שֶׁהַחֹדֶשׁ מִתְכַּסֶּה בּוֹ — הֱוֵי אוֹמֵר זֶה רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה. וּכְתִיב: ״כִּי חֹק לְיִשְׂרָאֵל הוּא מִשְׁפָּט לֵאלֹהֵי יַעֲקֹב״. on which the moon is covered, i.e., hidden? You must say that this is Rosh HaShana, which is the only Festival that occurs at the beginning of a month, when the moon cannot be seen. And it is written in the next verse: “For this is a statute for Israel, a judgment of the God of Jacob” (Psalms 81:5), implying that this is the day of judgment.
תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן: ״כִּי חֹק לְיִשְׂרָאֵל הוּא מִשְׁפָּט לֵאלֹהֵי יַעֲקֹב״ — מְלַמֵּד שֶׁאֵין בֵּית דִּין שֶׁל מַעְלָה נִכְנָסִין לַדִּין אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן קִידְּשׁוּ בֵּית דִּין שֶׁל מַטָּה אֶת הַחֹדֶשׁ. With regard to this same verse, the Sages taught in a baraita: “For this is a statute for Israel, a judgment of the God of Jacob”; this teaches that the heavenly court does not assemble for judgment until the earthly court has sanctified the month, once the Sanhedrin has declared that day as Rosh HaShana.
תַּנְיָא אִידַּךְ: ״כִּי חֹק לְיִשְׂרָאֵל הוּא״ — אֵין לִי אֶלָּא לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, לְאוּמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם מִנַּיִן? תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר: ״מִשְׁפָּט לֵאלֹהֵי יַעֲקֹב״. אִם כֵּן, מָה תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר: ״כִּי חֹק לְיִשְׂרָאֵל״, מְלַמֵּד שֶׁיִּשְׂרָאֵל נִכְנָסִין תְּחִילָּה לַדִּין. It is taught in another baraita: The verse states: “For this is a statute for Israel.” From here I have derived only that this is the day of judgment for the Jewish people; from where do I derive that it is also the day of judgment for the gentile nations of the world? Therefore, the verse states: “A judgment for the God of Jacob,” Who rules over the entire world. If so, what is the meaning when the verse states: “A statute for Israel”? This teaches that the Jewish people enter for judgment first.
כִּדְרַב חִסְדָּא. דְּאָמַר רַב חִסְדָּא: מֶלֶךְ וְצִיבּוּר — מֶלֶךְ נִכְנָס תְּחִילָּה לַדִּין, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״מִשְׁפַּט עַבְדּוֹ וּמִשְׁפַּט עַמּוֹ״. The Gemara notes: This is in accordance with the opinion of Rav Ḥisda, as Rav Ḥisda said: When a king and a community are brought before God for judgment, the king is brought in for judgment first, as it is stated: “And let these my words, with which I have made supplication before the Lord, be near to the Lord our God day and night, that He make the judgment of His servant and the judgment of His people Israel at all times” (I Kings 8:59). This verse is from King Solomon’s prayer at the dedication of the Temple, and he is referring to himself a servant of God.
מַאי טַעְמָא? אִי בָּעֵית אֵימָא: לָאו אוֹרַח אַרְעָא לְמֵיקַם מַלְכָּא אַבָּרַאי, וְאִיבָּעֵית אֵימָא: מִקַּמֵּי דְּלִיפּוֹשׁ חֲרוֹן אַף. What is the reason that the king is brought in first? If you wish, say that it is not proper conduct for the king to stand outside and wait for the trial of his subjects to come to an end. And if you wish, say instead that the king is brought in first so that he may be judged before God’s anger intensifies due to the sins of the community, and he may thereby be saved from overly harsh judgment.
וְלַשְּׁמִיטִּין. מְנָלַן? דִּכְתִיב: ״וּבַשָּׁנָה הַשְּׁבִיעִית שַׁבַּת שַׁבָּתוֹן יִהְיֶה לָאָרֶץ״, וְגָמַר ״שָׁנָה״ ״שָׁנָה״ מִתִּשְׁרִי, דִּכְתִיב: ״מֵרֵאשִׁית הַשָּׁנָה״. § The mishna teaches: The first of Tishrei is also the New Year for calculating Sabbatical Years. The Gemara asks: From where do we derive this? As it is written: “But in the seventh year shall be a Shabbat of solemn rest for the land” (Leviticus 25:4), and we learn by way of a verbal analogy between one instance of the word “year” and another instance of the word “year” that the year begins for this purpose from Tishrei, as it is written: “From the beginning of the year” (Deuteronomy 11:12). The latter verse is referring to the year that begins at the onset of the rainy season, i.e., Tishrei.
וְלִגְמוֹר ״שָׁנָה״ ״שָׁנָה״ מִנִּיסָן, דִּכְתִיב: ״רִאשׁוֹן הוּא לָכֶם לְחׇדְשֵׁי הַשָּׁנָה״! דָּנִין שָׁנָה שֶׁאֵין עִמָּהּ חֳדָשִׁים מִשָּׁנָה שֶׁאֵין עִמָּהּ חֳדָשִׁים, וְאֵין דָּנִין שָׁנָה שֶׁאֵין עִמָּהּ חֳדָשִׁים מִשָּׁנָה שֶׁיֵּשׁ עִמָּהּ חֳדָשִׁים. The Gemara raises a difficulty: But let us learn by way of a verbal analogy between one instance of the word “year” and another instance of the word “year” and conclude that for this purpose the year begins from Nisan, as it is written: “It shall be the first month of the year to you” (Exodus 12:2), and there the reference is to Nisan. The Gemara answers: The Sages derive the meaning of the word “year” that appears in the verse about the Sabbatical Year, where months are not mentioned with it, from the word “year” that appears in the verse in Deuteronomy above, where months are also not mentioned with it. And they do not derive the meaning of the word “year” where months are not mentioned with it from the word “year” that appears in the verse where months are mentioned with it, i.e., “It shall be the first month of the year for you.”
וְלַיּוֹבְלוֹת. יוֹבְלוֹת בְּאֶחָד בְּתִשְׁרִי הוּא? יוֹבְלוֹת בַּעֲשָׂרָה בְּתִשְׁרִי הוּא, דִּכְתִיב: ״בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים תַּעֲבִירוּ שׁוֹפָר״! § The mishna teaches: The first of Tishrei is also the New Year for Jubilee Years. The Gemara asks: Is the New Year for Jubilee Years on the first of Tishrei? Isn’t the New Year for Jubilee Years on the tenth of Tishrei, Yom Kippur? As it is written: “Then shall you cause the shofar to sound on the tenth day of the seventh month, on Yom Kippur shall you sound the shofar throughout all your land. And you shall hallow the fiftieth year, and proclaim liberty throughout all the land to all its inhabitants; it shall be a Jubilee for you” (Leviticus 25:9–10).
הָא מַנִּי — רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל בְּנוֹ שֶׁל רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן בֶּן בְּרוֹקָא הִיא. דְּתַנְיָא: ״וְקִדַּשְׁתֶּם אֵת שְׁנַת הַחֲמִשִּׁים שָׁנָה״, מָה תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר? לְפִי שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר ״בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים״ — יָכוֹל לֹא תְּהֵא מִתְקַדֶּשֶׁת אֶלָּא מִיּוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים וְאֵילָךְ, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר: ״וְקִדַּשְׁתֶּם אֵת שְׁנַת הַחֲמִשִּׁים״, מְלַמֵּד שֶׁמִּתְקַדֶּשֶׁת וְהוֹלֶכֶת מִתְּחִילָּתָהּ. The Gemara answers: In accordance with whose opinion is this mishna? It is the opinion of Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Beroka, as it is taught in a baraita: What is the meaning when the verse states: “And you shall hallow the fiftieth year”? Since it is stated that the shofar is blown “on Yom Kippur,” one might have thought that the year is sanctified only from Yom Kippur and onward. Therefore, the verse states: “And you shall hallow the fiftieth year,” which teaches that the year is sanctified from its beginning onward, from the first of Tishrei, when the year begins.
מִכָּאן אָמַר רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל בְּנוֹ שֶׁל רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן בֶּן בְּרוֹקָא: מֵרֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה עַד יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים לֹא הָיוּ עֲבָדִים נִפְטָרִין לְבָתֵּיהֶן, וְלֹא מִשְׁתַּעְבְּדִין לַאֲדוֹנֵיהֶם — אֶלָּא אוֹכְלִין וְשׁוֹתִין וּשְׂמֵחִין, וְעַטְרוֹתֵיהֶן בְּרָאשֵׁיהֶן. כֵּיוָן שֶׁהִגִּיעַ יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים, תָּקְעוּ בֵּית דִּין בְּשׁוֹפָר, נִפְטְרוּ עֲבָדִים לְבָתֵּיהֶן וְשָׂדוֹת חוֹזְרוֹת לְבַעְלֵיהֶן. From here, Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Beroka, said: From Rosh HaShana until Yom Kippur of the Jubilee Year, Hebrew slaves were not released to their homes because the shofar had not yet been sounded. And they were also not enslaved to their masters, as the Jubilee Year had already begun. Rather, they would eat, drink, and rejoice, and they would wear their crowns on their heads like free people. Once Yom Kippur arrived, the court would sound the shofar, slaves would be released to their houses, and fields that were sold would be returned to their original owners.
וְרַבָּנַן — שָׁנִים אַתָּה מְקַדֵּשׁ, וְאִי אַתָּה מְקַדֵּשׁ חֳדָשִׁים. The Gemara asks: And the Rabbis who disagree with Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Beroka, how do they interpret the verse: “And you shall hallow the fiftieth year”? The Gemara answers: They derive from here that you sanctify years, but you do not sanctify months. According to this opinion, the court is commanded to sanctify the Jubilee Year with a proclamation: This year is sanctified; but it is not commanded to sanctify the months with a similar proclamation.
תַּנְיָא אִידַּךְ: ״יוֹבֵל הִיא״ — מָה תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר? לְפִי שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״וְקִדַּשְׁתֶּם אֵת שְׁנַת הַחֲמִשִּׁים״, יָכוֹל כְּשֵׁם שֶׁמִּתְקַדֶּשֶׁת וְהוֹלֶכֶת מִתְּחִילָּתָהּ, כָּךְ מִתְקַדֶּשֶׁת וְהוֹלֶכֶת בְּסוֹפָהּ. וְאַל תִּתְמַהּ, שֶׁהֲרֵי מוֹסִיפִין מֵחוֹל עַל קֹדֶשׁ — תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר: ״יוֹבֵל הִיא שְׁנַת הַחֲמִשִּׁים״ — שְׁנַת הַחֲמִשִּׁים אַתָּה מְקַדֵּשׁ, וְאִי אַתָּה מְקַדֵּשׁ שְׁנַת הַחֲמִשִּׁים וְאַחַת. It is taught in another baraita: What is the meaning when the verse states: “It shall be a Jubilee Year” (Leviticus 25:11)? Since it is stated: “And you shall hallow the fiftieth year,” one might have thought that just as the Jubilee Year is sanctified from its beginning onward, so too, it is sanctified at its end onward, i.e., it remains sanctified until Yom Kippur of the fifty-first year. And do not wonder why one might think this, as don’t we regularly add from the profane to the sacred, extending a sacred time period by adding to it both before and after from a profane time period? Therefore, the verse states: “It shall be a Jubilee Year, the fiftieth year,” to teach that you sanctify the fiftieth year, but you do not sanctify the fifty-first year, even partially.