49:6מ״ט:ו׳
1 א

בסדם אל תבא נפשי. זֶה מַעֲשֵׂה זִמְרִי, כְּשֶׁנִּתְקַבְּצוּ שִׁבְטוֹ שֶׁל שִׁמְעוֹן לְהָבִיא אֶת הַמִּדְיָנִית לִפְנֵי מֹשֶׁה וְאָמְרוּ לוֹ, זוֹ אֲסוּרָה אוֹ מֻתֶּרֶת? אִם תֹּאמַר אֲסוּרָה, בַּת יִתְרוֹ מִי הִתִּירָהּ לָךְ? – אַל יִזָּכֵר שְׁמִי בַּדָּבָר, זִמְרִי בֶּן סָלוּא נְשִׂיא בֵית אָב לַשִּׁמְעוֹנִי וְלֹא כָּתַב בֶּן יַעֲקֹב:

בסדם אל תבא נפשי O MY SOUL, COME NOT THOU INTO THEIR SECRET DELIBERATION (סוד may have the sense of plot) — this has reference to the story of Zimri, (Numbers 25:6-15) when the tribe of Simeon assembled and brought the Midianitish woman before Moses, saying, “Is this woman forbidden or permitted to be taken as a wife? If you say she is forbidden, who made the daughter of Jethro permissible to you in marriage” (See Sanhedrin 82b) — let not my name be mentioned in connection with that event! Indeed, it is said (Numbers 25:14) “Zimri, the son of Zalu, a prince of a father’s house among the Simeonites” — but Scripture does not state “a son of Jacob”.

2 ב

בקהלם. כְּשֶׁיַּקְהִיל קֹרַח, שֶׁהוּא מִשִּׁבְטוֹ שֶׁל לֵוִי, אֶת כָּל הָעֵדָה עַל מֹשֶׁה וְעַל אַהֲרֹן,

בקהלם UNTO THEIR ASSEMBLY — when Korah of the tribe of Levi will assemble the entire congregation against Moses and Aaron —

3 ג

אל תחד כבודי. שָׁם, אַל יִתְיַחֵד עִמָּהֶם שְׁמִי, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר קֹרַח בֶּן יִצְהָר בֶּן קְהָת בֶּן לֵוִי, וְלֹא נֶאֱמַר בֶּן יַעֲקֹב; אֲבָל בְּדִבְרֵי הַיָּמִים, כְּשֶׁנִּתְיַחֲסוּ בְּנֵי קֹרַח עַל הַדּוּכָן, נֶאֱמַר בֶּן קֹרַח בֶּן יִצְהָר בֶּן קְהָת בֶּן לֵוִי בֶּן יִשְׂרָאֵל (דברי הימים א ו'):

אל תחד כבודי MY GLORY BE NOT THOU UNITED — let my name not be associated there with them! (Genesis Rabbah 98:5) And so it was, for it is said (Numbers 16:1) “Korah, the son of Izhar, the son of Kohath. the son of Levi” — but it does not say “the son of Jacob”. In Chronicles, however, (1 Chronicles 6:22,23), where the genealogy of Korah is traced in connection with the “Duchan” (properly, the platform — the place on which the Levites were stationed for the service of song in the Temple) it is said, “the son of Korah, the son of Izhar, the son of Kohath, the son of Levi, the son of Israel (Genesis Rabbah 98:5).

4 ד

אל תחד כבודי. כָּבוֹד לְשׁוֹן זָכָר הוּא, וְעַל כָּרְחֲךָ אַתָּה צָרִיךְ לְפָרֵשׁ כִּמְדַבֵּר אֶל הַכָּבוֹד וְאוֹמֵר אַתָּה, כְבוֹדִי אַל תִּתְיַחֵד עִמָּהֶם כְּמוֹ לֹא תֵחַד אִתָּם בִּקְבוּרָה (ישעיה י"ד):

אל תחד כבדי MY GLORY BE NOT THOU UNITED — כבוד is masculine and therefore you must needs explain the phrase as though he were addressing himself to “the glory” saying, “thou, my glory, be not united with them!” תחד is exactly the same grammatical form (2nd masc. sing. and not 3rd fem. sing.) as (Isaiah 14:20) “Thou shall not be united (אל תחד) with them in burial”

5 ה

כי באפם הרגו איש. אֵלּוּ חֲמוֹר וְאַנְשֵׁי שְׁכֶם, וְאֵינָן חֲשׁוּבִין כֻּלָּם אֶלָּא כְאִישׁ אֶחָד; וְכֵן הוּא אוֹמֵר בְּגִדְעוֹן, וְהִכִּיתָ אֶת מִדְיָן כְּאִישׁ אֶחָד (שופטים ו') וְכֵן בְּמִצְרַיִם סוּס וְרֹכְבוֹ רָמָה בַיָּם, זֶהוּ מִדְרָשׁוֹ. וּפְשׁוּטוֹ, אֲנָשִׁים הַרְבֵּה קוֹרֵא אִישׁ – כָּל אֶחָד לְעַצְמוֹ, בְּאַפָּם הָרְגוּ כָל אִישׁ שֶׁכָּעֲסוּ עָלָיו, וְכֵן וַיִּלְמַד לִטְרָף טֶרֶף אָדָם אָכָל (יחזקאל י"ט):

כי באפם הרגו איש FOR IN THEIR WRATH THEY SLEW A MAN — This refers to Hamor and the people of Shechem, and they are spoken of as איש “one” man because they were all regarded as of no more account than one man when it was a matter of attacking them. It likewise states in the history of Gideon, (Judges 6:16) “And thou shalt smite the Midianites as one man”, and similarly concerning Egypt, (Exodus 15:1) “The horse (singular) and its rider (singular) hath he thrown into the sea” (i.e. the whole army as though it consisted of but one horse and its rider). This is a Midrashic interpretation (Genesis Rabbah 99:6). The plain meaning of the use of the singular form is: a group of men is called “a man” having in mind each one separately, so that the meaning is: they slew every man with whom they were angry. Similar is (Ezekiel 19:3) “and he learned to catch the prey, he devoured (אדם) a man” (which is the same as בני אדם “men”)

6 ו

וברצנם עקרו שור. רָצוּ לַעֲקֹר אֶת יוֹסֵף שֶׁנִּקְרָא שׁוֹר, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בְּכוֹר שׁוֹרוֹ הָדָר לוֹ (דברים ל"ג). עִקְּרוּ אשרי"טיר בְּלַעַז, לְשׁוֹן אֶת סוּסֵיהֶם תְּעַקֵּר (יהושע י"א):

וברצונם עקרו שור AND IN THEIR SELFWILL THEY LAMED AN OX — they desired to exterminate Joseph who is called שור, as it is said, (Deuteronomy 23:17) “His firstling bullock (שורו) (Joseph), majesty is his”. עקרו means in old French essarter. It has the same meaning as in (Joshua 11:6) “Thou shalt hamstring (תעקר) their horses”.