שוק התרומה וחזה התנופה לשון אשר הונף ואשר הורם (שמות כט כז) תנופה מוליך ומביא תרומה מעלה ומוריד ולמה חלקן הכתוב תרומה בשוק ותנופה בחזה לא ידענו ששניהם בהרמה והנפה לשון רש"י (רש"י על ויקרא י׳:ט״ו) והנראה אלי בטעם זה כי במלואים היה השוק תרומה לה' והוקטר עם הלחם ועם החלבים והמורם מן השלמים יקרא תרומה כמו שנאמר (ויקרא ז׳:י״ד) והקריב ממנו אחד מכל קרבן תרומה לה' וכל שכן אלו שהעלו אותם לגבוה שהם כלם תרומה לה' ולא יקרא בשם תנופה כי תנופתו היתה עם החלבים והלחם כדי להקטירם לה' אבל החזה הונף בפני עצמו ולא היה חלוק משאר הבשר אלא בתנופה ובתנופה זו בלבד נתקדש וזכה בו משה להיות לו למנה ומפני שזכות אהרן ובניו בחזה ושוק לדורות היה מיום המלואים וזכו בשוק בתרומתו לה' ובחזה בתנופתו ושאר הבשר לבעלים יקרא לעולם השוק תרומה והחזה תנופה כאשר היה בהם ביום הזכות: THE THIGH OF HEAVING AND THE BREAST OF WAVING. “This expression is similar to the verse, [the breast of the wave-offering, and the thigh of the heave-offering], which is waved, and which is heaved up.126Exodus 29:27. ‘Waving’ is an expression for moving to and fro [in a horizontal direction]. ‘Heaving’ is an expression for moving up and down. But why Scripture divided them, mentioning ‘heaving’ in connection with the thigh and ‘waving’ in connection with the breast, I do not know, for both of them [required] waving and heaving.” Thus far is the language of Rashi.127This whole text of Rashi quoted by Ramban is missing in all standard versions of Rashi. It is found, however, in the Reggio edition of 1475, “Rashi’s Commentary to the Pentateuch.” This book incidentally was the first Hebrew book to appear in print. A facsimilie thereof has lately appeared in Jerusalem.
It appears to me that the reason for it is that during the [seven days of] consecration, the thigh was a heave-offering to G-d, being burned together with the bread and the fats,128Exodus 29:22-25. and that which is set aside from a peace-offering [to be burnt on the altar] is called “a heave-offering,” just as it is said, And of it he shall offer one out of each offering for a heave-offering unto the Eternal,129Above, 7:14. and [it follows] all the more so that these parts [of the ram of consecration] offered on the altar, were all “a heave-offering unto the Eternal.” [Hence the expression “the thigh of heaving.”] It was not called by the term “waving,” for that movement [to and fro in a horizontal direction] was done to the thigh together with the fats and the bread so as to burn them unto the Eternal. The breast, however, was waved by itself, and was only different from the rest of the meat [which was to be eaten by the priests] in that it was waved, and it was through this waving alone that it became sanctified and that Moses acquired it as his portion.130It is so clearly stated in Exodus 29:26: And thou [Moses] shalt take the breast of Aaron’s ram of consecration, and wave it for a wave-offering before the Eternal; and it shall be thy portion. Now since the right of Aaron and his sons to the breast and thigh [of peace-offerings] in future generations was [derived] from the day of their consecration as priests, when they acquired the thigh through its being a heave-offering to G-d and the breast through its being waved, whilst the rest of the meat belonged to the owners, therefore the thigh was forever called [the thigh of] “heaving,” and the breast that of “waving,” as was done to them on the day of [the priests] acquiring their rights to them.
על אשי החלבים כמו על חלבי האשים מכאן שהחלבים למטה בשעת תנופה לשון רש"י (רש"י על ויקרא י׳:ט״ו) ואין צורך כי אשי תואר לחלבים כמו שאמר (דברים יח א) אשי ה' ונחלתו יאכלון ופירוש הכתוב הזה שהוא טעם למה שאמר (ויקרא י׳:י״ד) כי חקך וחק בניך נתנו מזבחי שלמי בני ישראל ואמר שוק התרומה וחזה התנופה על אשי החלבים יביאו אותם בני ישראל הנזכרים להניף תנופה לפני ה' שיהיו קדושים לפניו ויהיו לך ולבניך לחק עולם כי הצואה בתנופה אין זה מקומה אבל לפי דרכנו למדנו בה שהחלבים למטה בשעת תנופה: AL ISHEI HACHALAVIM’ (UPON THE FIRE-OFFERINGS OF THE FAT). “This is like: ‘upon the fat of the fire-offerings.’131Since the fats are burnt with fire they are called “the fats of the fire,” not “the fire of the fats.” This comment is found in Rashi’s text as quoted by Mizrachi and other commentators. It is not in our printed texts of Rashi. From here we learn that at the time of waving the fat-portions were beneath.” This is the language of Rashi. But there is no need for it [i.e., to invert the verse, and to derive this law from the verse here]. For the word ishei (“fire-offerings of”) is an adjectival-noun qualifying the word chalavim (fats), just as He said, ‘ishei Hashem’ (the fire-offerings of the Eternal) and His inheritance they [the priests] shall eat.132Deuteronomy 18:1. — Ramban’s intent is as follows: Rashi had inverted the expression in the verse before us because since the fats are burned with fire, they are called “the fats of the fire,” and not “the fire-offerings of the fats” as the verse literally has it. But Ramban quotes the above-mentioned verse from Deuteronomy to show that the word ishei does not have its precise meaning of “the fires of,” since the priests do not eat that which has actually been on the fire upon the altar. The word ishei must therefore be taken as an adjectival-noun for all offerings, since most of them are put upon the fire. Consequently the fats are not called ishei because of the fire, and the expression in the verse need not be inverted. — Ramban now proceeds to comment on the second point that Rashi made, namely that from the verse here we learn that the fat-portions were at the bottom at the time of waving. The explanation of this verse is that it constitutes a reason for that which He said [in the preceding verse], for they [the offerings] are given as thy due, and thy sons’ due, out of the offerings of the peace-offerings of the children of Israel.133Verse 14. [With reference to this] He now said, The thigh of heaving and the breast of waving shall they — that is, the children of Israel, mentioned [in the previous verse] — bring upon the fire-offerings of the fat, to wave it for a wave-offering before the Eternal, that they [i.e., the thigh and the breast] be hallowed before Him, and they shall be thine and thy sons’ with thee, as a due forever. For this is not the place of the command concerning the waving,134It is above, 7:30. See Ramban ibid. but incidentally135Rashi therefore should not have written, “From here we learn etc.,” as it is not from here that we learn it, since the law of waving is mentioned elsewhere; here it is mentioned only incidentally. we learn that at the time of waving the fats were beneath the others.