מאי קא מרבה אל תאכלו ממנו נא בפרטיה מאי קא ממעטי לא תשחט על חמץ דם זבחי איפוך אנא מצוה דגופיה עדיף:
what is it including, beyond what is mentioned explicitly in the verse? The Gemara answers that it includes the mitzva: “Do not eat from it raw” (Exodus 12:9). The Gemara asks: What does it exclude through its detail? The Gemara answers that it excludes the mitzva: “You shall not offer the blood of My sacrifice with leavened bread” (Exodus 34:25). The Gemara asks: Perhaps I can reverse it and say the opposite, that the prohibition against eating the offering raw is excluded, and the prohibition against owning leaven is included. The Gemara answers: Including a mitzva related to the Paschal lamb itself is preferable to including one that does not relate as directly to the Paschal lamb. Therefore, the prohibition against eating the Paschal lamb raw is included, and the prohibition against slaughtering the Paschal lamb with leaven in one’s possession is excluded.
הראשון טעון הלל באכילתו וכו׳: מנא הני מילי אמר רבי יוחנן משום רבי שמעון בן יהוצדק אמר קרא השיר יהיה לכם כליל התקדש חג לילה המקודש לחג טעון הלל לילה שאין מקודש לחג אין טעון הלל:
It was taught in the mishna that the Paschal lamb on the first Pesaḥ requires the recitation of hallel as it is eaten, whereas on the second Pesaḥ it does not. The Gemara asks: From where are these matters derived? Rabbi Yoḥanan said, citing Rabbi Shimon ben Yehotzadak, that the verse states: “You shall have a song as in the night when a Festival is sanctified” (Isaiah 30:29). From here it may be derived that a night sanctified as a Festival, on which labor is prohibited, such as the first night of Passover, requires the recitation of hallel; however, a night which is not sanctified as a Festival, such as the night when the Paschal lamb is eaten following the second Pesaḥ, does not require the recitation of hallel.
זה וזה טעונין הלל בעשייתן כו׳: מאי טעמא איבעית אימא לילה קא ממעט יום לא קא ממעט ואיבעית אימא אפשר ישראל שוחטין את פסחיהן ונוטלין את לולביהן ואין אומרים הלל:
It was stated in the mishna that the Paschal lambs sacrificed on both the first and second Pesaḥ require the recitation of hallel as they are prepared. The Gemara asks: What is the reason that hallel must be recited while one prepares the Paschal lamb on the second Pesaḥ? The Gemara answers: If you wish, say that the verse quoted above: “As in the night when a festival is sanctified,” excludes laws that apply at night, but it does not exclude laws that apply by day; therefore, the recitation of hallel is required while slaughtering the Paschal lamb on the second Pesaḥ just as it is required while slaughtering the Paschal lamb on the first Pesaḥ. And if you wish, say that this halakha simply makes logical sense: Is it possible that the Jewish people are slaughtering their Paschal lambs or taking their lulavim on Sukkot and not reciting hallel? It is inconceivable that they would not be reciting hallel and there is no need for an explicit biblical source for this halakha.
ונאכלין צלי וכו׳: שבת אין טומאה לא מתניתין דלא כרבי יהודה דתניא דוחה את השבת ואין דוחה את הטומאה רבי יהודה אומר אף דוחה את הטומאה
It was also taught in the mishna that the Paschal lambs on both the first and second Pesaḥ are eaten roasted and override Shabbat. It may be inferred from this that with regard to Shabbat, yes, it is overridden by the Paschal lamb on the second Pesaḥ, but with regard to ritual impurity, no, it is not overridden for the sake of the Paschal lamb on the second Pesaḥ. The Gemara points out that this understanding of the mishna is not in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, as it was taught in a baraita: The Paschal lamb on the second Pesaḥ overrides Shabbat and does not override ritual impurity. Rabbi Yehuda says: It overrides even ritual impurity.
מאי טעמא דתנא קמא מפני טומאה דחיתיו יחזור ויעשה בטומאה ורבי יהודה התורה חזרה עליו לעשותו בטהרה לא זכה יעשה בטומאה
The Gemara explains: What is the reason for the opinion of the first tanna? He holds that once this person was deferred from the first Pesaḥ due to ritual impurity, shall he now return and perform the offering of the Paschal lamb on the second Pesaḥ in ritual impurity? And Rabbi Yehuda reasoned: The Torah sought to allow this person the opportunity to perform the offering of the Paschal lamb in ritual purity; if it ultimately becomes clear that he did not merit doing so, let him at least perform the offering of the second Pesaḥ in a state of ritual impurity.
תנו רבנן פסח ראשון דוחה את השבת פסח שני דוחה את השבת פסח ראשון דוחה את הטומאה פסח שני דוחה את הטומאה פסח ראשון טעון לינה פסח שני טעון לינה
The Sages taught in a different baraita: The offering of the Paschal lamb on the first Pesaḥ overrides Shabbat, and similarly, the offering of the Paschal lamb on the second Pesaḥ overrides Shabbat. The first Pesaḥ overrides ritual impurity, and similarly, the second Pesaḥ overrides ritual impurity. The first Pesaḥ requires remaining until morning, meaning that it is prohibited for people who have participated in the Paschal lamb to return that night to their homes outside Jerusalem, and similarly, the second Pesaḥ requires remaining until morning.
דוחה את הטומאה כמאן כרבי יהודה
The Gemara clarifies: With regard to the statement that the second Pesaḥ overrides ritual impurity, in accordance with whose opinion is this? It is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda.
ולרבי יהודה טעון לינה והא תניא רבי יהודה אומר מניין לפסח שני שאין טעון לינה שנאמר ופנית בבקר והלכת לאהליך וכתיב ששת ימים תאכל מצות הנאכל לששה טעון לינה שאין נאכל לששה אין טעון לינה
But according to Rabbi Yehuda, does the second Pesaḥ require remaining until morning? Wasn’t it taught explicitly in a baraita that Rabbi Yehuda says: From where is it derived that the second Pesaḥ does not require remaining until morning? As it is stated with regard to the Paschal lamb: “And you shall roast and eat it in the place which the Lord your God shall choose; and you shall turn in the morning and go to your tents” (Deuteronomy 16:7), and it is written immediately after: “Six days you shall eat matzot; and on the seventh day shall be a solemn assembly to the Lord your God; you shall do no work on it” (Deuteronomy 16:8). From this juxtaposition it may be concluded that the first Pesaḥ, which is followed by the mitzvah to eat matza for six days, requires remaining until morning, whereas the second Pesaḥ, which is not followed by the mitzva to eat matza for six days, does not require remaining until morning. This contradicts what was previously stated citing Rabbi Yehuda.
תרי תנאי ואליבא דרבי יהודה:
The Gemara answers: These statements were made by two tanna’im in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, but the two tanna’im disagreed about whether or not Rabbi Yehuda maintained that one is required to stay overnight on the second Pesaḥ.
מתני׳ הפסח שבא בטומאה לא יאכלו ממנו זבין וזבות נדות ויולדות ואם אכלו פטורין מכרת
MISHNA: When the Paschal lamb is sacrificed in a state of ritual impurity due to the fact that the majority of the Jewish people are ritually impure, zavim, and zavot, and menstruating women, and women after childbirth may not eat it, because the Paschal lamb overrides only ritual impurity imparted by a corpse, but it does not override other forms of ritual impurity. However, if they violated the halakha and ate from the offering, they are exempt from karet. One who eats sacrificial food in a state of ritual impurity is generally liable to receive karet; however, since in this case the offering is sacrificed in a state of ritual impurity, there is no punishment of karet even for ritually impure individuals who are not permitted to eat it.
ורבי אליעזר פוטר אף על ביאת מקדש:
And Rabbi Eliezer exempts these individuals from karet even for entering the Temple in a state of ritual impurity, despite their not being permitted to enter, because people who are impure due to ritual impurity imparted by a corpse are permitted to enter the Temple in this situation despite their impurity.
גמ׳ תנו רבנן זבין וזבות נדות ויולדות שאכלו בפסח שבא בטומאה יכול יהו חייבין תלמוד לומר כל טהור יאכל בשר והנפש אשר תאכל בשר מזבח השלמים אשר לה׳ וטומאתו עליו ונכרתה
GEMARA: The Sages taught in a baraita: With regard to zavim, and zavot, and menstruating women, and women after childbirth who ate of the Paschal lamb that was sacrificed while the majority of the Jewish people were in a state of ritual impurity, one might have thought that they would be liable to receive karet; therefore, the verse states: “The meat that touches any impure thing shall not be eaten, it shall be burned in fire; and the meat, every one that is ritually pure may eat the meat. But the soul that eats of the meat of the sacrifice of peace-offerings, that belong to the Lord, having his impurity upon him, that soul shall be cut off [venikhreta] from his people” (Leviticus 7:19–20).
נאכל לטהורים חייבים עליו משום טמא ושאינו נאכל לטהורין אין טמאין חייבין עליו משום טמא
The baraita continues: The juxtaposition of these verses teaches that if the offering is eaten only by people who are ritually pure, ritually impure people are liable for eating it due to being ritually impure, but if it is not eaten only by people who are ritually pure, because it was offered when the majority of the Jewish people were impure, those who are ritually impure are not liable for eating it due to being impure.
רבי אליעזר אומר יכול דחקו זבין ונכנסו לעזרה בפסח הבא בטומאה יכול יהו חייבין תלמוד לומר וישלחו מן המחנה כל צרוע וכל זב וכל טמא לנפש בזמן שטמאי מתים משתלחין זבין ומצורעין משתלחין אין טמאי מתים משתלחין אין זבין ומצורעין משתלחין
Rabbi Eliezer says: One might have thought that if zavim or lepers pushed their way in and entered the courtyard, which they are prohibited from entering, in order to sacrifice the Paschal lamb that is brought when the majority of the Jewish people are in a state of ritual impurity, one might have thought that they would be liable to receive karet for entering the Temple while ritually impure; therefore, the verse states: “That they send out from the camp any leper and any zav and anyone defiled by the dead” (Numbers 5:2). This teaches that at a time when those who are impure due to ritual impurity imparted by a corpse are sent out from the Temple, zavim and lepers are also sent out; when those who are impure due to ritual impurity imparted by a corpse are not sent out but are permitted to sacrifice the offering in a state of ritual impurity, zavim and lepers are also not sent out.
בעי רב יוסף דחקו טמאי מתים ונכנסו להיכל בפסח הבא בטומאה מהו מדאישתרי טומאת עזרה אישתרי נמי טומאת היכל או דילמא מאי דאישתרי אישתרי מאי דלא אישתרי לא אישתרי
Rav Yosef asked a question related to the halakhot discussed above: If those who are impure due to ritual impurity imparted by a corpse pushed their way in and entered the Sanctuary, which is an area in which no services are performed for the Paschal lamb and which only priests may enter ab initio, and this occurs in a case in which the Paschal lamb is brought when the majority of the Jewish people are in a state of ritual impurity, what is the halakha? Is the halakha that since ritual impurity was permitted in the courtyard for the sake of the Paschal lamb, ritual impurity in the Sanctuary was also permitted; or perhaps what was permitted was permitted and what was not permitted was not permitted, and consequently, they are liable for entering the Sanctuary?
אמר רבא אמר קרא וישלחו מן המחנה אפילו מקצת מחנה
Rava said in answer to this question that the verse states: “They send out from the camp” (Numbers 5:2); the phrase “from the camp” indicates that the halakha applies even to a part of the camp. Therefore, when the majority of the Jewish people are ritually impure, even though people who are ritually impure are permitted to enter part of the Temple, as they must bring their offerings to the Temple courtyard, they are not permitted to enter everywhere inside the Temple, and the prohibition of entering the Sanctuary remains in place.
איכא דאמרי אמר רבא אמר קרא וישלחו מן המחנה אל מחוץ למחנה תשלחום כל היכא דקרינן ביה אל מחוץ למחנה תשלחום קרינן ביה וישלחו מן המחנה
Some say that Rava said a different answer: The verse states: “That they send out from the camp any leper and any zav and anyone defiled by the dead…outside the camp you shall send them” (Numbers 5:2–3). This implies that anywhere that we apply the phrase: “Outside the camp you shall send them,” which is referring to a case in which the majority of the Jewish people are ritually pure and indicates that the impure people must be sent outside of the entire camp, we also apply the phrase: “They must send out from the camp,” meaning it is prohibited for people who are ritually impure to enter the Sanctuary. However, if the majority of the Jewish people are impure and the offering is sacrificed in a state of impurity, those who are impure are not liable if they enter the Sanctuary.
בעי רב יוסף דחקו טמאי מתים ואכלו אימורי פסח הבא בטומאה
Rav Yosef asked a similar question: If people who are impure due to ritual impurity imparted by a corpse pushed their way in and ate portions that are supposed to be consumed on the altar, such as the fats, the kidneys, and the fat tail, from a Paschal lamb offered in ritual impurity,