Rosh Hashanah 11bראש השנה י״א ב
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
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11bי״א ב

עדות ביהוסף שמו בצאתו וגו'

And immediately afterward it is written: “This He ordained in Joseph for testimony, when he went out over the land of Egypt” (Psalms 81:6), implying that Joseph’s release from prison took place on Rosh HaShana.

בר"ה בטלה עבודה מאבותינו במצרי' כתיב הכא (שמות ו, ו) והוצאתי אתכם מתחת סבלות מצרים וכתיב התם (תהלים פא, ז) הסירותי מסבל שכמו

It was also taught in the baraita: On Rosh HaShana our forefathers’ slavery in Egypt ceased. From where is this known? It is written here: “And I will bring you out from under the burdens of Egypt” (Exodus 6:6); and it is written there, with regard to Joseph: “I removed his shoulder from the burden” (Psalms 81:7). From here it is derived by verbal analogy between the two instances of the word “burden” that just as Joseph was released from prison in Tishrei, so too, the slavery of our forefathers in Egypt ended in Tishrei.

בניסן נגאלו כדאיתא בתשרי עתידין ליגאל אתיא שופר שופר כתיב הכא תקעו בחדש שופר וכתיב התם (ישעיהו כז, יג) ביום ההוא יתקע בשופר גדול

It was taught in the baraita: In Nisan our forefathers were redeemed from Egypt, as it is explicitly stated in the Torah. The baraita continues: In Tishrei in the future the Jewish people will be redeemed in the final redemption. This is derived by means of a verbal analogy between one instance of the word shofar and another instance of the word shofar. It is written here, with regard to Rosh HaShana: “Sound a shofar at the New Moon” (Psalms 81:4), and it is written there, with regard to the final redemption: “And it shall come to pass on that day, that a great shofar shall be blown” (Isaiah 27:13).

ר' יהושע אומר בניסן נגאלו בניסן עתידין ליגאל מנלן אמר קרא (שמות יב, מב) ליל שמורים ליל המשומר ובא מששת ימי בראשית

It was also taught in the baraita: Rabbi Yehoshua says: In Nisan our forefathers were redeemed from Egypt; and in Nisan in the future the Jewish people will be redeemed in the final redemption. The Gemara asks: From where do we derive that the final redemption will be in Nisan? The verse states: “It is a night of watching for the Lord for bringing them out from the land of Egypt; this is the Lord’s night of watching, for all the children of Israel throughout their generations” (Exodus 12:42). This teaches that the night of Passover is a night that has been continuously watched, i.e., set aside for the purpose of redemption, from the six days of Creation, and it will continue to be so until the final redemption.

ואידך לילה המשומר ובא מן המזיקין

The Gemara asks: And how does the other tanna, Rabbi Eliezer, understand this verse? He derives from it that this is a night that is continuously watched and protected from demons, meaning that demons have no power on the first night of Passover.

ואזדו לטעמייהו דתניא (בראשית ז, יא) בשנת שש מאות שנה לחיי נח בחדש השני בשבעה עשר יום לחדש רבי יהושע אומר אותו היום י"ז באייר היה יום שמזל כימה שוקע ביום ומעינות מתמעטין ומתוך ששינו מעשיהן שינה הקב"ה עליהם מעשה בראשית והעלה מזל כימה ביום ונטל שני כוכבים מכימה והביא מבול לעולם

And Rabbi Eliezer and Rabbi Yehoshua follow their lines of reasoning, as they disagreed about this same issue in another context as well. As it is taught in a baraita: “In the six hundredth year of Noah’s life, in the second month, on the seventeenth day of the month, on that day were all the fountains of the great deep broken open, and the windows of heaven were opened” (Genesis 7:11). Rabbi Yehoshua says: That day was the seventeenth of Iyyar, the second month of the year counting from Nisan, which is the day that the constellation of Kima sets during the day and the season that the springs diminish with the increased heat. But because the people of the generation of the flood changed their actions for the worse, the Holy One, Blessed be He, changed for them the acts of Creation, and instead of Kima setting, He caused the constellation of Kima to rise during the day and He removed two stars from Kima, and in this way He brought a flood to the world.

ר' אליעזר אומר אותו היום י"ז במרחשון היה יום שמזל כימה עולה ביום ומעיינות מתגברים

Rabbi Eliezer disagrees and says: That day was the seventeenth of Marḥeshvan, the second month counting from Tishrei, which is the day that the constellation of Kima rises during the day and the season that the springs increase.