4:1ד׳:א׳
1 א

הִנָּךְ יָפָה רַעְיָתִי. קִלְּסָן וְרִצָּן וְעָרְבוּ עָלָיו קָרְבְּנוֹתֵיהֶם:

Behold you are beautiful my beloved. He praised them and appeased them, and their sacrifices pleased Him.

2 ב

עַד שֶׁיָּפוּחַ הַיּוֹם. שֶׁחָטְאוּ לְפָנַי בִּימֵי חָפְנִי וּפִינְחָס:

Until the sun spreads. When they sinned before Me,1The captioned text of Rashi belongs to Verse 6 below; Rashi comments here to inform us until when did the sacrifices please God. in the days of Chofni and Pinchas.2See I Shmuel 2:12-17.

3 ג

עֵינַיִךְ יוֹנִים. גַּוֹּנַיִךְ וּמַרְאִיתֵךְ וְדֻגְמָתֵךְ כַּיּוֹנָה הַזֹּאת הַדְּבֵקָה בְּבֶן זוּגָהּ, וּכְשֶׁשּׁוֹחֲטִין אוֹתָהּ אֵינָהּ מְפַרְכֶּסֶת אֶלָּא פוֹשֶׁטֶת צַוָּארָהּ, כָּךְ אַתְּ נָתַתְּ שֶׁכֶם לִסְבֹּל עֻלִּי וּמוֹרָאִי: מִבַּעַד לְצַמָּתֵךְ

Your eyes are like doves. Your hues, appearance and characteristics3I.e., עיניך here does not mean your “eyes” but your “characteristics,” i.e., appearance, as in כעין הבדלח, meaning, “as the appearance of crystal,” in Bamidbar 11:7. (Sifsei Chachomim) are like those of a dove, which cleaves to its mate, and when they slaughter it, it does not struggle but stretches forth its neck; so have you given your shoulder to bear My yoke and My fear. From within your kerchief;

4 ד

שַׂעְרֵךְ כְּעֵדֶר הָעִזִּים. הַקִּלּוּס הַזֶּה דֻּגְמַת קִלּוּס אִשָּׁה הַנֶּאֱהֶבֶת לֶחָתָן. מִבִּפְנִים לְקִשּׁוּרַיִךְ שַׂעְרֵךְ נָאֶה וּמַבְהִיק כְּצֹהַר וְלַבְנוּנִית כִּשְׂעַר עִזִּים לְבָנוֹת הַיּוֹרְדוֹת מִן הֶהָרִים וּשְׂעָרָן מַבְהִיק מֵרָחוֹק. וְהַדֻּגְמָא שֶׁדִּמָּה כְנֶסֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל לְכָךְ, זוֹ הִיא: מִבִּפְנִים לְמַחֲנוֹתַיִךְ וּמִשְׁכְּנוֹתַיִךְ, אַף הָרֵקִים שֶׁבֵּיךְ חֲבִיבִין עָלַי כְּיַעֲקֹב וּבָנָיו שֶׁגָּלְשׁוּ לָרֶדֶת מֵהַר הַגִּלְעָד כְּשֶׁהִשִׂיגָם לָבָן שָׁם. דָּבָר אַחֵר: כְּאוֹתָן שֶׁצָּבְאוּ עַל מִדְיָן בְּעֵבֶר הַיַּרְדֵּן שֶׁהִיא בְאֶרֶץ גִּלְעָד. וְלָשׁוֹן זֶה בְּמִדְרַשׁ שִׁיר הַשִּׁירִים:

your hair is like a flock of goats. This praise is allegorized as the praise of a woman beloved by her bridegroom [who says to her], “Within your kerchief, your hair is beautiful and shines with brilliance and whiteness, like the hair of white goats descending from the mountains, and whose hair shines from a distance.” And the allegory with which he compares the congregation of Yisroel is as follows: From within your camps and your dwelling places, even the empty ones among you4See Rashi in Verse 3 below. are as dear to Me as Yaakov and his sons, who trailed down from Mount Gilad when Lavan overtook them there.5See Bereishis 31:23. Another explanation, like those who mobilized against Midyan beyond the Yardein, which is in the land of Gilad. This version is in Midrash Shir Hashirim.

5 ה

מִבַּעַד. הוּא לְשׁוֹן מִבִּפְנִים, שֶׁרֹב "בְּעַד" שֶׁבַּמִּקְרָא דָבָר הַמֵּסֵךְ וּמֵגֵן נֶגֶד דָּבָר אַחֵר, כְּמוֹ "וּבְעַד כּוֹכָבִים יַחְתּם", "הָאָרֶץ בְּרִיחֶיהָ בַעֲדִי", "הַבְעַד עֲרָפֶל". וּ"מִבַּעַד" הוּא הַדָּבָר שֶׁהוּא מִבִּפְנִים לְאוֹתוֹ "בְּעַד". לְכָךְ הוּא אוֹמֵר "מִבַּעַד":

From within. This מִבַּעַד is a term meaning “from within,” for the majority of ‘בְּעַד’ in Scripture refers to something that covers and shields against something else, as in, “and He sealed up וּבְעַד the stars,”6Iyov 9:7. [and as in,] “the earth [closed] its bars against me בַּעֲדִי,”7Yonah 2:7. [and as in,] “Can He judge through הַבְעַד the heavy darkness?”8Iyov 22:13. And ‘מִבַּעַד’9The equivalent of ‘בעד’, with the mem as a prefix. is the thing that is within that ‘בְּעַד’[=covering], therefore, it says ‘מִבַּעַד’[=from within].

6 ו

צַמָּתֵךְ. לְשׁוֹן דָּבָר הַמְצַמְצֵם הַשֵּׂעָר שֶׁלֹּא יַפְרִיחַ לָצֵאת, וְזוֹ הִיא הַשְּׂבָכָה וְהַקִּשּׁוּרִים. וְלֹא יִתָּכֵן לְפָרֵשׁ צַמָּתֵךְ לְשׁוֹן צֹמֶת, שֶׁתְּהֵא הַתי"ו מֻשְׁרֶשֶׁת בַּתֵּבָה, שֶׁאִם כֵּן, הָיָה לָהּ לִהְיוֹת דְּגוּשָׁה כְּשֶׁהִיא נִסְמֶכֶת לְה"א לִפְעֹל בָּהּ פְּעֻלַּת נְקֵבָה, אוֹ לְוי"ו לִפְעֹל בּוֹ פְּעֻלַּת זָכָר כְּמוֹ תי"ו שֶׁל שַׁבָּת, כְּשֶׁהוּא נוֹתְנָהּ לִנְקֵבָה הִיא מֻדְגֶּשֶׁת, כְּמוֹ "חַגָּהּ, חָדְשָׁהּ, וְשַׁבַּתָּהּ", וְכֵן לְזָכָר, "עוֹלַת שַׁבַּת בְּשַׁבַּתּוֹ". וְתי"ו שֶׁל צַמָּתֵךְ שֶׁהִיא רָפָה, עַל כָּרְחֵנוּ בָאָה בִמְקוֹם ה"א, וִיהֵא שֵׁם הַקִּשּׁוּר צַמָּה. וּכְשֶׁהוּא סָמוּךְ לְתִתּוֹ לְזָכָר אוֹ לִנְקֵבָה, תֵּהָפֵךְ הַה"א לְתי"ו רָפָה, כְּגוֹן שִׁפְחָה תֵהָפֵךְ לוֹמַר שִׁפְחָתוֹ, שִׁפְחָתָהּ. וְכֵן אָמָה, אֲמָתוֹ, אֲמָתָהּ. עֶרְוָה, עֶרְוָתוֹ, עֶרְוָתָהּ. וְכֵן זֶה: צַמָּה, צַמָּתוֹ, צַמָּתָהּ, צַמָּתִי, צַמָּתֵךְ:

Your kerchief. An expression denoting an object which confines the hair so that it does not show, and this refers to a kerchief and ribbons. It is impossible to interpret ‘צַמָּתֵךְ’ [meaning] a veil צֹמֶת, where the tav is a radical, for if so, it should have been punctuated with a dagesh when immediately preceding a hey, which makes it in the feminine possessive, or a vav, which makes it in the masculine possessive, like the tav of ‘שַׁבָּת [Shabbos]’, which, when used in the feminine possessive form, is punctuated with a dagesh, as in, “her festival, her new moon, and her Shabbos וְשַׁבַּתָּהּ,”10Hosheia 2:13. 11Bamidbar 28:10. and similarly in the masculine form, “the burnt offering of each Shabbos in its Shabbos בְּשַׁבַּתּוֹ.”12Vayikra 13:41. But the tav of ‘צַמָּתֵךְ’, is not punctuated with a dagesh, we must perforce conclude that it comes instead of a hey, and the noun denoting kerchief is צַמָּה, and when it is possessive, to render it either in the masculine or in the feminine form the hey is converted to a tav without a dagesh, e.g., שִׁפְחָה [handmaiden] is converted in order to say שִׁפְחָתוֹ [his handmaiden] or שִׁפְחָתָהּ [her handmaiden]. And similarly אָמָה [maidservant] becomes אֲמָתוֹ [his maidservant] or אֲמָתָהּ [her maidservant]. [And similarly,] עֶרְוָה [nakedness] becomes עֶרְוָתוֹ [his nakedness] or עֶרְוָתָהּ [her nakedness]. And similarly in this case, צַמָּה [kerchief] becomes צַמָּתוֹ [his kerchief], צַמָּתָהּ [her kerchief], or צַמָּתִי [my kerchief], צַמָּתֵךְ [your kerchief].

7 ז

שֶׁגָּלְשׁוּ. שֶׁנִּקְרְחוּ. גִּבֵּחַ מְתֻרְגָּם גְּלוֹשׁ. כְּשֶׁהַבְּהֵמוֹת יוֹרְדוֹת מִן הָהָר, נִמְצָא הָהָר נִקְרָח וּמְמֹרָט מֵהֶם:

Descending. That were plucked. The word גִּבֵּחַ [bald] is rendered by the Targum as גְּלוֹשׁ.13Corresponding to “כעדר הקצובות,” i.e., “like a counted flock.” When the animals descend from the mountain, the mountain becomes bald and bare of them.