Rosh Hashanah 32bראש השנה ל״ב ב
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
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32bל״ב ב

גמ׳ מלכיות כגון (יחזקאל כ, לא) חי אני נאם ה' [אלהים] אם לא ביד חזקה ובזרוע נטויה ובחמה שפוכה אמלוך עליכם ואע"ג דא"ר נחמן כל כי האי ריתחא לירתח קודשא בריך הוא עלן וליפרוקינן כיון דבריתחא אמור אדכורי ריתחא בריש שתא לא מדכרינן

GEMARA: The Gemara cites examples of verses that may not be used in Rosh HaShana prayers because they deal with punishment. With regard to verses of Kingship, for example: “As I live, says the Lord God, surely with a mighty hand, and with an outstretched arm, and with fury poured out, will I be King over you” (Ezekiel 20:33). And although Rav Naḥman said about this verse: With regard to any anger like this, let the Holy One, blessed be He, express that anger upon us and let Him redeem us, if that is the process necessary for redemption, since the verse was said with anger it is not included, as one does not mention anger on Rosh HaShana.

זכרון כגון (תהלים עח, לט) ויזכור כי בשר המה וגו' שופר כגון (הושע ה, ח) תקעו שופר בגבעה וגו'

Similarly, verses of remembrance that speak of a punishment may not be used in Rosh HaShana prayers, for example: “So He remembered that they were but flesh, a wind that passes away, and does not come again” (Psalms 78:39). Nor verses of shofar, which refer to calamity, for example: “Sound the shofar in Giva, and the trumpet in Rama; sound an alarm at Beit Aven, behind you, O Benjamin” (Hosea 5:8).

אבל אם בא לומר מלכות זכרון ושופר של פורענות של עובדי כוכבים אומר מלכות כגון (תהלים צט, א) ה' מלך ירגזו עמים וכגון (תהלים י, טז) ה' מלך עולם ועד אבדו גוים מארצו זכרון כגון (תהלים קלז, ז) זכור ה' לבני אדום וגו' שופר כגון (זכריה ט, יד) וה' אלהים בשופר יתקע והלך בסערות תימן וכתיב (זכריה ט, טו) ה' צבאות יגן עליהם

The Gemara qualifies the mishna’s ruling. However, if one comes to recite verses of Kingship, remembrance, and shofar with a theme of the punishment of gentiles, one may recite them. The Gemara offers examples of these verses: With regard to the verses of Kingship, for example: “The Lord reigns, let the peoples tremble” (Psalms 99:1), and, for example: “The Lord is King for ever and ever; the nations are perished out of His land” (Psalms 10:16). With regard to remembrance, for example: “Remember, O Lord, against the children of Edom the day of Jerusalem, who said: Raze it, raze it, to its very foundation” (Psalms 137:7). With regard to the verses of shofar, for example: “And the Lord God will sound the shofar, and will go with whirlwinds of the south” (Zechariah 9:14), and it is written: “The Lord of hosts will defend them” (Zechariah 9:15), i.e., God will defend the Jewish people against their enemies.

אין מזכירין זכרון של יחיד ואפילו לטובה כגון (תהלים קו, ד) זכרני ה' ברצון עמך וכגון (נחמיה ה, יט) זכרה לי אלהי לטובה

The Gemara states: One does not recite a verse dealing with the remembrance of an individual, even if it is for good, for example: “Remember me, O Lord, when You show favor to Your people” (Psalms 106:4), and, for example: “Remember me, my God, for good” (Nehemiah 5:19).

פקדונות הרי הן כזכרונות כגון (בראשית כא, א) וה' פקד את שרה וכגון (שמות ג, טז) פקוד פקדתי אתכם דברי ר' יוסי ר' יהודה אומר אינן כזכרונות

Verses that mention God’s revisitings [pikdonot] are equivalent to verses of remembrances [zikhronot], and therefore they may be counted in the ten verses.For example: “And the Lord revisited [pakad] Sarah” (Genesis 21:1), and, for example: “I have surely revisited [pakadeti] you” (Exodus 3:16). This is the statement of Rabbi Yosei. Rabbi Yehuda says: They are not equivalent to verses of remembrances.

ולר' יוסי נהי נמי דפקדונות הרי הן כזכרונות וה' פקד את שרה פקדון דיחיד הוא כיון דאתו רבים מינה כרבים דמיא

The Gemara asks: And according to the opinion of Rabbi Yosei, although verses that speak of God revisiting man are equivalent to verses of remembrances, he cites the following verse as an example: “And the Lord revisited Sarah,” which is a revisiting of an individual. Despite the fact that it was stated above that a remembrance must refer to the collective, since many descendants came from her, as Sarah is the mother of the Jewish people, she is considered like many. Therefore, this verse is effectively dealing with the remembrance of the entire Jewish people.

(תהלים כד, ז) שאו שערים ראשיכם והנשאו פתחי עולם ויבוא מלך הכבוד מי (הוא) זה מלך הכבוד ה' עזוז וגבור ה' גבור מלחמה שאו שערים ראשיכם ושאו פתחי עולם ויבא מלך הכבוד מי הוא זה מלך הכבוד ה' צבאות הוא מלך הכבוד סלה ראשונה שתים שניה שלש דברי ר' יוסי

The Gemara discusses several verses from Psalms. “Lift up your heads, O you gates, and be lifted up, you everlasting doors, that the King of glory may come in. Who is the King of glory? The Lord strong and mighty, the Lord mighty in battle” (Psalms 24:7–8). The psalm continues: “Lift up your heads, O you gates, and lift them up, you everlasting doors; that the King of glory may come in. Who then is the King of glory? The Lord of hosts, He is the King of glory, Selah” (Psalms 24:9–10). The first section is counted as two verses of Kingship, as the term king is mentioned twice, while the second section is counted as three verses of Kingship; this is the statement of Rabbi Yosei.

ר' יהודה אומר ראשונה אחת שניה שתים

Rabbi Yehuda says: The first section is counted as only one verse of Kingship, as the question: “Who is the King of glory,” is not considered a verse of Kingship. By the same reasoning, the second section is counted as only two verses of Kingship.

(תהלים מז, ז) זמרו אלהים זמרו זמרו למלכנו זמרו כי מלך כל הארץ אלהים שתים דברי ר' יוסי ר' יהודה אומר אחת ושוין (תהלים מז, ט) במלך אלהים על גוים אלהים ישב על כסא קדשו שהיא אחת

Similarly, the Gemara discusses the following verses: “Sing praises to God, sing praises, sing praises to our King, sing praises. For God is the King of all the earth; sing praises in a skillful song” (Psalms 47:7–8). These are counted as two verses of Kingship; this is the statement of Rabbi Yosei. Rabbi Yehuda says: They count as only one verse of Kingship, as the phrase: “Sing praises to our King,” is referring to God as the King of the Jewish people, not the King of the entire world. And they both agree with regard to the verse: “God reigns over the nations, God sits upon His sacred throne” (Psalms 47:9), that it is considered as only one verse of Kingship, as the phrase: “Sits upon His sacred throne,” is not referring to God explicitly as King.

זכרון שיש בו תרועה כגון (ויקרא כג, כד) שבתון זכרון תרועה מקרא קדש אומרה עם הזכרונות ואומרה עם השופרות דברי ר' יוסי ר' יהודה אומר אינו אומרה אלא עם הזכרונות [בלבד]

With regard to a verse of remembrance that also has a mention of sounding the shofar, for example: “A solemn rest, a memorial of blasts, a sacred convocation” (Leviticus 23:24), one may recite it with the verses of remembrances, and one may also recite it with the verses of shofarot; this is the statement of Rabbi Yosei. Rabbi Yehuda says: One may recite it only with the verses of remembrances alone, as it does not explicitly mention a shofar.

מלכות שיש עמו תרועה כגון (במדבר כג, כא) ה' אלהיו עמו ותרועת מלך בו אומרה עם המלכיות ואומרה עם השופרות דברי ר' יוסי רבי יהודה אומר אינו אומרה אלא עם המלכיות בלבד

With regard to a verse of Kingship that also has a mention of sounding the shofar, for example: “The Lord his God is with him, and the sounding of a king is among them” (Numbers 23:21), one may recite it with the verses of Kingship and one may also recite it with the verses of shofarot; This is the statement of Rabbi Yosei. Rabbi Yehuda says: One may recite it only with the verses of Kingship.

תרועה שאין עמה לא כלום כגון (במדבר כט, א) יום תרועה יהיה לכם אומרה עם השופרות דברי רבי יוסי רבי יהודה אומר אינו אומרה כל עיקר:

With regard to a verse that mentions sounding the shofar that has nothing else with it, i.e., no mention of remembrances, Kingship, or an actual shofar, for example: “It is a day of sounding the shofar to you” (Numbers 29:1), one may recite it with the verses of shofarot; this is the statement of Rabbi Yosei. Rabbi Yehuda says: One may not recite it at all, as it contains no explicit mention of a shofar.

מתחיל בתורה ומשלים בנביא רבי יוסי אומר אם השלים בתורה יצא: אם השלים דיעבד אין לכתחילה לא והתניא ר' יוסי אומר המשלים בתורה ה"ז משובח אימא משלים

§ The mishna taught: When reciting the ten verses, one begins with verses from the Torah and concludes with verses from the Prophets. Rabbi Yosei says: If he concluded with a verse from the Torah, he has fulfilled his obligation. The Gemara notes that Rabbi Yosei’s formulation: If he concluded, indicates that after the fact, yes, he has fulfilled his obligation; ab initio, no, he has not fulfilled his obligation to recite the necessary verses. The Gemara asks: But isn’t it taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yosei says: One who concludes the series of verses with a verse from the Torah is praiseworthy? The Gemara answers: Say that the text of the mishna must be modified so that it reads: Rabbi Yosei says: He concludes with a verse from the Torah, i.e., one should do so ab initio.

והא אם השלים קתני דיעבד אין לכתחילה לא הכי קאמר מתחיל בתורה ומשלים בנביא ר' יוסי אומר משלים בתורה ואם השלים בנביא יצא תניא נמי הכי אמר רבי אלעזר ברבי יוסי וותיקין היו משלימין אותה בתורה

The Gemara raises a difficulty. Doesn’t the mishna teach: If he concluded? This indicates that after the fact, yes, one has fulfilled his obligation; ab initio, no, he has not fulfilled his obligation. The Gemara answers that this is what the mishna is saying: One begins with verses from the Torah and concludes with a single verse from the Prophets. Rabbi Yosei says: One concludes with a single verse from the Torah, and if he concluded with a single verse from the Prophets he has fulfilled his obligation. This is also taught in a baraita. Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Yosei, said: Pious individuals [vatikin], who were scrupulous in their performance of mitzvot, would conclude the series with a single verse from the Torah. Presumably, Rabbi Elazar followed the opinion of his father, Rabbi Yosei.

בשלמא זכרונות ושופרות איכא טובא אלא מלכיות תלת הוא דהויין (במדבר כג, כא) ה' אלהיו עמו ותרועת מלך בו (דברים לג, ה) ויהי בישורון מלך (שמות טו, יח) ה' ימלוך לעולם ועד ואנן בעינן עשר וליכא

The Gemara asks: Granted, it is possible to conclude Remembrances and Shofarot with a verse from the Torah, as there are many such verses. However, with regard to Kingship, there are only three: “The Lord his God is with him, and the sounding of a king is among them” (Numbers 23:21); “And he was king in Jeshurun” (Deuteronomy 33:5); and: “The Lord shall reign for ever and ever” (Exodus 15:18). And we require ten verses, and according to Rabbi Yosei there are not enough, as he maintains that one should recite four verses from the Torah, the first three and the concluding one.

אמר רב הונא ת"ש (דברים ו, ד) שמע ישראל ה' אלהינו ה' אחד מלכות דברי ר' יוסי ר' יהודה אומר אינה מלכות

Rav Huna said: Come and hear a solution from that which was taught in the Tosefta (2:11): The verse: “Hear, O Israel, the Lord our God, the Lord is one” (Deuteronomy 6:4), is a verse of Kingship; this is the statement of Rabbi Yosei.Rabbi Yehuda says: It is not a verse of Kingship.

(דברים ד, לט) וידעת היום והשבות אל לבבך כי ה' הוא האלהים אין עוד מלכות דברי ר' יוסי ר' יהודה אומר אינה מלכות (דברים ד, לה) אתה הראת לדעת כי ה' הוא האלהים אין עוד מלבדו מלכות דברי ר' יוסי ר' יהודה אומר אינה מלכות:

“Know this day, and lay it to your heart, that the Lord, He is God in heaven above, and upon the earth beneath; there is none else” (Deuteronomy 4:39), is a verse of Kingship; this is the statement of Rabbi Yosei. Rabbi Yehuda says: It is not a verse of Kingship. “To you it was shown, that you might know that the Lord, He is God; there is none else beside Him” (Deuteronomy 4:35), is a verse of Kingship; this is the statement of Rabbi Yosei. Rabbi Yehuda says: It is not a verse of Kingship. This shows that according to the opinion of Rabbi Yosei there are sufficient verses of Kingship in the Torah to recite three at the beginning and one at the end.

מתני׳ העובר לפני התיבה ביו"ט של ר"ה השני מתקיע ובשעת ההלל הראשון מקרא את ההלל:

MISHNA: With regard to one who is passing before the ark, as prayer leader, on the festival of Rosh HaShana, it is the second prayer leader, i.e., the one who leads the additional prayer, who sounds the shofar on behalf of the congregation. And on a day when the hallel is recited, the first prayer leader, i.e., the one who leads the morning prayer, recites the hallel on behalf of the congregation.

גמ׳ מאי שנא שני מתקיע משום (משלי יד, כח) דברוב עם הדרת מלך אי הכי הלל נמי נימא בשני משום דברוב עם הדרת מלך

GEMARA: The Gemara asks: What is different about the second prayer leader, that he sounds the shofar during the additional prayer? Is it due to the principle that: “The splendor of the King is in the multitude of the people” (Proverbs 14:28)? In other words, is the shofar sounded during the additional prayer because all of the congregants will have arrived by then? If so, with regard to hallel too, let us say that it should be read by the second prayer leader, due to the principle that “The splendor of the King is in the multitude of the people.”

אלא מאי שנא הלל דבראשון משום דזריזין מקדימין למצות תקיעה נמי נעביד בראשון משום דזריזין מקדימין למצות

Rather, what is different about hallel that it is recited by the first prayer leader? It is due to the principle that the vigilant are early in the performance of mitzvot. This is also difficult. With regard to the sounding of the shofar, too, let us perform it by means of the first prayer leader, due to the principle that the vigilant are early in the performance of mitzvot.

אמר רבי יוחנן בשעת גזרת המלכות שנו:

Rabbi Yoḥanan said: They taught the halakha that the shofar is sounded during the additional prayer in a time of religious persecution. The gentile authorities prohibited sounding the shofar and appointed guards during the morning to ensure that the Jews comply. Therefore, the Sages delayed the sounding of the shofar until after the guards had left. A similar decree was not imposed against the recitation of hallel, and therefore it was recited during the morning prayer, at the earliest possible time.

מדקאמר בשעת הלל מכלל דבראש השנה ליכא הלל מ"ט אמר רבי אבהו אמרו מלאכי השרת לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע מפני מה אין ישראל אומרים שירה לפניך בר"ה וביום הכפורים אמר להם אפשר מלך יושב על כסא דין וספרי חיים וספרי מתים פתוחין לפניו וישראל אומרים שירה:

§ The Gemara comments: From the fact that the mishna states: When hallel is recited, one can conclude by inference that on Rosh HaShana there is no recitation of hallel. What is the reason that hallel is omitted on Rosh HaShana? Rabbi Abbahu said: The ministering angels said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, for what reason don’t the Jewish people recite songs of praise, i.e., hallel, before You on Rosh HaShana and on Yom Kippur? He said to them: Is it possible that while the King is sitting on the throne of judgment and the books of life and the books of death are open before Him, the Jewish people are reciting joyous songs of praise? Rosh HaShana and Yom Kippur are somber days of judgment whose mood is incompatible with the recitation of hallel.

מתני׳ שופר של ר"ה אין מעבירין עליו את התחום ואין מפקחין עליו את הגל לא עולין באילן ולא רוכבין ע"ג בהמה ולא שטין על פני המים ואין חותכין אותו בין בדבר שהוא משום שבות ובין בדבר שהוא משום לא תעשה אבל אם רצה ליתן לתוכו מים או יין יתן

MISHNA: With regard to the shofar of Rosh HaShana, one may not pass the Shabbat limit for it, i.e., to go and hear it, nor may one clear a pile of rubble to uncover a buried shofar. One may not climb a tree, nor may one ride on an animal, nor may one swim in water, in order to find a shofar to sound.And one may not cut the shofar to prepare it for use, neither with an object that is prohibited due to a rabbinic decree nor with an object that may not be used due to a prohibition by Torah law. However, if one wishes to place water or wine into the shofar on Rosh HaShana so that it emits a clear sound, he may place it, as this does not constitute a prohibited labor.

אין מעכבין את התנוקות מלתקוע אבל מתעסקין עמהן עד שילמדו והמתעסק לא יצא והשומע מן המתעסק לא יצא:

One need not prevent children from sounding the shofar on Rosh HaShana, despite the fact that they are not obligated in mitzvot. Rather, one occupies himself with them, encouraging and instructing them, until they learn how to sound it properly. The mishna adds: One who acts unawares and sounds the shofar without any intention to perform the mitzva has not fulfilled his obligation. And, similarly, one who hears the shofar blasts from one who acts unawares has not fulfilled his obligation.

גמ׳ מ"ט שופר עשה הוא ויו"ט עשה ולא תעשה ואין עשה דוחה את לא תעשה ועשה:

GEMARA: The Gemara asks: There is a principle that a positive mitzva overrides a negative mitzva. With this in mind, what is the reason that one may not perform a prohibited labor on Rosh HaShana to fulfill the positive mitzva of sounding the shofar? The Gemara answers: Sounding the shofar is a positive mitzva, but performing prohibited labor on a Festival violates both the positive mitzva to rest and the prohibition against performing prohibited labor, and a positive mitzva does not override both a prohibition and a positive mitzva.

לא עולין באילן ולא רוכבין על גבי בהמה כו': השתא דרבנן אמרת לא דאורייתא מיבעיא זו ואין צריך לומר זו קתני:

§ The mishna taught: One may not pass the Shabbat limit for it, i.e., to go and hear it, nor may one clear a pile of rubble to uncover a buried shofar. One may not climb a tree, nor may one ride on an animal to find a shofar to sound. The Gemara questions the order of these prohibitions: Now that you have said that to sound the shofar one may not perform an action that is prohibited by rabbinic law, i.e., passing the Shabbat limit or clearing a pile of rubble, is it necessary to say that one may not perform an action that could lead to an act prohibited by Torah law, i.e., climbing a tree or riding an animal? The Gemara answers: The mishna teaches employing the style: This, and it is unnecessary to say that. It begins with the more novel case before moving on to the more straightforward one.