מכל האכל אשר יאכל. מוּסָב עַל מִקְרָא הָעֶלְיוֹן: "כל אשר בתוכו יטמא מִכָּל הָאֹכֶל אֲשֶׁר יֵאָכֵל" אֲשֶׁר בָּאוּ עָלָיו מַיִם וְהוּא בְּתוֹךְ כְּלִי חֶרֶס הַטָּמֵא יִטְמָא (וְכֵן כָּל מַשְׁקֶה אֲשֶׁר יִשָּׁתֶה בְּכָל כְּלִי וְהוּא בְּתוֹךְ כְּלִי חֶרֶס הַטָּמֵא יִטְמָא). לָמַדְנוּ מִכָּאן דְּבָרִים הַרְבֵּה, לָמַדְנוּ שֶׁאֵין אֹכֶל מֻכְשָׁר וּמְתֻקָּן לְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה עַד שֶׁיָּבֹאוּ עָלָיו מַיִם פַּעַם אַחַת, וּמִשֶּׁבָּאוּ עָלָיו מַיִם פַּעַם אַחַת מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה לְעוֹלָם וַאֲפִלוּ נָגוּב, וְהַיַּיִן וְהַשֶּׁמֶן וְכָל הַנִּקְרָא מַשְׁקֶה מַכְשִׁיר זְרָעִים לְטֻמְאָה כַּמַּיִם, שֶׁכָּךְ יֵשׁ לִדְרֹשׁ הַמִּקְרָא: אֲשֶׁר יָבֹא עָלָיו מַיִם אוֹ כָל מַשְׁקֶה אֲשֶׁר יִשָּׁתֶה בְּכָל כְּלִי, יִטְמָא הָאֹכֶל, וְעוֹד לָמְדוּ רַבּוֹתֵינוּ מִכָּאן שֶׁאֵין וְלַד הַטֻּמְאָה מְטַמֵּא כֵלִים שֶׁכָּךְ שָׁנִינוּ (פסחים פ'), יָכוֹל יְהוּ כָל הַכֵּלִים מִטַּמְּאִין מֵאֲוִיר כְּלִי חֶרֶס תַּ"ל כֹּל אֲשֶׁר בְּתוֹכוֹ יִטְמָא מִכָּל הָאֹכֶל — אֹכֶל (וּמַשְׁקֶה) מִטַּמֵּא מֵאֲוִיר כְּלִי חֶרֶס וְאֵין כָּל הַכֵּלִים מִטַּמְּאִין מֵאֲוִיר כְּלִי חֶרֶס — לְפִי שֶׁהַשֶּׁרֶץ אַב הַטֻּמְאָה וְהַכְּלִי שֶׁנִּטְמָא מִמֶּנּוּ וְלַד הַטֻּמְאָה, לְפִיכָךְ אֵינוֹ חוֹזֵר וּמְטַמֵּא כֵלִים שֶׁבְּתוֹכוֹ, וְלָמַדְנוּ עוֹד שֶׁהַשֶּׁרֶץ שֶׁנָּפַל לַאֲוִיר הַתַּנּוּר וְהַפַּת בְּתוֹכוֹ וְלֹא נָגַע הַשֶּׁרֶץ בַּפַּת, הַתַּנּוּר רִאשׁוֹן וְהַפַּת שְׁנִיָּה, וְלֹא נֹאמַר רוֹאִין אֶת הַתַּנּוּר כְּאִלּוּ מָלֵא טֻמְאָה וּתְהֵא הַפַּת תְּחִלָּה, שֶׁאִם אַתָּה אוֹמֵר כֵּן, לֹא נִתְמַעֲטוּ כָל הַכֵּלִים מִלִּטַּמֵּא מֵאֲוִיר כְּלִי חֶרֶס, שֶׁהֲרֵי טֻמְאָה עַצְמָהּ נָגְעָה בָּהֶן מִגַּבָּן, וְלָמַדְנוּ עוֹד עַל בִּיאַת מַיִם שֶׁאֵינָהּ מַכְשֶׁרֶת זְרָעִים אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן נָפְלוּ עֲלֵיהֶן מִשֶּׁנִּתְלְשׁוּ, שֶׁאִם אַתָּה אוֹמֵר מְקַבְּלִין הֶכְשֵׁר בִּמְחֻבָּר, אֵין לְךָ שֶׁלֹּא בָאוּ עָלָיו מַיִם, וּמַהוּ אוֹמֵר אֲשֶׁר יָבֹא עָלָיו מַיִם? וְלָמַדְנוּ עוֹד שֶׁאֵין אֹכֶל מְטַמֵּא אֲחֵרִים אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יֵשׁ בּוֹ כַּבֵּיצָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר אֲשֶׁר "יֵאָכֵל" — אֹכֶל הַנֶּאֱכָל בְּבַת אֶחָת, וְשִׁעֲרוּ חֲכָמִים אֵין בֵּית הַבְּלִיעָה מַחֲזִיק יוֹתֵר מִבֵּיצַת תַּרְנְגֹלֶת (ספרא; יומא פ'): מכל האכל אשר יאכל OF ALL THE FOOD WHICH MAY BE EATEN — This is to be connected with the preceding verse (consequently the words ואתו תשברו v. 33 are a parenthesis): “whatsoever is in it shall be unclean”; viz., anything of all food which may be eaten upon which water has once come, if it is in an earthen vessel which is unclean, itself becomes unclean. [And similarly all drink that may be drunk in any vessel, if it is in an earthen vessel that is unclean, itself becomes unclean]. From this we learn several things: we learn that food is not fitted and liable to become unclean until water has once come upon it, and after water has once come on it it can any time after become unclean, and even after it has become dry; that wine and oil and anything which is termed משקה, liquid, (besides the three mentioned, also blood, milk, dew and honey of bees; cf. Mishnah Makhshirin 6:4) makes vegetation fitted to become unclean even as water does, for thus must the verse be expounded: any food upon which there cometh water or any liquid which may be drunk out of any vessel, that food shall become unclean. Further our Rabbis derive from here the law that a “secondary uncleanness” (ולד הטומאה) cannot render “vessels” (a term used to denote anything except food and animate beings) unclean. For thus we read in a Boraitha (Pesachim 20a): One might think, since Scripture states v. 33: anything that is inside it shall be unclean, that all “vessels” that are placed inside an earthen vessel become unclean through the medium of the interior of an earthen vessel (i. e. because they are in contact with the earthen vessel which has itself become unclean through something unclean having been inside it)! It, however, says: all that is within it shall become unclean … of any food etc., — i.e., food [and liquids] may become unclean through the medium of the interior of an unclean earthen vessel, but no “vessels” can become unclean through the medium of the interior of an unclean earthen vessel. Now since a dead שרץ, “reptile” (which causes the uncleanness to the earthen vessel) is a primary source of uncleanness (אב הטומאה) and the object which has been rendered unclean by it (in this case the כלי חרס) is a secondary uncleanness (ולד הטומאה), consequently we have the rule that the latter a secondary uncleanness — cannot in turn render unclean “vessels” which are in it. And we further learn from this (Pesachim 20a) that if a dead reptile (שרץ) falls into the interior of an earthen oven in which there is bread, but the reptile does not come in contact with the bread, the oven becomes a secondary source of uncleanness of the first degree (ראשון לטומאה) and the bread one of the second degree (because the bread only becomes unclean through having come in contact with the oven which is only a secondary source of uncleanness of the first degree, and not a primary source): and we do not say that we regard the oven which contains the primary source as though it were full of uncleanness, and is itself a primary source, so that the bread should be a secondary uncleanness of the first degree (תחלה), as though it had itself touched the primary source; for if you argue so, then any article which is in an earthen vessel is not excluded from becoming unclean through the medium of its interior (whilst we have just stated that “vessels” are excluded — that in such a case they do not become unclean), because you see, if we assume that the whole interior is full of a primary source of uncleanness, it would be as though this uncleanness itself has touched them (the objects) on their outside and then the objects would indeed have become unclean: we, however, have stated that in such a case they do not become unclean; therefore we do not assume that the primary source of uncleanness fills the whole interior: the bread therefore receives the uncleanness not from the carcass but from the oven and is thus a secondary uncleanness of the second degree which does not further transfer its uncleanness to things which have no sacred character. — And we further learn (Chullin 118b; cf. Sifra, Shemini, Section 8 2) in regard to the “coming of water”, that this does not render vegetation fitted to become unclean unless it falls upon them after they have been plucked; because if you say that they (the vegetation) can acquire this fitness whilst still attached to the soil, then the law has no significance at all, for you have no growing vegetation upon which water does not fall at some time or other, and what, then, is the sense of Scripture saying, “upon which water cometh”? — And we further learn (Yoma 80a) that articles of food which are unclean do not render other food unclean unless the former contains at least a volume equal to that of an egg, for it says: “[food] which may be eaten”, i.e. food which may be eaten at one time, and our Rabbis calculated that the gullet does not hold more than a hen’s egg (Sifra, Shemini, Chapter 9 1; cf. also Yoma 80a).