וְאֵין חוֹתְכִין אוֹתוֹ, בֵּין בְּדָבָר שֶׁהוּא מִשּׁוּם שְׁבוּת וּבֵין בְּדָבָר שֶׁהוּא מִשּׁוּם לֹא תַעֲשֶׂה. מִשּׁוּם שְׁבוּת — מַגָּלָא. לֹא תַעֲשֶׂה — סַכִּינָא. § The mishna stated: One may not cut the shofar if it needs to be prepared, neither with an object that is prohibited due to a rabbinic decree nor with an object that may not be used due to a Torah prohibition. The Gemara explains: An example of an object prohibited due to a rabbinic decree is a sickle, which is not ordinarily used for preparing a shofar; an example of an object that may not be used due to a prohibition by Torah law is a knife.
הַשְׁתָּא מִשּׁוּם שְׁבוּת אָמְרַתְּ לָא — לֹא תַעֲשֶׂה מִיבַּעְיָא? זוֹ וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר זוֹ קָתָנֵי. The Gemara asks: Now that you have said that to sound the shofar one may not perform an action that is prohibited due to rabbinic law, is it necessary to say that one may not perform an action that violates a prohibition by Torah law? The Gemara answers: The mishna teaches employing the style: This, and it is unnecessary to say that.
אֲבָל אִם רָצָה לִיתֵּן לְתוֹכוֹ מַיִם אוֹ יַיִן — יִתֵּן. מַיִם אוֹ יַיִן — אֵין, מֵי רַגְלַיִם — לָא. § The mishna continues. However, if one wishes to place water or wine into the shofar on Rosh HaShana, so that it should emit a clear sound, he may place it. The Gemara infers: Water or wine, yes, one may insert these substances into a shofar. However, urine, whose acidity is good for the shofar, no.
מַתְנִיתִין מַנִּי — אַבָּא שָׁאוּל הִיא. דְּתַנְיָא, אַבָּא שָׁאוּל אוֹמֵר: מַיִם אוֹ יַיִן — מוּתָּר, כְּדֵי לְצַחְצְחוֹ. מֵי רַגְלַיִם — אָסוּר, מִפְּנֵי הַכָּבוֹד. The Gemara asks: Who is the tanna of the mishna? The Gemara answers: It is Abba Shaul, as it is taught in a baraita that Abba Shaul says: With regard to water or wine, one is permitted to pour these liquids into a shofar on Rosh HaShana in order to make its sound clear. However, with regard to urine, one is prohibited to do so due to the respect that must be shown to the shofar. Although urine is beneficial, it is disrespectful to place it in a shofar, which serves for a mitzva.
אֵין מְעַכְּבִין אֶת הַתִּינוֹקוֹת מִלִּתְקוֹעַ. הָא נָשִׁים — מְעַכְּבִין, וְהָתַנְיָא: אֵין מְעַכְּבִין לֹא אֶת הַנָּשִׁים וְלֹא אֶת הַתִּינוֹקוֹת מִלִּתְקוֹעַ בְּיוֹם טוֹב! אֲמַר אַבָּיֵי, לָא קַשְׁיָא: הָא רַבִּי יְהוּדָה, הָא רַבִּי יוֹסֵי וְרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן. § The mishna further teaches: One need not prevent children from sounding the shofar on Rosh HaShana. The Gemara infers: If women wish to sound the shofar, one indeed prevents them from doing so. The Gemara asks: Isn’t it taught in a baraita that one does not prevent women or children from sounding the shofar on a Festival? The Gemara answers that Abaye said: This is not difficult: This mishna is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, while that baraita is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei and Rabbi Shimon.
דְּתַנְיָא: ״דַּבֵּר אֶל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל״. בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל סוֹמְכִין, וְאֵין בְּנוֹת יִשְׂרָאֵל סוֹמְכוֹת, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי יְהוּדָה. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי וְרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמְרִים: נָשִׁים סוֹמְכוֹת — רְשׁוּת. As it is taught in a baraita: “Speak to the children of Israel…and he shall place his hands upon the head of the burnt-offering” (Leviticus 1:2–4). The phrase “children of Israel” literally means sons of Israel, and this teaches that the sons of Israel place their hands upon offerings, but the daughters of Israel do not place their hands upon offerings; this is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda. Rabbi Yosei and Rabbi Shimon say: It is optional for women to place their hands on the head of an offering before it is slaughtered, although they are not obligated to do so. Apparently, according to the opinion of Rabbi Yosei and Rabbi Shimon, if a woman wishes to perform any mitzva that is not obligatory for her, she is permitted to do so. Here too, one does not prevent a woman from sounding the shofar.
אֲבָל מִתְעַסְּקִין בָּהֶם עַד שֶׁיִּלְמְדוּ. אָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר: אֲפִילּוּ בְּשַׁבָּת. תַּנְיָא נָמֵי הָכִי: מִתְעַסְּקִין בָּהֶן עַד שֶׁיִּלְמְדוּ, אֲפִילּוּ בְּשַׁבָּת. וְאֵין מְעַכְּבִין הַתִּינוֹקוֹת מִלִּתְקוֹעַ בְּשַׁבָּת, וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר בְּיוֹם טוֹב. § The mishna further states: Rather, one occupies himself with them, encouraging and instructing children, until they learn how to sound it properly. Rabbi Elazar said: This applies even when Rosh HaShana occurs on Shabbat. This is also taught in a baraita: One occupies himself with children until they learn to sound the shofar properly, even on Shabbat. And one does not prevent the children from sounding the shofar on Shabbat, and needless to say one does not prevent them on the festival of Rosh HaShana that occurs on a weekday.
הָא גוּפָא קַשְׁיָא, אָמְרַתְּ: מִתְעַסְּקִין בָּהֶן עַד שֶׁיִּלְמְדוּ, וַאֲפִילּוּ בְּשַׁבָּת — אַלְמָא לְכַתְּחִלָּה אָמְרִינַן תִּקְעוּ. וַהֲדַר תָּנָא: אֵין מְעַכְּבִין — עִכּוּבָא הוּא דְּלָא מְעַכְּבִין, הָא לְכַתְּחִלָּה לָא אָמְרִינַן תִּקְעוּ! The Gemara asks: This matter itself is difficult, i.e., there is an internal contradiction in the baraita. You said that one occupies himself with the children until they learn how to sound the shofar, and this applies even on Shabbat. Apparently, we say to them ab initio: Sound the shofar. And then the baraita taught: One does not prevent them from sounding the shofar, which indicates that although one does not prevent them from sounding it, we do not say ab initio: Sound it.
לָא קַשְׁיָא: כָּאן The Gemara explains: This is not difficult. Here,