37:35ל״ז:ל״ה
1 א

וכל בנתיו. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר אֲחָיוֹת תְּאוֹמוֹת נוֹלְדוּ עִם כָּל שֵׁבֶט וָשֵׁבֶט וּנְשָׂאוּם, רַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה אוֹמֵר כְּנַעֲנִיּוֹת הָיוּ, אֶלָּא מַהוּ וְכָל בְּנֹתָיו? – כַּלּוֹתָיו, שֶׁאֵין אָדָם נִמְנָע מִלִּקְרֹא לַחֲתָנוֹ בְּנוֹ וּלְכַלָּתוֹ בִתּוֹ:

וכל בנתיו AND ALL HIS DAUGHTERS — R Judah said: a twin-sister was born with each of Jacob’s sons and they each took a step-sister to wife (It was these daughters who comforted Jacob) R. Nehemiah said: their wives were Canaanite women and not their step-sisters; what is meant then “by all his daughters”? His daughters-in-law, for a person does not hesitate to call his son-in-law his son and his daughter-in-law his daughter (Genesis Rabbah 84:21).

2 ב

וימאן להתנחם. אֵין אָדָם מְקַבֵּל תַּנְחוּמִין עַל הַחַי וְסָבוּר שֶׁמֵּת, שֶׁעַל הַמֵּת נִגְזְרָה גְזֵרָה שֶׁיִּשְׁתַּכַּח מִן הַלֵּב וְלֹא עַל הַחַי (בראשית רבה):

וימאן להתנחם BUT HE REFUSED TO COMFORT HIMSELF — A person does not accept consolation for one living whom he believes to be dead, for with regard to the dead it is decreed that he be forgotten from the heart, but it is not so decreed with regard to the living (Genesis Rabbah 84:20).

3 ג

ארד אל בני. כְּמוֹ עַל בְּנִי, וְהַרְבֵּה אֶל מְשַׁמְּשִׁין בִּלְשׁוֹן עַל, אֶל שָׁאוּל וְאֶל בֵּית הַדָּמִים (שמואל ב כ"א), אֶל הִלָּקַח אֲרוֹן הָאֱלֹהִים וְאֶל מוֹת חָמִיהָ וְאִישָׁהּ (שמואל א ד'):

ארד אל בני I WILL GO DOWN TO MY SON — This has the same meaning as על בני, on account of my son. There are many examples where אל is used in the sense of על: (2 Samuel 4:21) “(אל) because of Saul (ואל) and because of his bloody house”; (1 Samuel 4:21) “(אל) because the ark of God was taken (ואל) and because of the death of her father-in-law and her husband”.

4 ד

אבל שאלה. כִּפְשׁוּטוֹ לְשׁוֹן קֶבֶר הוּא – בְּאֶבְלִי אֶקָּבֵר, וְלֹא אֶתְנַחֵם כָּל יָמַי. וּמִדְרָשׁוֹ, גֵּיהִנֹּם; סִימָן זֶה הָיָה מָסוּר בְּיָדִי מִפִּי הַגְּבוּרָה, אִם לֹא יָמוּת אֶחָד מִבָּנַי בְּחַיַּי, מֻבְטָח אֲנִי שֶׁאֵינִי רוֹאֶה גֵיהִנֹּם:

אבל שאלה MOURNING INTO THE GRAVE — According to the literal meaning שאל means “the grave” — whilst I am still in a state of mourning I shall be interred (i.e. even to the day of my burial I shall mourn) and I shall not be comforted all my life. The Midrash explains it to refer to Gehinnom. “This omen has been given me by God: if none of my sons die during my lifetime I may be assured that I shall not see Gehinnom” (Midrash Tanchuma, Vayigash 9).

5 ה

ויבך אתו אביו. יִצְחָק, בּוֹכֶה הָיָה מִפְּנֵי צָרָתוֹ שֶׁל יַעֲקֹב אֲבָל לֹא הָיָה מִתְאַבֵּל, שֶׁהָיָה יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁהוּא חַי:

ויגש). ויבך אתו אביו THUS HIS FATHER WEPT FOR HIM — His father refers to Isaac: he wept for Jacob’s trouble, but he did not mourn for he knew that he (Joseph) was alive (Genesis Rabbah 84:21).