4:19ד׳:י״ט
1 א

ויקח לו למך. לֹא הָיָה לוֹ לְפָרֵשׁ כָּל זֶה, אֶלָּא לְלַמְּדֵנוּ מִסּוֹף הָעִנְיָן, שֶׁקִּיֵּם הַקָּבָּ"ה הַבְטָחָתוֹ שֶׁאָמַר שִׁבְעָתַיִם יֻקַּם קָיִן, עָמַד לֶמֶךְ לְאַחַר שֶׁהוֹלִיד בָּנִים וְעָשָׂה דּוֹר שְׁבִיעִי וְהָרַג אֶת קַיִן, זֶהוּ שֶׁאָמַר כִּי אִישׁ הָרַגְתִּי לְפִצְעִי וְגוֹמֵר:

ויקח לו למך AND LAMECH TOOK UNTO HIMSELF — It would not have been necessary to state all this in detail except to inform us by the conclusion of the narrative that the Holy One, blessed be He, kept the promise He made when He said, שבעתים יקם קין “vengeance shall be taken of Cain after seven generations״; for Lamech arose after he had begotten children and had raised the seventh generation and killed Cain. It is to this that the statement refers: כי איש הרגתי לפצעי וגו “for I have slain a man to my wounding etc.” (v. 23).

2 ב

שתי נשים. כָּךְ הָיָה דַּרְכָּן שֶׁל דּוֹר הַמַּבּוּל אַחַת לִפְרִיָּה וּרְבִיָּה וְאַחַת לְתַשְׁמִישׁ, זוֹ שֶׁהִיא לְתַשְׁמִישׁ מַשְׁקָהּ כּוֹס שֶׁל עִקָּרִין כְּדֵי שֶׁתֵּעָקֵר וּמְקֻשֶּׁטֶת כְּכַלָּה וּמַאֲכִילָהּ מַעֲדַנִּים, וַחֲבֶרְתָּהּ נְזוּפָה וַאֲבֵלָה כְּאַלְמָנָה, וְזֶהוּ שֶׁפֵּרֵשׁ אִיּוֹב רֹעֶה עֲקָרָה לֹא תֵלֵד וְאַלְמָנָה לֹא יְיֵטִיב (איוב כ"ד), כְּמוֹ שֶׁמְּפֹרָשׁ בְּאַגָּדַת חֵלֶק (וּבִבְ"רַ):

שתי נשים TWO WIVES — This was the custom of the generation that lived before the time of the Flood; they had two wives, one for child-bearing, the other for frivolous companionship and charm; the latter was given a cup of some drug to drink in order that she might become barren, and was dressed up like a bride and fed with the best food, whilst her fellow-wife was left without her husband’s companionship and ever mourned like a widow. Job expressly mentions this (Job 24:21). “He is a companion to (or, he feedeth) the barren that beareth not, and does not good to the widow”, as it is explained in the Agada of Pereq Chelek (see also Genesis Rabbah 23:2).

3 ג

עדה. הִיא שֶׁל פְּרִיָּה וּרְבִיָּה עַל שֵׁם שֶׁמְּגֻנָּה עָלָיו וּמוּסֶרֶת מֵאֶצְלוֹ, עָדָה תַּרְגּוּם שֶׁל סוּרָה:

עדה ADAH — She was the wife intended for propagation, and she was so named because she was repulsive to him and was kept aloof from him [other versions read “from his table “] for עדה is the Aramaic word for סורה kept aloof.”

4 ד

צלה. הִיא שֶׁל תַּשְׁמִישׁ, עַל שֵׁם שֶׁיּוֹשֶׁבֶת תָּמִיד בְּצִלּוֹ, דִּבְרֵי אַגָּדָה הֵם בִּבְ"רַ:

צלה ZILLAH — She was the one for companionship alone, and she was so named because she always abided in his shadow (צל means “shadow”). Thus is the statement of the Agada in Genesis Rabbah 23:2).