7:12ז׳:י״ב
1 א
אם על תודה יקריבנו. אִם עַל דְּבַר הוֹדָאָה עַל נֵס שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה לוֹ, כְּגוֹן יוֹרְדֵי הַיָּם וְהוֹלְכֵי מִדְבָּרוֹת וַחֲבוּשֵׁי בֵית הָאֲסוּרִים וְחוֹלֶה שֶׁנִּתְרַפֵּא — שֶׁהֵן צְרִיכִין לְהוֹדוֹת, שֶׁכָּתוּב בָּהֵן יוֹדוּ לַה' חַסְדּוֹ וְנִפְלְאוֹתָיו לִבְנֵי אָדָם וְיִזְבְּחוּ זִבְחֵי תוֹדָה (תהילים ק"ז) — אִם עַל אַחַת מֵאֵלֶּה נָדַר שְׁלָמִים הַלָלוּ, שַׁלְמֵי תוֹדָה הֵן, וּטְעוּנוֹת לֶחֶם הָאָמוּר בָּעִנְיָן, וְאֵין נֶאֱכָלִין אֶלָּא לְיוֹם וָלַיְלָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁמְּפֹרָשׁ כַּאן: אם על תורה יקריבנו IF HE OFFER IT FOR A THANKSGIVING — i.e., if he brings if on account of (על) a matter that requires thanksgiving (תודה): on account of a miraculous deliverance that was wrought for him, as being, for instance, one of those who have made a sea-voyage. or travelled in the wilderness, or had been kept in prison, or if he had been sick and was now healed, all of whom are bound to offer thanks-giving, since it is written with reference to them, (Psalms 107:8, 15, 21, 31) “Let them offer thanksgiving to the Lord for His goodness, and for His wonderful works to the children of men!” (cf. Rashi on those vv. and on vv. 4, 10, 17 and 23 of that chapter; see also Berakhot 54b) — if it is on account of one of these things that he vowed those peace offerings, they are “peace offerings for acknowledgement” and require the offering of bread that is mentioned in the section, and may not be eaten beyond a period of one day and one night as it is here set forth (v. 15) [whilst other שלמים may be eaten at any time during two days and the intervening night].
2 ב
והקריב על זבח התודה. אַרְבָּעָה מִינֵי לֶחֶם — חַלּוֹת וּרְקִיקִין וּרְבוּכָה, שְׁלשָׁה מִינֵי מַצָּה, וּכְתִיב עַל חַלֹּת לֶחֶם חָמֵץ וְגוֹ'; וְכָל מִין וָמִין עֶשֶׂר חַלּוֹת, כַּךְ מְפֹרָשׁ בִּמְנָחוֹת, וְשִׁעוּרָן חָמֵשׁ סְאִין יְרוּשַׁלְמִיּוֹת, שֶׁהֵן ו' מִדְבָּרִיּוֹת, כ' עִשָּׂרוֹן (מנחות ע"ו): והקריב על זבח התודה [IF HE OFFER IT FOR AN ACKNOWLEDGEMENT] THEN HE SHALL OFFER WITH THE SACRIFICE OF ACKNOWLEDGEMENT four sorts of bread: cakes, wafers and cakes of flour saturated with oil — these being three kinds of unleavened bread; it further states (v. 13), “together with cakes of leavened bread [he shall offer his offering etc.]”, thus making four. Each kind consisted of ten cakes; thus is it explained in Treatise Menachoth 77a. And their total measure was five Seahs according to the Jerusalem standard, these being equal to six Seahs of the “wilderness” standard (i.e. in force at the period when the Israelites were in the wilderness) comprising 20 tenths of an ephah) (Menachot 76b).
3 ג
מרבכת. לֶחֶם חָלוּט בְּרוֹתְחִין כָּל צָרְכּוֹ: מרבכת — bread scalded with oil, as much as is needed to saturate it.