לא יאכל קדש. בִּתְרוּמָה הַכָּתוּב מְדַבֵּר, שֶׁכָּל הָעִנְיָן דִּבֵּר בָּהּ: לא יאכל קדש [THERE SHALL] NO [LAYMAN] EAT OF THE HOLY THINGS — Scripture is speaking here of the heave-offering (i. e., the word קדש means here תרומה only, and not any holy food) because the whole section (cf. Rashi on v. 7 and 9) is speaking of this.
תושב כהן ושכיר. תּוֹשָׁבוֹ שֶׁל כֹּהֵן וּשְׂכִירוֹ, לְפִיכָךְ "תּוֹשַׁב" זֶה נָקוּד פַּתָּח, לְפִי שֶׁהוּא דָּבוּק; וְאֵיזֶהוּ תּוֹשָׁב? זֶה נִרְצָע שֶׁהוּא קָנוּי לוֹ עַד הַיּוֹבֵל, וְאֵיזֶהוּ שָֹכִיר? זֶה קָנוּי קִנְיַן שָׁנִים שֶׁיּוֹצֵא בְשֵׁשׁ, בָּא הַכָּתוּב וְלִמֶּדְךָ כָּאן שֶׁאֵין גּוּפוֹ קָנוּי לַאֲדוֹנָיו לֶאֱכֹל בִּתְרוּמָתוֹ (ספרא; יבמות ע'): תושב כהן ושכיר A SOJOURNER WITH THE PRIEST OR A HIRED SERVANT [SHALL NOT EAT OF THE HOLY THINGS] — These words mean: the תושב of a כהן and his שכיר (not a כהן who is a תושב or a שכיר); on this account this word תושב here is punctuated with a Patach, because it is in the construct state. What is a תושב? One (a Hebrew servant) whose ear has been pierced (cf. Exodus 21:6), who thereby becomes his (the master’s) possession until the Jubilee year. And what is a שכיר? One (a Hebrew servant) who has been acquired as his possession for a limited number of years only — who goes free at the end of six years (cf. Exodus 21:2). Scripture intends to teach you here that it is not his body (that of the תושב or the שכיר), but only his labour for a term of years that has been acquired by his master that he should become entitled to eat of his heave-offering (as is the case with the קנין כספו, with “a person obtained as a property with money”, mentioned in the next verse) (Sifra, Emor, Section 5 17; Yevamot 70b).