בִּרְכַּת הַלֶּחֶם שֶׁל מַצָּה, וּבִרְכַּת הַיַּיִן שֶׁל קִידּוּשׁ הַיּוֹם, מַהוּ? כֵּיוָן דְּחוֹבָה הוּא — מַפֵּיק, אוֹ דִלְמָא: בְּרָכָה לָאו חוֹבָה הִיא. With regard to the blessing over bread that is recited before eating matza at the Passover seder and the blessing over wine recited as part of the sanctification of the day of Shabbat or a Festival, what is the halakha? The Gemara analyzes the question: Do we say that since there is an obligation to recite these blessings due to the mitzva involved, therefore one can discharge the obligation for others, even if he himself has already fulfilled his obligation? Or perhaps we say that the blessing itself is not an obligation, but rather the obligation lies in the eating and drinking, and the blessing is recited over one’s physical enjoyment; therefore, if he already fulfilled his own obligation, he cannot recite the blessing for others, as he derives no pleasure at this time.
תָּא שְׁמַע, דְּאָמַר רַב אָשֵׁי: כִּי הֲוֵינַן בֵּי רַב פַּפֵּי, הֲוָה מְקַדֵּשׁ לַן. וְכִי הֲוָה אָתֵי אֲרִיסֵיהּ מִדַּבְרָא, הֲוָה מְקַדֵּשׁ לְהוּ. The Gemara answers: Come and hear an answer to this question from what Rav Ashi said: When we were studying in the school of Rav Pappi, he would recite kiddush for us, and when his tenants would arrive from the field he would recite kiddush once again on their behalf. Therefore, it is clear that one may recite kiddush on behalf of others, including the blessing that is recited over the wine, even if he himself has already fulfilled his own obligation.
תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן: לָא יִפְרוֹס אָדָם פְּרוּסָה לָאוֹרְחִין אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן אוֹכֵל עִמָּהֶם, אֲבָל פּוֹרֵס הוּא לְבָנָיו וְלִבְנֵי בֵיתוֹ כְּדֵי לְחַנְּכָן בְּמִצְוֹת. וּבְהַלֵּל וּבַמְּגִילָּה, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיָּצָא — מוֹצִיא. The Sages taught in a baraita: One should not break bread and recite a blessing for guests unless he is eating with them, so that he is obligated to recite a blessing for himself. But he may break bread for his children and for the other members of his household and recite the blessing, in order to educate them to perform the mitzvot, so that they know how to recite a blessing. And with regard to hallel and the Scroll of Esther, the halakha is that even if he already fulfilled his obligation, he can still discharge the obligation of others.
הֲדַרַן עֲלָךְ רָאוּהוּ בֵּית דִּין
יוֹם טוֹב שֶׁל רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה שֶׁחָל לִהְיוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת — בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ הָיוּ תּוֹקְעִין, אֲבָל לֹא בַּמְּדִינָה. מִשֶּׁחָרַב בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ, הִתְקִין רַבָּן יוֹחָנָן בֶּן זַכַּאי שֶׁיְּהוּ תּוֹקְעִין בְּכׇל מָקוֹם שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ בֵּית דִּין. אָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר: לֹא הִתְקִין רַבָּן יוֹחָנָן בֶּן זַכַּאי אֶלָּא בְּיַבְנֶה בִּלְבַד. אָמְרוּ לוֹ: אֶחָד יַבְנֶה, וְאֶחָד כׇּל מָקוֹם שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ בֵּית דִּין. MISHNA: With regard to the Festival day of Rosh HaShana that occurs on Shabbat, in the Temple they would sound the shofar as usual. However, they would not sound it in the rest of the country outside the Temple. After the Temple was destroyed, Rabban Yoḥanan ben Zakkai instituted that the people should sound the shofar on Shabbat in every place where there is a court of twenty-three judges. Rabbi Elazar said: Rabban Yoḥanan ben Zakkai instituted this practice only in Yavne, where the Great Sanhedrin of seventy-one judges resided in his time, but nowhere else. They said to him: He instituted the practice both in Yavne and in any place where there is a court.
וְעוֹד זֹאת הָיְתָה יְרוּשָׁלַיִם יְתֵירָה עַל יַבְנֶה, שֶׁכׇּל עִיר שֶׁהִיא רוֹאָה, וְשׁוֹמַעַת, וּקְרוֹבָה, וִיכוֹלָה לָבוֹא — תּוֹקְעִין. וּבְיַבְנֶה לֹא הָיוּ תּוֹקְעִין אֶלָּא בְּבֵית דִּין בִּלְבַד. The mishna adds: And Jerusalem in earlier times had this additional superiority over Yavne after Rabban Yoḥanan ben Zakkai instituted this practice, for in any city whose residents could see Jerusalem and hear the sounding of the shofar from there, and which was near to Jerusalem and people could come to Jerusalem from there, they would sound the shofar there as well, as it was considered part of Jerusalem. But in Yavne they would sound the shofar only in the court itself, not in the surrounding cities.
גְּמָ׳ מְנָא הָנֵי מִילֵּי? אָמַר רַבִּי לֵוִי בַּר לַחְמָא אָמַר רַבִּי חָמָא בַּר חֲנִינָא: כָּתוּב אֶחָד אוֹמֵר: ״שַׁבָּתוֹן זִכְרוֹן תְּרוּעָה״. וְכָתוּב אֶחָד אוֹמֵר: ״יוֹם תְּרוּעָה יִהְיֶה לָכֶם״! לָא קַשְׁיָא: כָּאן — בְּיוֹם טוֹב שֶׁחָל לִהְיוֹת בַּשַּׁבָּת, כָּאן — בְּיוֹם טוֹב שֶׁחָל לִהְיוֹת בַּחוֹל. GEMARA: The Gemara asks: From where are these matters; from where is it derived that the shofar is not sounded on Shabbat? Rabbi Levi bar Laḥma said that Rabbi Ḥama bar Ḥanina said: One verse says, with regard to Rosh HaShana: “A solemn rest, a memorial of blasts” (Leviticus 23:24), which indicates that one should merely remember the shofar without actually sounding it. And another verse says: “It is a day of blowing for you” (Numbers 29:1), i.e., a day on which one must actually sound the shofar. This apparent contradiction is not difficult: Here, the verse in which the shofar is only being remembered but not sounded, is referring to a Festival that occurs on Shabbat; there, the verse in which the shofar is actually sounded, is referring to a Festival that occurs on a weekday.
אָמַר רָבָא: אִי מִדְּאוֹרָיְיתָא הִיא, בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ הֵיכִי תָּקְעִינַן? וְעוֹד: הָא לָאו מְלָאכָה הִיא, דְּאִצְטְרִיךְ קְרָא לְמַעוֹטֵי. Rava said: This explanation is difficult, for if the distinction between Shabbat and the rest of the week applies by Torah law, how does one sound the shofar on Shabbat in the Temple? If it is prohibited to sound the shofar on Shabbat, it should be prohibited everywhere. And furthermore, there is an additional problem with this explanation: Although the Sages prohibited sounding a shofar and playing other musical instruments on Shabbat, by Torah law sounding a shofar is not a prohibited labor on Shabbat such that a verse is necessary to exclude it when Rosh HaShana occurs on Shabbat.
דְּתָנָא דְּבֵי שְׁמוּאֵל: ״כׇּל מְלֶאכֶת עֲבוֹדָה לֹא תַּעֲשׂוּ״, יָצְתָה תְּקִיעַת שׁוֹפָר וּרְדִיַּית הַפַּת, שֶׁהִיא חָכְמָה וְאֵינָהּ מְלָאכָה. The Gemara cites a proof for this last claim: As a Sage of the school of Shmuel taught in a baraita, with regard to the verse that prohibits performing prohibited labor on Festivals: “Any prohibited labor of work you shall not perform” (Numbers 29:1). This comes to exclude from the category of prohibited labors the sounding of the shofar and the removal of bread from the oven, each of which is a skill and not a labor, and therefore they are not included in the category of prohibited labor. Apparently, sounding the shofar is not prohibited by Torah law.
אֶלָּא אָמַר רָבָא: מִדְּאוֹרָיְיתָא מִישְׁרֵא שְׁרֵי, וְרַבָּנַן הוּא דִּגְזוּר בֵּיהּ כִּדְרַבָּה. דְּאָמַר רַבָּה: הַכֹּל חַיָּיבִין בִּתְקִיעַת שׁוֹפָר, וְאֵין הַכֹּל בְּקִיאִין בִּתְקִיעַת שׁוֹפָר, גְּזֵירָה שֶׁמָּא יִטְּלֶנּוּ בְּיָדוֹ וְיֵלֵךְ אֵצֶל הַבָּקִי לִלְמוֹד, וְיַעֲבִירֶנּוּ אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים. Rather, Rava said: By Torah law one is permitted to sound the shofar on Rosh HaShana even on Shabbat, and it was the Sages who decreed that it is prohibited. This is in accordance with the opinion of Rabba, as Rabba said: All are obligated to sound the shofar on Rosh HaShana, but not all are experts in sounding the shofar. Therefore, the Sages instituted a decree that the shofar should not be sounded on Shabbat, lest one take the shofar in his hand and go to an expert to learn how to sound it or to have him sound it for him, and due to his preoccupation he might carry it four cubits in the public domain, which is a desecration of Shabbat.
וְהַיְינוּ טַעְמָא דְלוּלָב, וְהַיְינוּ טַעְמָא דִמְגִילָּה. The Gemara comments: And this is also the reason for the rabbinical decree that the palm branch [lulav] may not be taken on Shabbat, and this is likewise the reason for the decree that the Megilla of Esther may not be read on Shabbat. The Sages were concerned that one might carry the lulav or the Megilla four cubits in the public domain to take it to an expert who will teach him the proper manner to perform these mitzvot.
מִשֶּׁחָרַב בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ הִתְקִין רַבָּן יוֹחָנָן בֶּן זַכַּאי וְכוּ׳. תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן: פַּעַם אַחַת חָל רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה לִהְיוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת, וְהָיוּ כׇל הֶעָרִים מִתְכַּנְּסִין. אָמַר לָהֶם רַבָּן יוֹחָנָן בֶּן זַכַּאי לִבְנֵי בְּתִירָה: נִתְקַע! אָמְרוּ לוֹ: נָדוּן. § The mishna taught: After the Temple was destroyed, Rabban Yoḥanan ben Zakkai instituted that the people should sound the shofar even on Shabbat in every place where there is a court of twenty-three judges. The background to this decree is related in greater detail in a baraita, as the Sages taught: Once Rosh HaShana occurred on Shabbat, and all the cities gathered at the Great Sanhedrin in Yavne for the Festival prayers. Rabban Yoḥanan ben Zakkai said to the sons of Beteira, who were the leading halakhic authorities of the generation: Let us sound the shofar, as in the Temple. They said to him: Let us discuss whether or not this is permitted.
אָמַר לָהֶם: נִתְקַע, וְאַחַר כָּךְ נָדוּן. לְאַחַר שֶׁתָּקְעוּ, אָמְרוּ לוֹ: נָדוּן! אָמַר לָהֶם: כְּבָר נִשְׁמְעָה קֶרֶן בְּיַבְנֶה, וְאֵין מְשִׁיבִין לְאַחַר מַעֲשֶׂה. He said to them: First let us sound it, and afterward, when there is time, let us discuss the matter. After they sounded the shofar, the sons of Beteira said to Rabban Yoḥanan ben Zakkai: Let us now discuss the issue. He said to them: The horn has already been heard in Yavne, and one does not refute a ruling after action has already been taken. There is no point in discussing the matter, as it would be inappropriate to say that the community acted erroneously after the fact.
אָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר: לֹא הִתְקִין רַבָּן יוֹחָנָן בֶּן זַכַּאי אֶלָּא בְּיַבְנֶה בִּלְבַד. אָמְרוּ לוֹ: אֶחָד יַבְנֶה וְאֶחָד כׇּל מָקוֹם שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ בֵּית דִּין. אָמְרוּ לוֹ: הַיְינוּ תַּנָּא קַמָּא! § The mishna further stated that Rabbi Elazar said: Rabban Yoḥanan ben Zakkai instituted this practice only in Yavne. They said to him: He instituted the practice both in Yavne and in any place where there is a court. The Gemara asks: This last statement of the Rabbis: They said to him, etc.; is the same as the opinion of the first tanna of the mishna. Why did the mishna repeat this opinion?
אִיכָּא בֵּינַיְיהוּ בֵּי דִינָא דְּאַקְרַאי. The Gemara answers: The practical difference between the opinion of the first tanna and the opinion of the Rabbis who issued that last statement is with regard to a temporary court, i.e., one that is not fixed in a certain place. According to the opinion of the first tanna, the shofar is sounded there as well, whereas according to the opinion of the Rabbis who responded to Rabbi Elazar, the shofar is sounded only in a place where there is a permanent court, similar to that in Yavne.
אָמְרוּ לוֹ: אֶחָד יַבְנֶה וְאֶחָד כׇּל מָקוֹם שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ בֵּית דִּין. אָמַר רַב הוּנָא: § The mishna taught that they said to him: He instituted the practice both in Yavne and in any place where there is a court. Rav Huna said: