ופיו מצופה זהב: והתניא ציפהו זהב במקום הנחת פיו פסול שלא במקום הנחת פיו כשר אמר אביי כי תנן נמי מתניתין שלא במקום הנחת פה תנן:
§ It was taught in the mishna: And the mouth of the shofar that was used on Rosh HaShana was plated with gold. The Gemara raises a difficulty: But isn’t it taught in a baraita: If a shofar was plated with gold at the place where one puts his mouth, it is unfit for blowing; if it was plated, but not at the place where he puts his mouth, it is fit for blowing? Abaye said: When we learned in the mishna as well, we learned that it referred not to the place where one puts his mouth, but a little above it.
ושתי חצוצרות מן הצדדים: ותרי קלי מי משתמעי והתניא זכור ושמור בדיבור אחד נאמרו מה שאין הפה יכולה לדבר ואין האוזן יכולה לשמוע לכך מאריך בשופר
§ It was taught in the mishna: And there were two trumpets, one on each of the two sides of the person sounding the shofar. The Gemara asks: But is it really possible to properly discern two different sounds, that of the shofar and that of the trumpets, at the same time? Isn’t it taught in a baraita: The two versions of the fifth of the Ten Commandments, “Remember the Shabbat day” (Exodus 20:8) and “Keep the Shabbat day” (Deuteronomy 5:12), were spoken by God simultaneously in a single utterance, something that the human mouth cannot speak and the human ear cannot hear? This indicates that it is impossible to take in two sounds at once, and so, due to the sound of the trumpets, it should be impossible to hear the blast of the shofar. The Gemara answers: For this reason they would sound a long blast with the shofar, to make it possible to hear the sound of the shofar on its own.
למימרא דכי שמע סוף תקיעה בלא תחילת תקיעה יצא וממילא תחילת תקיעה בלא סוף תקיעה יצא
The Gemara rejects this answer: Is this to say that if one hears the end of a blast without hearing the beginning of the blast he has fulfilled his obligation? In this case one hears only the end of the shofar blast, since the shofar was initially sounded together with the trumpets. If so, it would follow that if one hears the beginning of the blast without hearing the end of the blast, he has also fulfilled his obligation.
ת"ש תקע בראשונה ומשך בשניה כשתים אין בידו אלא אחת אמאי תיסלק ליה בתרתי פסוקי תקיעתא מהדדי לא פסקינן
This, however, is difficult. Come and hear that which was taught in a mishna: If one blew the initial tekia, a long, continuous shofar blast, of the first tekia-terua-tekia set, and then drew out the final tekia of that set so that it spans the length of two tekiot, it counts as only one tekia and is not considered two tekiot, i.e., the final tekia of the first set, and the initial tekia of the second set. But why is this so? Let it count for him as two tekiot, since as stated above, half a blast is considered a blast. The Gemara explains: If one hears only the beginning or the end of a shofar blast, he has indeed fulfilled his obligation, but nevertheless we do not divide a shofar blast into two.
ת"ש התוקע לתוך הבור או לתוך הדות או לתוך הפיטס אם קול שופר שמע יצא ואם קול הברה שמע לא יצא אמאי ליפוק בתחילת תקיעה מקמי דליערבב קלא
The Gemara raises another difficulty: Come and hear that which was taught in a mishna: With regard to one who sounds a shofar into a pit, or into a cistern, or into a large jug [pitas], if he clearly heard the sound of the shofar, he has fulfilled his obligation, but if he also heard the sound of an echo, he has not fulfilled his obligation. But why is this so? If half a blast is indeed considered a complete blast, let him fulfill his obligation with the beginning of the blast, before the sound is confused with the echo, since the beginning of the blast was heard clearly.
אלא תרתי קלי מחד גברא לא משתמעי מתרי גברי משתמעי
Rather, we must retreat from the explanation offered above and say as follows: Two sounds coming from one source or person cannot be discerned, and this was the miracle at Sinai in which the people heard both “Remember the Shabbat” (Exodus 20:8) and “Keep the Shabbat” (Deuteronomy 5:12) in a single divine utterance. But two sounds from two different sources or people can be properly discerned.
ומתרי גברי מי משתמעי והא תניא בתורה אחד קורא ואחד מתרגם ובלבד שלא (יהו שנים קורין) ושנים מתרגמין
The Gemara raises another difficulty: But is it really true that two sounds coming from two different people can be properly discerned? Isn’t it taught in a baraita: With regard to the public reading of the Torah, one person may read and one may translate, provided that there are not two people reading and two people translating. Consequently it is clear that two sounds cannot be properly heard, even when they come from two different people.
הא לא דמיא אלא לסיפא בהלל ובמגילה אפילו עשרה קורין אלמא כיון דחביב יהיב דעתיה הכא נמי כיון דחביב יהיב דעתיה ושמע
The Gemara answers: This is not difficult, since our case is only similar to the case mentioned in the latter clause of that baraita, which reads: With regard to the reading of hallel and the Scroll of Esther, even ten people may read simultaneously. Apparently, since these readings are dear to their listeners, they direct their attention to them, listen attentively, and distinguish between the different readers. Here too, since the sounding of the shofar is dear to the listener, he directs his attention to the matter and discerns between the two sounds.
אלא למה מאריך בשופר לידע שמצות היום בשופר:
The Gemara asks: But if it is indeed possible to discern the sound of the shofar even when it is sounded simultaneously with the trumpets, why does he sound a long blast with the shofar? The Gemara answers: This is so people should know that the mitzva of the day is specifically with the shofar.
ובתעניות בשל זכרים כפופין ופיו מצופה כסף: מאי שנא התם דזהב ומ"ש הכא דכסף איבעית אימא כל כינופיא דכסף הוא דכתיב (במדבר י, ב) עשה לך שתי חצוצרות כסף ואיבעית אימא התורה חסה על ממונן של ישראל
§ It was taught in the mishna: The shofarot that were used on public fast days were made from the curved horns of rams, and their mouths were plated with silver. The Gemara asks: What is different there that the shofar of Rosh HaShana is plated with gold, and what is different here that the shofarot of fast days are plated with silver? The Gemara answers: If you wish, you can say: Any shofar made for the purpose of gathering people together is made of silver, as it is written: “Make for yourself two trumpets of silver; of a whole piece shall you make them, and you shall use them for calling the assembly and for the journeying of the camps” (Numbers 10:2). And if you wish, you can say: The Torah spared the money of the Jewish people and therefore allows these shofarot to be made of silver, which is less costly than gold.
התם נמי נעביד דכסף אפילו הכי כבוד יו"ט עדיף
The Gemara asks: If so, there too, the shofar of Rosh HaShana should be made with silver plating. The Gemara answers: Even so, the duty of honoring the Festival is given priority, so that it is proper to beautify the shofar of Rosh HaShana. On a fast day, however, since it is not a Festival, there is no need to use gold, and silver is sufficient.
רב פפא בר שמואל סבר למיעבד עובדא כמתניתין אמר ליה רבא לא אמרו אלא במקדש תניא נמי הכי במה דברים אמורים במקדש אבל בגבולין מקום שיש חצוצרות אין שופר מקום שיש שופר אין חצוצרות
It is related that Rav Pappa bar Shmuel thought to act in accordance with the mishna regarding all the details of the shofar and the trumpets. But Rava said to him: They said this only with regard to the Temple. This is also taught in a baraita: In what case is this statement said? Only in the Temple, but in the provinces, anywhere outside the Temple, the halakha is as follows: Wherever there are trumpets, e.g., on fast days, there is no shofar, and wherever there is a shofar, e.g., on Rosh HaShana, there are no trumpets.
וכן הנהיג רבי חלפתא בציפורי ורבי חנניא בן תרדיון בסיכני וכשבא דבר אצל חכמים אמרו לא היו נוהגין כן אלא בשערי מזרח ובהר הבית בלבד
And similarly, Rabbi Ḥalafta established the custom in Tzippori as it is described in the mishna, and so did Rabbi Ḥananya ben Teradyon in Sikhni, and when the matter came before the Rabbis they said: They acted in this manner only at the east gates of the Temple and on the Temple Mount.
אמר רבא ואיתימא רבי יהושע בן לוי מאי קראה דכתיב (תהלים צח, ו) בחצוצרות וקול שופר הריעו לפני המלך ה' לפני המלך ה' הוא דבעינן חצוצרות וקול שופר אבל בעלמא לא:
Rava said, and some say it was Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi that said: What is the verse from which this is derived? As it is written: “With trumpets and the sound of a shofar make joyful noise before the Lord, the King” (Psalms 98:6), from which it may be inferred: Only before the Lord, the King, i.e., in His Temple, do we need both trumpets and the sound of a shofar, but in general, outside the Temple, we do not need both.
שוה היובל לר"ה לתקיעה ולברכות כו': א"ר שמואל בר יצחק כמאן מצלינן האידנא זה היום תחלת מעשיך זכרון ליום ראשון כמאן כרבי אליעזר דאמר בתשרי נברא העולם
§ It was taught in the mishna: Yom Kippur of the Jubilee Year is the same as Rosh HaShana with regard to both the shofar blasts that are sounded and the additional blessings that are recited in the Amida prayer. Rav Shmuel bar Yitzḥak said: In accordance with whose opinion do we pray today on Rosh HaShana, saying: This day is the beginning of Your works, a commemoration of the first day? In accordance with whom? In accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer, who said: The world was created in the month of Tishrei. We therefore mention on Rosh HaShana that it is the first day.
מתיב רב עינא שוה יובל לר"ה לתקיעה ולברכות והא איכא זה היום תחלת מעשיך זכרון ליום ראשון דבר"ה איתא וביובל ליתא כי קתני אשארא
Rav Eina raised an objection: It was taught in the mishna: Yom Kippur of the Jubilee Year is the same as Rosh HaShana with regard to both the shofar blasts that are sounded and the additional blessings that are recited in the Amida prayer. But there are the words: This day is the beginning of Your works, a commemoration of the first day, which can be recited on Rosh HaShana but cannot be recited on Yom Kippur of the Jubilee Year, which is neither: The beginning of Your works, nor: A commemoration of the first day. If so, how can one recite the same blessing on both occasions? The Gemara answers: When the mishna was taught, saying that the blessings of the Jubilee and Rosh HaShana are the same, it was taught with regard to the other parts of the blessings, but the line beginning: This day, is indeed omitted on Yom Kippur of the Jubilee Year.
רב שישא בריה דרב אידי מתני הכי א"ר שמואל בר יצחק הא דתנן שוה היובל לר"ה לתקיעה ולברכות כמאן דלא כרבי אליעזר דאי רבי אליעזר כיון דאמר בתשרי נברא העולם הא איכא זה היום תחלת מעשיך זכרון ליום ראשון דבר"ה איתא וביובל ליתא כי קתני אשארא:
Rav Sheisha, son of Rav Idi, taught the previous passage as follows: Rav Shmuel bar Yitzḥak said: That which we learn in the mishna, Yom Kippur of the Jubilee Year is the same as Rosh HaShana with regard to both the shofar blasts that are sounded and the additional blessings that are recited in the Amida prayer; in accordance with whom was it taught? Apparently it was not taught in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer, as if it reflects the view of Rabbi Eliezer, there is a difficulty. Since he said that the world was created in Tishrei, then there are also the words: This day is the beginning of Your works, a commemoration of the first day, which can be recited on Rosh HaShana, but cannot be recited on Yom Kippur of the Jubilee Year. If so, how can one recite the same blessing on both occasions? The Gemara rejects this argument: When the mishna was taught, it was taught with regard to the other parts of the blessings, but this line is indeed omitted on Yom Kippur of the Jubilee Year.
מתני׳ שופר שנסדק ודבקו פסול דיבק שברי שופרות פסול
MISHNA: A shofar that was cracked and then glued together, even though it appears to be whole, is unfit. Similarly, if one glued together broken fragments of shofarot to form a complete shofar, the shofar is unfit.