וטעם וזכרתי להם ברית ראשונים שאזכור להם כן בין בארץ בין בחוצה לארץ בגלות הנרמזת כאן וכן בכל הדורות וזה טעם "לעיני הגוים" כי יעשה בהם בעבור שמו הגדול שלא יתחלל בגוים ולא למענם כי לא עשו תשובה ולא נתכפרו עונותם וכך אמרו רבותינו (תו"כ פרק ח י) לא מאסתים בימי אספסינוס ולא געלתים בימי יון לכלותם להפר בריתי אתם בימי המן כי אני ה' אלהיהם בימי גוג ומגוג: AND I WILL FOR THEIR SAKES REMEMBER THE COVENANT OF THEIR ANCESTORS. This means that I will remember it for their sakes whether in the Land or outside the Land, both in the [first] exile alluded to here and likewise throughout all generations. This is the sense of the expression in the sight of the nations [And I will for their sakes remember the covenant of their ancestors … in the sight of the nations], for He will do [good] to them because of His Great Name, so that it be not profaned among the nations, but not for their sake, since they have not repented, and [thus] their iniquities have not been forgiven. And so did our Rabbis say:184Torath Kohanim, Bechukothai 8:10. “I will not reject them185Verse 44. in the days of Vespasian.186The Roman emperor in whose days the Second Temple was destroyed. The destruction of the Temple is thus in no sense a rejection of Israel. The survival of Israel long after the downfall of the Romans who destroyed the Temple, as well as the growth of Torah throughout the generations, and Israel’s present return to the Land after an enforced absence of nearly 1900 years — these are sufficient proofs that He did not reject us in the days of Vespasian. Neither will I abhor them185Verse 44. in the days of Greece.187A reference to the wars that took place during the Hellenistic period, when the Syrian Greeks who attempted to suppress the practice of Judaism were defeated by the Jews under the leadership of the Hasmoneans, and the Jews also regained their political independence. [Neither will I abhor them] to destroy them utterly, and to break My covenant with them185Verse 44. in the days of Haman. For I am the Eternal their G-d185Verse 44. in the days of Gog and Magog.”188See Ezekiel Chapters 38-39. In the war of Gog and Magog G-d will finally overthrow the enemies of Israel who had assembled from all parts of the world against the Land of Israel. This victory will precede the reign of the Messiah.