49:5מ״ט:ה׳
1 א

שמעון ולוי אחים. בְּעֵצָה אַחַת עַל שְׁכֶם וְעַל יוֹסֵף; וַיֹּאמְרוּ אִישׁ אֶל אָחִיו, וְעַתָּה לְכוּ וְנַהַרְגֵהוּ, מִי הֵם? אִ"תֹּ רְאוּבֵן אוֹ יְהוּדָה, הֲרֵי לֹא הִסְכִּימוּ בַּהֲרִיגָתוֹ; אִ"תֹּ בְּנֵי הַשְּׁפָחוֹת, הֲרֵי לֹא הָיְתָה שִׂנְאָתָן שְׁלֵמָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וְהוּא נַעַר אֶת בְּנֵי בִלְהָה וְאֶת בְּנֵי זִלְפָּה וְגוֹ', יִשָּׂשכָר וּזְבוּלֻן לֹא הָיוּ מְדַבְּרִים בִּפְנֵי אֲחֵיהֶם הַגְּדוֹלִים מֵהֶם; עַל כָּרְחֲךָ שִׁמְעוֹן וְלֵוִי הֵם שֶׁקְּרָאָם אֲבִיהֶם אַחִים:

שמעון ולוי אחים SIMEON AND LEVI WERE BRETHREN in the plot against Shechem and against Joseph. Scripture states, (Genesis 37:19—20) “And they said one to another… (literally, one to his brother) come now therefore and let us slay him” (Midrash Tanchuma, Vayechi 9). Now, who were these? Should you say Reuben or Judah was one of them — but they were not consenting parties to slaying him (cf. Genesis 37:21, Genesis 37:22 and Genesis 37:26). Should you say they were the sons of the handmaids (Dan, Naphtali, Gad or Asher) — their hatred of Joseph was not so perfect a hatred that they would wish to kill him for it is said, (Genesis 37:2) “whilst a lad he used to be with the sons of Bilhah and with the sons of Zilpah etc.” Issachar and Zebulun would certainly not have spoken thus in the presence of their elder brothers. Consequently one must needs say that they were Simeon and Levi whom their father called “brethren” (Midrash Tanchuma, Vayechi 9).

2 ב

כלי חמס. אֻמָּנוּת זוֹ שֶׁל רְצִיחָה, חָמָס הוּא בִידֵיהֶם – מִבִּרְכַּת עֵשָׂו הִיא זוֹ, אֻמָּנוּת שֶׁלּוֹ הִיא – וְאַתֶּם חֲמַסְתֶּם אוֹתָהּ הֵימֶנּוּ:

כלי חמס INSTRUMENTS OF VIOLENCE (חמס may mean something that has been usurped from another) — This business of murdering is חמס, not rightly theirs; it is part of the blessing conferred upon Esau; it is his business and you have usurped (חמסתם) it from him (Midrash Tanchuma, Vayechi 9).

3 ג

מכרתיהם. לְשׁוֹן כְּלֵי זַיִן, הַסַּיִף בִּלְשׁוֹן יְוָנִי מכי"ר, תַּנְחוּמָא. דָּבָר אַחֵר מְכֵרֹתֵיהֶם – בְּאֶרֶץ מְגוּרָתָם נָהֲגוּ עַצְמָן בִּכְלֵי חָמָס, כְּמוֹ מְכֹרֹתַיִךְ וּמֹלְדֹתַיִךְ (יחזקאל טז), וְזֶהוּ תַרְגּוּם שֶׁל אֻנְקְלוֹס:

מכרתיהם denotes weapons. In the Greek language the word for a sword is fiaxmoa (Midrash Tanchuma, Vayechi 9). Another interpretation of מכרתיהם is: (taking מכרתיהם as מגרתיהם their sojournings with an interchange of כ and ג) in the land of their sojournings they got into the habit of using weapons of violence, מכרתיהם being of the same root as (Ezekiel 16:3) “Thine habitation (מכרתיך) and thy nativity [is in the land of the Canaanite].” This is how Onkelos renders it.