37:25ל״ז:כ״ה
1 א

ארחת. כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ שְׁיָרַת, עַל שֵׁם הוֹלְכֵי אֹרַח:

ארחת means what the Targum says — A CARAVAN; this is called ארחת with reference to the travelers on the road (ארח) who compose it.

2 ב

וגמליהם נשאים וגו'. לָמָּה פִרְסֵם הַכָּתוּב אֶת מַשָּׂאָם? לְהוֹדִיעַ מַתַּן שְׂכָרָן שֶׁל צַדִּיקִים, שֶׁאֵין דַּרְכָּן שֶׁל עַרְבִיִּים לָשֵׂאת אֶלָּא נֵפְטְ וְעִטְרָן, שֶׁרֵיחָן רַע, וְלָזֶה נִזְדַּמְּנוּ בְשָׂמִים, שֶׁלֹּא יִזּוֹק מֵרֵיחַ רַע:

וגמליהם נשאים AND THEIR CAMELS WERE BEARING etc. — Why does Scripture specially announce what they were laden with? It is to tell you how great is the reward of the righteous: it is not usual for Arabs to carry anything but naphta and itran (tar) which are evil-smelling, but for this one (Joseph, the righteous) it was specially arranged that they should be carrying fragrant spices so that he should not suffer from a bad odour (Genesis Rabbah 84:17).

3 ג

נכאת. כָּל כִּנּוּסֵי בְשָׂמִים הַרְבֵּה קָרוּי נְכֹאת, וְכֵן וַיַּרְאֵם אֶת כָּל בֵּית נְכֹתֹה (מלכים ב כ') – מִרְקַחַת בְּשָׂמָיו. וְאֻנְקְלוֹס תִּרְגֵּם לְשׁוֹן שַׁעֲוָה:

נכאת SPICERY — Every collection of many kinds of spices is called נכאת. So, too, (2 Kings 20:13) “and he showed them all the house of his נכתה which means the house where his spices were mixed. Onkelos translates it as meaning wax (perhaps an aromatic gum).

4 ד

צרי. שָׂרָף הַנּוֹטֵף מֵעֲצֵי הַקְּטָף, וְהוּא נָטָף הַנִּמְנֶה עִם סַמָּנֵי הַקְּטֹרֶת:

צרי AND BALM — a resin that exudes from the wood of the balsam-tree: it is the נטף that is enumerated among the ingredients of the incense used in the Tabernacle (Exodus 30:34; cf. Keritot 6a).

5 ה

ולט. לוֹטִיתָא שְׁמוֹ בִלְשׁוֹן מִשְׁנָה. וְרַבּוֹתֵינוּ פֵּרְשׁוּהוּ שֹׁרֶשׁ עֵשֶׂב, וּשְׁמוֹ אשטרולוזיאה בְּמַסֶּכֶת נִדָּה:

ולט AND LADANUM — This is called Lotos in the language of the Mishna. Our Rabbis have in treatise Niddah 8a explained that it is a vegetable root; it bears the name aristolochia (birthwort).