33:11ל״ג:י״א
1 א

ודבר ה' אל משה פנים אל פנים. וּמִתְמַלֵּל עִם מֹשֶׁה:

ודבר ה׳ אל משה פנים אל פנים AND THE LORD SPAKE UNTO MOSES FACE TO FACE — Here too (as in v. 9) in spite of the fact that the text states “face to face” the Targum is: ומתמלל עם משה‎.

2 ב

ושב אל המחנה. לְאַחַר שֶׁנִּדְבַּר עִמּוֹ הָיָה מֹשֶׁה שָׁב אֶל הַמַּחֲנֶה וּמְלַמֵּד לַזְּקֵנִים מַה שֶּׁלָּמַד; וְהַדָּבָר הַזֶּה נָהַג מֹשֶׁה מִיּוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים עַד שֶׁהוּקַם הַמִּשְׁכָּן, וְלֹא יוֹתֵר, שֶׁהֲרֵי בְשִׁבְעָה עָשָׂר בְּתַמּוּז נִשְׁתַּבְּרוּ הַלּוּחוֹת, וּבְי"ח שָׂרַף אֶת הָעֵגֶל וְדָן אֶת הַחוֹטְאִים, וּבְי"ט עָלָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וַיְהִי מִמָּחֳרָת וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אֶל הָעָם וְגוֹ' (שמות ל"ב), וְעָשָׂה שָׁם אַרְבָּעִים יוֹם וּבִקֵּשׁ רַחֲמִים, שֶׁנֶּ' וָאֶתְנַפַּל לִפְנֵי ה' וְגוֹ' (דברים ט'), וּבְרֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ אֱלוּל נֶאֱמַר לוֹ וְעָלִיתָ בַבֹּקֶר אֶל הַר סִינַי (שמות ל"ד), לְקַבֵּל לוּחוֹת הָאַחֲרוֹנוֹת – וְעָשָׂה שָׁם מ' יוֹם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בָּהֶם וְאָנֹכִי עָמַדְתִּי בָהָר כַּיָּמִים הָרִאשׁוֹנִים וְגוֹ' – מָה הָרִאשׁוֹנִים בְּרָצוֹן אַף הָאַחֲרוֹנִים בְּרָצוֹן, אֱמֹר מֵעַתָּה אֶמְצָעִיִּים הָיוּ בְכַעַס – בְּעֲשָׂרָה בְּתִשְׁרֵי נִתְרַצָּה הַקָּבָּ"ה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל בְּשִׂמְחָה וּבְלֵב שָׁלֵם, וְאָמַר לוֹ לְמֹשֶׁה סָלַחְתִּי, וּמָסַר לוֹ לוּחוֹת אַחֲרוֹנוֹת, וְיָרַד וְהִתְחִיל לְצַוּוֹתָם עַל מְלֶאכֶת הַמִּשְׁכָּן, וַעֲשָׂאוּהוּ עַד אֶחָד בְּנִיסָן, וּמִשֶּׁהוּקַם לֹא נִדְבַּר עִמּוֹ עוֹד אֶלָּא מֵאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד (תנחומא):

ושב אל המחנה .( AND HE RETURNED INTO THE CAMP — After God had conversed with him, Moses used to return to the camp and teach the elders what he had learned. This Moses practised from the day of Atonement until the Tabernacle was set up, but no longer. For on the seventeenth of Tammuz the tablets were broken, on the eighteenth he burnt the calf and punished the of fenders, on the nineteenth he ascended the mountain, as it is said (Exodus 32:30) “And it came to pass on the morrow (the day after he had punished the wrongdoers; cf. vv. 26—29), that Moses said unto the people”, [Ye have sinned a great sin and now I will go up to the Lord]”. There he spent forty days and sought mercy for the people, as it is said, (Deuteronomy 9:18) “And I threw myself down before the Lord [as at the first, forty days and forty nights]”. These terminated on the last day of Ab (there were 11 days from the 19th to the 29th of Tammuz therefore 29 days in Ab complete the forty) and he then returned to the people. On the first day of the New Moon of Ellul it was said to him, (Exodus 34:2) “And be ready in the morning] and go up in the morning unto mount Sinai” — to receive the second tablets. He again spent there the forty days of which it is stated, (Deuteronomy 10:10) “[And I stayed in the mountain, according to the first, days, [forty days and forty nights]”. The words כימים הראשונים, “like the first days”, cannot refer to the number of days for this is stated immediately afterwards; they are to be joined with עמדתי — I stayed in the same state as on the first days: How were the first forty days passed? In God’s good-will (because the Israelites had not yet sinned)! So, too, the last forty days were passed in God’s good-will — from which you must admit that the intervening forty days were passed in God’s anger. On the tenth of Tishri God became reconciled with Israel in joy and perfect affection and said to Moses: “I have forgiven!” and handed him over the second tablets, whereupon Moses went down and began to command them concerning the work of the Tabernacle (cf. Midrash Tanchuma, Ki Tisa 31; Seder Olam 6; Rashi on Exodus 18:13, Deuteronomy 9:18 and also Taanit 36b). They were occupied in its construction until the first of Nisan and from the time when it was set up God did not converse with him any more except from the tent of meeting.

3 ג

ושב אל המחנה. תַּרְגּוּמוֹ וְתָיֵב לְמַשְׁרִיתָא, לְפִי שֶׁהוּא לְשׁוֹן הוֹוֶה, וְכֵן כָּל הָעִנְיָן, וראה כל העם – וְחָזַן, ונצבו – וְקָיְמִין, והביטו – וּמִסְתַּכְּלִין, והשתחוו – וְסָגְדִין. וּמִדְרָשׁוֹ: ודבר ה' אל משה – שֶׁיָּשׁוּב אֶל הַמַּחֲנֶה, אָמַר לוֹ אֲנִי בְכַעַס וְאַתָּה בְכַעַס, אִם כֵּן מִי יַקְרִיבֵם? (תנחומא):

ושב אל המחנה AND HE RETURNED TO THE CAMP — The translation in the Targum is: וְתָיִב למשריתא (a participle) “and he used to return to the camp”, because (as explained above) it denotes continuous action. Similarly, he translates all the verbs occuring in this section by participles: וראה כל העם he renders by ונצבו ;וחזן by והביטו ;וקימין by והשתחוו ;ומסתכלין by וסגדין. The Midrash explains ודבר ה' אל משה thus: And the Lord spake to Moses that he should return to the camp. He said to him: I am angry and you are angry; if this is to remain so, who will attract them to Me again? (cf. Midrash Tanchuma, Ki Tisa 27 and Berakhot 63b).