Rosh Hashanah 12bראש השנה י״ב ב
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
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12bי״ב ב

משתבא השמש אין תורמין ומעשרין מזה על זה לפי שאין תורמין ומעשרין לא מן החדש על הישן ולא מן הישן על החדש אם היתה שניה נכנסת לשלישית שניה מעשר ראשון ומעשר שני שלישית מעשר ראשון ומעשר עני

after sunset, so that they belong to the new year, one may not set aside teruma and tithe from the one to the other, as one may not set aside teruma and tithe from the new crop for the old nor from the old crop for the new. If it was the second year of the Sabbatical cycle going into the third year, the halakha is: From what he picked in the second year he must set aside first tithe, which he gives to a Levite, and second tithe, which he eats in Jerusalem; from what he picked in the third year, he must set aside first tithe and poor man’s tithe, which he gives to one who is needy.

מנה"מ אמר ריב"ל (דברים כו, יב) כי תכלה לעשר את כל מעשר תבואתך בשנה השלישית שנת המעשר שנה שאין בה אלא מעשר אחד הא כיצד מעשר ראשון ומעשר עני ומעשר שני יבטל

From where are these matters derived that during the third year one must set aside poor man’s tithe and not second tithe? Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: The verse states: “When you have made an end of tithing all the tithes of your produce in the third year, which is the year of the tithe” (Deuteronomy 26:12). This is referring to a year when there is only one of the two tithes that had been given in the previous years. How so? One sets aside first tithe and poor man’s tithe, which is explicitly mentioned in that section, and second tithe is nullified that year.

או אינו אלא אף מעשר ראשון נמי יבטל ת"ל (במדבר יח, כו) ואל הלוים תדבר ואמרת אליהם כי תקחו מאת בני ישראל את המעשר אשר נתתי לכם מאתם בנחלתכם הקישו הכתוב לנחלה מה נחלה אין לה הפסק אף מעשר ראשון אין לו הפסק

Or perhaps it is not like this, but in fact even first tithe is nullified during the third year and only one tithe is set aside, i.e., the poor man’s tithe. Therefore, the verse states: “Thus speak to the Levites, and say to them: When you take of the children of Israel the tithes which I have given you from them for your inheritance” (Numbers 18:26). The verse juxtaposes the first tithe that is given to the Levites to an inheritance of land: Just as with regard to an inheritance there is no interruption, as by Torah law a landed inheritance cannot be sold in perpetuity, but rather it passes from one generation to the next without interruption, so too, with regard to the first tithe that is given to the Levites there is no interruption, but rather it is taken every year.

(תניא אידך) כי תכלה לעשר וגו' שנה שאין בה אלא מעשר אחד הא כיצד מעשר ראשון ומעשר עני ומעשר שני יבטל יכול אף מעשר ראשון נמי יבטל ת"ל (דברים יד, כט) ובא הלוי כל זמן שבא תן לו דברי ר' יהודה

The same halakha is taught in another baraita: The verse states: “When you have made an end of tithing all the tithes of your produce in the third year, which is the year of the tithe.” This is referring to the year when there is only one of the two tithes that had been given in the previous years. How so? One sets aside first tithe and poor man’s tithe, and second tithe is canceled. One might have thought that even first tithe is canceled during the third year. Therefore, the verse states: “And the Levite, because he has no part or inheritance with you, and the stranger, and the fatherless, and the widow, who are within your gates, shall come, and shall eat and be satisfied” (Deuteronomy 14:29). Whenever the Levite comes, give him; every year you must give the Levite his tithe. This is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda.

רבי אליעזר בן יעקב אומר אינו צריך הרי הוא אומר ואל הלוים תדבר ואמרת אליהם כי תקחו מאת בני ישראל את המעשר אשר נתתי לכם מאתם בנחלתכם הקישו הכתוב לנחלה מה נחלה אין לה הפסק אף מעשר ראשון אין לו הפסק:

Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov says: One need not learn this from here but from another source, as it says: “Thus speak to the Levites, and say to them: When you take of the children of Israel the tithes which I have given you from them for your inheritance.” The verse juxtaposes the first tithe to an inheritance of land: Just as with regard to a landed inheritance there is no interruption, so too, with regard to first tithe there is no interruption.

ולנדרים וכו' ת"ר המודר הנאה מחבירו לשנה מונה שנים עשר חודש מיום ליום ואם אמר לשנה זו אפילו לא עמד אלא בעשרים ותשעה באלול כיון שהגיע יום אחד בתשרי עלתה לו שנה

§ It was taught in the baraita cited above: And the first of Tishrei is the new year for vows. The Sages taught in a baraita: One who is prohibited by a vow from deriving benefit from another for a year counts twelve months from day to day, from the day that the vow was taken. This applies whether one took a vow not to derive any benefit from another for a year, or he was the subject of someone else’s vow prohibiting him from deriving any benefit from that individual’s property for a year. But if, when he took the vow, he said: For this year, then even if he took the vow only on the twenty-ninth of Elul, once the first day of Tishrei, the following month, has arrived, it is counted as a year, and he is permitted to derive benefit from the other.

אפי' למאן דאמר יום אחד בשנה אינו חשוב שנה לצעוריה נפשיה קביל עליה והא אצטער ליה

The Gemara comments: This is true even according to the one who said that one day in a year is not considered a year, since in the case of a vow the person accepted upon himself to suffer affliction, and he has already achieved his goal and suffered affliction, and so he has fulfilled his vow.

ואימא ניסן בנדרים הלך אחר לשון בני אדם

The Gemara asks: But say that a year with regard to vows ends in Nisan. The Gemara answers: The halakha is that with regard to vows, follow the ordinary language of people. The meaning of a vow is understood in accordance with the way that the words are used in common speech, and when people speak of a year, they ordinarily count it from the beginning of Tishrei.

תנן התם התלתן משתצמח התבואה והזיתים משיביאו שליש

We learned in a mishna there (Ma’asrot 1:3): From when is produce obligated in tithes? Fenugreek is obligated from the time when it sprouts. Grain and olives are obligated from the time when they have reached one-third of their growth.

מאי משתצמח משתצמח לזרעים

The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of the phrase: From the time when it sprouts? Fenugreek begins to sprout almost immediately after it is planted. The Gemara answers: It means from the time when it sprouts for seed, i.e., from the time that its seeds are sufficiently developed to sprout into another crop.

התבואה והזיתים משיביאו שליש מנה"מ אמר רב אסי א"ר יוחנן ומטו בה משמיה דרבי יוסי הגלילי אמר קרא (דברים לא, י) מקץ שבע שנים במועד שנת השמטה בחג הסוכות שנת השמטה מאי עבידתיה בחג הסוכות שמינית היא

It was taught in the mishna: Grain and olives are obligated in tithes from the time when they have reached one-third of their growth. The Gemara asks: From where are these matters derived, that the years of produce follow the first third of their growth? Rav Asi said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said, and some determined that this statement was said in the name of Rabbi Yosei HaGelili: The verse states: “At the end of every seven years, in the time of the year of release, in the festival of Sukkot (Deuteronomy 31:10). What is the purpose of the Sabbatical Year being mentioned with the festival of Sukkot? The festival of Sukkot is already the eighth year.

אלא לומר לך כל תבואה שהביאה שליש בשביעית לפני ראש השנה אתה נוהג בו מנהג שביעית בשמינית

Rather, it comes to tell you that the halakhot of the Sabbatical Year continue to apply on Sukkot of the following year, as you must treat all produce that reached one-third of its growth in the Sabbatical Year before Rosh HaShana with the sanctity of the Sabbatical Year, even if it fully grows and is able to be used only in the eighth year.

אמר ליה ר' זירא לרב אסי

Rabbi Zeira said to Rav Asi: