2:13ב׳:י״ג
1 א

הַתְּאֵנָה חָנְטָה פַגֶּיהָ. כְּמַשְׁמָעוֹ:

The fig tree has produced its green figs. [To be understood] according to its apparent meaning.

2 ב

וְהַגְּפָנִים סְמָדַר. כְּשֶׁנּוֹפֵל הַפֶּרַח וְהָעֲנָבִים מֻבְדָּלִים זֶה מִזֶּה וְנִכָּרִים כָּל עֲנָבָה לְעַצְמָהּ, קְרוּיָה סְמָדַר. כָּל הָעִנְיָן הַזֶּה, לְפִי פְשׁוּטוֹ, לְשׁוֹן חִבַּת פִּתּוּי, שֶׁבָּחוּר מְרַצֶּה אֶת אֲרוּסָתוֹ לֵילֵךְ אַחֲרָיו, כֵּן עָשָׂה לִי דוֹדִי:

And the grapevines with tender grapes. When the blossom falls, and the grapes become separated from one another, and each grape is discernible by itself, it is called “סְמָדַר.” This entire section, according to its simple meaning, is an expression of a loving seduction, by which a young man appeals to his betrothed to follow him; so did my beloved do to me.

3 ג

עָנָה דוֹדִי. עַל יְדֵי משֶׁה:

My beloved spoke. Through Moshe.

4 ד

וְאָמַר לִי. עַל יְדֵי אַהֲרֹן:

And said to me. Through Aharon.

5 ה

קוּמִי לָךְ. זָרְזִי עַצְמֵךְ, "וְיִשְׁאֲלוּ אִישׁ מֵאֵת רֵעֵהוּ":

Rise up. Hurry yourself, “and let each man borrow from his neighbor.”22Shemos 11:2.

6 ו

כִּי הִנֵּה הַסְּתָו עָבָר. אֵלּוּ אַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה, דִּלַּגְתִּים לִמְנוֹתָם מִשֶּׁנּוֹלַד יִצְחָק:

For behold, the winter is past. These are the four hundred years of [exile]. I skipped them by counting them from Yitzchok’s birth.23See Rashi in Bereishis 15:13.

7 ז

הַגֶּשֶׁם. שֶׁהוּא טַרְחוּתוֹ שֶׁל סְתָו, חָלַף וְהָלַךְ לוֹ. כְּלוֹמַר, שְׁמוֹנִים וְשֵׁשׁ שָׁנָה שֶׁל קשִׁי הַשִּׁעְבּוּד נִגְזְרוּ עֲלֵיכֶם וְהָלְכוּ לָהֶם. מִשֶּׁנּוֹלְדָה מִרְיָם, הִקְשׁוּ הַמִּצְרִים שִׁעְבּוּד עַל יִשְׂרָאֵל, וּלְכָךְ נִקְרֵאת מִרְיָם עַל שֶׁמֵּרְרוּם:

The rain. Which is the hardship of winter, is over and gone, i.e., eighty-six years of harsh slavery were decreed upon you, and they have passed. From the time that Miryam was born, the Egyptians intensified the bondage upon Yisroel; and therefore, she was called Miryam [= מִרְיָם, because they made it bitter [=מַר for them.24See Shemos 1:14.

8 ח

הַנִּצָּנִים נִרְאוּ בָאָרֶץ. הֲרֵי משֶׁה וְאַהֲרֹן מוּכָנִים לָכֶם לְכָל צָרְכֵיכֶם:

The blossoms have appeared on the land. Behold Moshe and Aharon are available for you to fulfill all your needs.

9 ט

עֵת הַזָּמִיר הִגִּיעַ. שֶׁאַתֶּם עֲתִידִים לוֹמַר שִׁירָה עַל הַיָּם:

The time of singing has come. For you are destined to recite a song by the [Reed] Sea.25See Shemos 15:1-19.

10 י

וְקוֹל הַתּוֹר. קוֹל הַתַּיָּר הַגָּדוֹל. דָּבָר אַחֵר: "קוֹל הַתּוֹר": קוֹל שֶׁהִגִּיעַ זְמַן יְצִיאַתְכֶם מִמִּצְרָיִם:

And the voice of the turtledove. The voice of the great guide [=תַּיָּר.26Moshe Rabbeinu. Another explanation: “קוֹל הַתּוֹר” means the tiding [=קול that the time [=תּוֹר27See Esther 2:12, where Rashi explains that תור means time [= זמן]. has arrived for your exodus from Egypt.

11 יא

הַתְּאֵנָה חָנְטָה פַגֶּיהָ. הִגִּיעַ זְמַן שֶׁל בִּכּוּרִים לִקְרֹב, שֶׁתִּכָּנְסוּ לָאָרֶץ:

The fig tree has produced its green figs. The time to bring the first fruits has arrived, for you will enter the land [of Yisroel].

12 יב

וְהַגְּפָנִים סְמָדַר. קָרֵב זְמַן נִסְכֵּי הַיָּיִן. דָּבָר אַחֵר: כְּשֵׁרִים שֶׁבָּכֶם חָנְטוּ וְהֵנֵצוּ לְפָנַי מַעֲשִׂים טוֹבִים וְהֵרִיחוּ רֵיחַ טוֹב:

And the grapevines with tender grapes. The time of the wine libations has drawn near. Another explanation: The worthy among you ripened and produced good deeds before Me and emitted a pleasant fragrance.

13 יג

קוּמִי לָכְי. כְּתִיב יו"ד יְתֵרָה, "קוּמִי לָךְ" לְקַבֵּל עֲשֶׂרֶת הַדִּבְּרוֹת.

Arise [my beloved] go forth. A superfluous yud לָכְי is written, meaning, “rise up to receive the Ten28The numerical value of yud is ten. Commandments.” Another explanation—

14 יד

דָּבָר אַחֵר: הַתְּאֵנָה חָנְטָה פַגֶּיהָ. אֵלּוּ פּוֹשְׁעֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁכָּלוּ בִשְׁלשֶׁת יְמֵי אֲפֵלָה:

The fig tree has produced its green figs. These are the sinners of Yisroel, who perished during the three days of darkness.29See Rashi in Shemos 10:22. “פגים” are unripened figs, and refer to the wicked among the Bnei Yisroel who spurned redemption, i.e., those who perished during the three days of darkness. And the grapevines with tender grapes

15 טו

וְהַגְּפָנִים סְמָדַר נָתְנוּ רֵיחַ. אֵלּוּ הַנִּשְׁאָרִים מֵהֶם, עָשׂוּ תְשׁוּבָה וְנִתְקַבְּלוּ. כָּךְ נִדְרַשׁ בִּפְסִיקְתָּא:

have emitted fragrance. These are the ones who remained of them;30Shemos 14:10. they repented and were accepted. So it is interpreted in Pesikta.