49:19מ״ט:י״ט
1 א

גד גדוד יגודנו. כֻּלָּם לְשׁוֹן גְּדוּד הֵם, וְכָךְ חִבְּרוֹ מְנַחֵם; וְאִם תֹּאמַר, אֵין גְּדוּד בְּלֹא שְׁנֵי דַּלְתִי"ן, יֵשׁ לוֹמַר גְּדוּד שֵׁם דָּבָר צָרִיךְ שְׁנֵי דַּלְתִי"ן, שֶׁכֵּן דֶּרֶךְ תֵּבָה בַּת שְׁתֵּי אוֹתִיּוֹת לִכְפֹּל בְּסוֹפָהּ, וְאֵין יְסוֹדָהּ אֶלָּא שְׁתֵּי אוֹתִיּוֹת, וְכֵן אָמַר כַּצִּפּוֹר לָנוּד (משלי כ"ו), מִגִּזְרַת שָׂבַעְתִּי נְדֻדִים (איוב ז'), שָׁם נָפַל שָׁדוּד (שופטים ה'), מִגִּזְרַת יָשׁוּד צָהֳרָיִם (תהלים צ"א), אַף יָגֻד, יְגוּדֶנּוּ וּגְדוּד מִגִּזְרָה אַחַת הֵם; וּכְשֶׁהוּא מְדַבֵּר בִּלְשׁון יִפְעֹל אֵינוֹ כָפוּל, כְּמוֹ יָגוּד, יָנוּד, יָרוּם, יָשׁוּד, יָשׁוּב, וּכְשֶׁהוּא מִתְפַּעֵל אוֹ מַפְעִיל אֲחֵרִים הוּא כָפוּל, כְּמוֹ יִתְגּוֹדֵד, יִתְרוֹמֵם, יִתְבּוֹלֵל, יִתְעוֹדֵד; וּבִלְשׁוֹן מַפְעִיל, יָתוֹם וְאַלְמָנָה יְעוֹדֵד (תהילים קמ"ו), לְשׁוֹבֵב יַעֲקֹב אֵלָיו (ישעיה מ"ט), מְשֹׁבֵב נְתִיבוֹת (שם נ"ח), יְגוּדֶנּוּ הָאָמוּר כָּאן אֵינוֹ לְשׁוֹן שֶׁיִּפְעֲלוּהוּ אֲחֵרִים, אֶלָּא כְּמוֹ יָגוּד הֵימֶנּוּ, כְּמוֹ בָּנַי יְצָאֻנִי (ירמיהו י') – יָצְאוּ מִמֶּנִּי. גד גדוד יגודנו, גְּדוּדִים יָגוֹדּוּ הֵימֶנּוּ שֶׁיַּעַבְרוּ הַיַּרְדֵּן עִם אֲחֵיהֶם לַמִּלְחָמָה כָּל חָלוּץ עַד שֶׁנִּכְבְּשָׁה הָאָרֶץ:

גד גדוד יגודנו GAD, AN ASSAILING TROOP SHALL ASSAIL HIM — all the words in this verse which have, the letters גד are connected in meaning with the word גדוד and so also did Menachem ben Seruk classify them. Should you say, however, that גדוד has always two ד’s and these words have only one, the answer is: The word גדוד is a noun and therefore requires two ד’s, for it is the way of a biliteral root to have the second letter doubled when used as a noun; the root proper, however, consists only of two letters. Thus it says, (Proverbs 26:2) כצפור לנוד “the wandering sparrow”, (לנוד a verb, infinitive) of the same derivation as נדודים in (Job 7:4) “I am full of גדודים wanderings” (a noun); (Judges 5:27) ‘‘there he fell down (שדוד) dead”, a noun in meaning, which is of the same derivation as the verb in (Psalms 41:6) “that wasteth (ישוד) at moon-day”. So, also, יגודנו ,יגוד and גדוד have the same derivation. When, also, one uses such biliteral roots in the future tense Kal, it (the second letter) is not doubled. For example: יגוד he will troop, ינוד he will wander, ירום he will be high, ישוד he will devastate, ישוב he will come back. When, however, such a root is used in a reflexive sense (Hithpael) or in a causative-transitive sense the second letter is doubled Examples are: יתעודד ,יתרומם ,יתבולל ,יתגודד. Examples of the causative-transitive sense are: (Psalms 146:9) “He strengtheneth (יעודד) the fatherless and the widow”; (Isaiah 49:5) “To bring Jacob back (לשובב) to Him”; (Isaiah 48:12) “The restorer (משובב) of paths”. The form יגודנו which is used here has not the force that others will make him do something (i.e. it has not this causative-transitive sense with the direct accusative suffix נוּ) but it means “a troop will troop out from him”, exactly the same as (Jeremiah 10:20) בני יצאוני which means “my children have gone forth from me”, (as we might say “have left me”). (Cf. Rashi on Genesis דברו לשלום 37:4, and on תמלאמו Exodus 15:9.). גד גדוד יגודנו accordingly means, “troops will troop out of him” signifying that they (the Gadites) will cross the Jordan with their brethren, all armed, and remain with them until the land will have been conquered.

2 ב

והוא יגוד עקב. כָּל גְּדוּדָיו יָשׁוּבוּ עַל עֲקֵבָם לְנַחֲלָתָם שֶׁלָּקְחוּ בְּעֵבֶר הַיַּרְדֵּן, וְלֹא יִפָּקֵד מֵהֶם אִישׁ:

והוא יגד עקב means all his troops will return in their own tracks back to their territory which they will receive on the other side of the Jordan and not one of them will be missing.

3 ג

עקב. בְּדַרְכָּן וּבִמְסִלּוֹתָם שֶׁהָלְכוּ, יָשׁוּבוּ, כְּמוֹ וְעִקְּבוֹתֶיךָ לֹא נֹדָעוּ (תהילים ע"ז), וְכֵן בְּעִקְבֵי הַצֹּאן (שיר א'), בִּלְשׁוֹן לַעַז טרצי"אם:

עקב This means: By the same roads and paths upon which they had traveled shall they return. The word עקב has the same meaning as in (Psalms 128:20) “And thy foot-steps (עקבותיך) were not known”; (Song of Songs 1:8) “by the footsteps (עקבות) of the flock”. In old French traces; English, tracks.