Shabbat” (Leviticus 23:32), which teaches that just as Yom Kippur is extended at the beginning, so too, it is extended at the end.

אין לי אלא יוה"כ שבתות מנין ת"ל תשבתו ימים טובים מנין ת"ל שבתכם הא כיצד כל מקום שיש בו שבות מוסיפין מחול על קדש

From here I have derived only that an extension is added to Yom Kippur. From where is it derived that one must also extend Shabbat? The verse states: “You shall rest [tishbetu],” which is referring to Yom Kippur but alludes to Shabbat. From where do I know that the same applies to Festivals? The verse states: “Your Shabbat [shabbatkhem],” your day of rest. How so? Wherever there is a mitzva of resting, be it Shabbat or a Festival, one adds from the profane to the sacred, extending the sacred time at both ends.

ור"ע האי ועניתם את נפשותיכם בתשעה מאי עביד ליה מיבעי ליה לכדתני חייא בר רב מדפתי דתני חייא בר רב מדפתי ועניתם את נפשותיכם בתשעה וכי בתשעה מתענין והלא בעשירי מתענין אלא לומר לך כל האוכל ושותה בתשיעי מעלה עליו הכתוב

The Gemara asks: And Rabbi Akiva, who learns that one adds from the profane to the sacred from the verse dealing with the Sabbatical Year, what does he do with this verse: “And you shall afflict your souls on the ninth of the month in the evening”? The Gemara answers: He requires it for that which was taught by Ḥiyya bar Rav of Difti, as Ḥiyya bar Rav of Difti taught the following baraita: The verse states: “And you shall afflict your souls on the ninth of the month.” Is the fasting on the ninth? But isn’t the fasting on Yom Kippur on the tenth of Tishrei? Rather, this verse comes to teach you: Whoever eats and drinks on the ninth, thereby preparing himself for the fast on the next day, the verse ascribes him credit