Pesachim 91aפסחים צ״א א
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
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91aצ״א א

והמפקח את הגל וכן מי שהבטיחוהו להוציאו מבית האסורים והחולה והזקן שהן יכולין לאכול כזית שוחטין עליהן

and one clearing a pile of stones that collapsed on top of a person, in which case there is a possibility that the person buried underneath is dead and his corpse will impart ritual impurity to the person clearing the pile; and similarly, one whom the governing body promised to release from prison on the night of Passover; and an ill person and an elderly person who are still capable of eating an olive-bulk of meat, one slaughters the Paschal lamb on their behalf, since they are currently fit to eat the Paschal lamb.

על כולם אין שוחטין עליהן בפני עצמן שמא יביאו את הפסח לידי פסול

However, with regard to all of them, this is only true when they are included in a group with other people who will definitely be able to partake of the lamb; but we do not slaughter the Paschal lamb on their behalf if they are by themselves, either as individuals or in a group composed entirely of such people, because perhaps they will cause the Paschal lamb to become disqualified, since there is a possibility that by the night of Passover they will be unable to partake of the Paschal lamb.

לפיכך אם אירע בהן פסול פטורין מלעשות פסח שני חוץ מן המפקח בגל שהוא טמא מתחלתו:

Therefore, since they were registered for a Paschal lamb and it was slaughtered when they were still fit to partake of it, even if a disqualification occurred to them later, preventing them from partaking of the Paschal lamb, they are nevertheless exempt from observing the second Pesaḥ. The exemption from the second Pesaḥ is dependent not on whether they partook of a Paschal lamb, but on whether it was validly slaughtered on their behalf. This holds true except for one who was clearing a pile of stones where the person buried underneath was eventually found dead, because in such a case the person searching for him certainly stood over the corpse at some point. He had therefore become ritually impure from the outset, even before the Paschal lamb was slaughtered. Consequently, he would not have been fit even during the slaughter and will have to observe the second Pesaḥ.

גמ׳ אמר רבה בר הונא אמר רבי יוחנן לא שנו אלא בית האסורין דגוי אבל בית האסורין דישראל שוחטין בפני עצמו כיון דאבטחינהו מפיק ליה דכתיב שארית ישראל לא יעשו עולה ולא ידברו כזב

GEMARA: The mishna teaches that the Paschal lamb may be slaughtered on behalf of a prisoner only if he is included in a group with other people. Rabba bar Huna said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: They taught this only if he is in a prison belonging to gentiles; but if he is in a prison belonging to Jews, one slaughters on his behalf even if he is by himself and not included in a group with other people. Since they promised him they would release him they will certainly release him, as it is written: “The remnant of Israel will not do iniquity nor speak lies” (Zephaniah 3:13). Therefore, there is no concern that on the night of Passover he will not be able to partake of the Paschal lamb.

אמר רב חסדא הא דאמרת בית האסורין דגוים לא אמרן אלא חוץ לחומת בית פאגי אבל לפנים מחומת בית פאגי שוחטין עליו בפני עצמו מאי טעמא אפשר דאמטו ליה ואכיל ליה:

Rav Ḥisda said: With regard to that which you said, that the mishna’s ruling permitting a the Paschal lamb to be slaughtered on behalf of a prisoner, but only when he is included in a group with others, refers to a prisoner in a prison belonging to gentiles, they said this only with regard to a prison outside the wall of Beit Pagei, i.e., the prison is located outside the area where the Paschal lamb may be consumed. But if the prison is located within the wall of Beit Pagei, one slaughters on his behalf even if he is by himself and not included in a group with other people. What is the reason? Even if he is not released from prison, it is possible for them to bring him a portion of the Paschal lamb while still in prison, and he will eat it there.

לפיכך אם אירע וכו׳: אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יוחנן לא שנו אלא גל עגול אבל גל ארוך פטור מלעשות פסח שני אימא טהור היה בשעת שחיטה

We learned in the mishna: Therefore, even if a disqualification occurred to them, they are exempt from observing the second Pesaḥ. This holds true except for one who was clearing a pile of stones. The Gemara qualifies this ruling: Rabba bar bar Ḥana said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: They taught that one who clears a pile of stones is required to observe the second Pesaḥ only if he was clearing a round pile. While clearing it, he certainly stood over the corpse and became ritually impure. But if it was a long pile of stones, it is possible that the corpse was to one side of the pile and the person clearing the stones had not yet stood over the corpse at the time the Paschal lamb was slaughtered. Therefore, he is exempt from observing the second Pesaḥ, because one can say that perhaps he was ritually pure at the time of the slaughter. Since the matter is in doubt, he is exempt from observing the second Pesaḥ.

תניא נמי הכי רבי שמעון בנו של רבי יוחנן בן ברוקה אומר מפקח בגל עתים פטור עתים חייב כיצד גל עגול ונמצאת טומאה תחתיו חייב גל ארוך ונמצאת טומאה תחתיו פטור אימא טהור היה בשעת שחיטה:

That was also taught in a baraita: Rabbi Shimon, son of Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Beroka, says: One who clears a pile of stones that collapsed on top of a person is sometimes exempt from observing the second Pesaḥ and sometimes obligated. How so? If it is a round pile of stones and ritual impurity was found underneath it, he is obligated to observe the second Pesaḥ, as he certainly stood over the corpse before his Paschal lamb was slaughtered. However, if it is a long pile of stones and ritual impurity was found underneath it, he is exempt, because one can say that perhaps he was pure at the time of the slaughter.

מתני׳ אין שוחטין את הפסח על היחיד דברי רבי יהודה ורבי יוסי מתיר ואפילו חבורה של מאה שאינן יכולין לאכול כזית אין שוחטין עליהן

MISHNA: We do not slaughter the Paschal lamb on behalf of an individual, only for a group of people; this is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda. And Rabbi Yosei permits it. And even if there is a group of one hundred who together are unable to eat an olive-bulk of it, we do not slaughter on their behalf.

ואין עושין חבורת נשים ועבדים וקטנים:

And we do not make a group for a Paschal lamb that consists of women, slaves, and minors.

גמ׳ תנו רבנן מנין שאין שוחטין את הפסח על היחיד תלמוד לומר לא תוכל לזבח את הפסח באחד דברי רבי יהודה ורבי יוסי אומר יחיד ויכול לאכלו שוחטין עליו עשרה ואין יכולין לאכלו אין שוחטין עליהן

GEMARA: The Sages taught in a baraita: From where is it derived that we do not slaughter a Paschal lamb on behalf on an individual? The verse states: “You may not sacrifice the Paschal lamb in any one of your gates, which the Lord your God has given you” (Deuteronomy 16:5). The phrase “in any one” is expounded to mean: For any one person, which indicates that the Paschal lamb is not slaughtered on behalf of an individual; this is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda. And Rabbi Yosei says: If there is an individual and he is able to eat an olive-bulk of the Paschal lamb, one slaughters it on his behalf; whereas if there are ten people and they are unable to eat together an olive-bulk of the Paschal lamb, we do not slaughter it on their behalf.

ורבי יוסי האי באחד מאי עביד ליה מיבעי ליה לכדרש רבי שמעון דתניא רבי שמעון אומר מניין לזובח את פסחו בבמת יחיד בשעת איסור הבמות שהוא בלא תעשה

The Gemara proceeds to analyze the opinions taught in the baraita: And what does Rabbi Yosei do with this phrase, “in any one,” from which Rabbi Yehuda derived the halakha he taught in the mishna? He needs it for that which Rabbi Shimon expounded, as it was taught in a baraita: With regard to improvised altars used by individuals for their private offerings, which are permitted for use only when there is no permanent national altar, Rabbi Shimon says: From where do we know that with regard to one who sacrifices his Paschal lamb on an improvised altar, at a time when the prohibition of sacrificing offerings on improvised altars applies, he is in violation of a negative mitzva?

תלמוד לומר לא תוכל לזבח את הפסח באחד שעריך יכול אף בשעת היתר הבמות כן תלמוד לומר באחד שעריך לא אמרו אלא בשעה שכל ישראל נכנסין בשער אחד

The verse states: “You may not slaughter the Paschal lamb in any one of your gates.” The phrase “any one of your gates” is referring to the use of improvised altars. I might have thought that even at a time when it is permitted to sacrifice offerings on improvised altars this is so; therefore the verse states “in any one of your gates,” which indicates that this prohibition was said only when all of the Jewish people enter into one gate, i.e., when they all come together to sacrifice their offerings on a permanent national altar, such as the Temple. However, where there is no permanent national altar, it is indeed permitted to offer the Paschal lamb on an improvised altar.

ורבי יהודה האי מנא ליה תרתי שמעת מינה

And Rabbi Yehuda, who already used the phrase “in any one” to derive the halakha he taught in the mishna, from where does he derive this halakha concerning improvised altars? According to Rabbi Yehuda, you learn two things from the same phrase.

ולרבי יוסי ממאי דלהכי דקאמר רבי שמעון דילמא כדקאמר רבי יהודה הוא דאתא אמר לך לא סלקא דעתך דהא כתיב איש לפי אכלו

And for Rabbi Yosei, from where does he know that the phrase “in any one” should be expounded as Rabbi Shimon said it should be? Perhaps it comes to teach what Rabbi Yehuda said? Rabbi Yosei could have said to you: This cannot enter your mind, because it is written with regard to the Paschal lamb: “According to every man’s eating you shall make your count for the lamb” (Exodus 12:4). Since the verse states “man” in the singular, it indicates that the Paschal lamb can be slaughtered even for an individual.

רמי ליה רב עוקבא בר חיננא מפרישנא לרבא מי אמר רבי יהודה אין שוחטין את הפסח על היחיד ורמינהו אשה בראשון שוחטין עליה בפני עצמה ובשני עושין אותה טפילה לאחרים דברי רבי יהודה אמר ליה לא תימא בפני עצמה אלא אימא בפני עצמן

Rav Ukva bar Ḥinana from Perishna raised a contradiction to Rava: Did Rabbi Yehuda actually say: We do not slaughter the Paschal lamb on behalf of an individual? But we may raise a contradiction from a baraita: In the case of a woman, on the first Pesaḥ, one slaughters the Paschal lamb on her behalf, even if she is by herself. And on the second Pesaḥ, we make her ancillary to others, i.e., she may join others in a group registered for a Paschal lamb but we do not slaughter a lamb on her behalf if she is by herself; this is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda. The baraita clearly records Rabbi Yehuda as permitting the offering of a Paschal lamb on behalf of an individual. Rava said to him: Do not say Rabbi Yehuda allows slaughtering the Paschal lamb for a woman by herself; rather, say he allows slaughtering only for a group of women by themselves.

אמר ליה מי עבדינן חבורה שכולה נשים והתנן אין עושין חבורת נשים ועבדים וקטנים מאי לאו נשים לחודייהו ועבדים לחודייהו וקטנים לחודייהו אמר ליה לא נשים ועבדים וקטנים נשים ועבדים משום תפלות קטנים ועבדים משום

Rav Ukva questioned this answer and said to him: Do we make a group that is entirely composed of women? But didn’t we learn in the mishna: We do not make a group for a Paschal lamb that consists of women, slaves, and minors. What, is the mishna not referring to forming a group that is composed exclusively of women by themselves and slaves by themselves and minors by themselves? Rava said to him: No, the mishna is referring only to forming a group that is composed of women and slaves and minors together, but a group composed exclusively of women, or slaves, or minors would be permitted. It is prohibited to form a group containing both women and slaves, due to a concern that it may lead to frivolity. It is prohibited to form a group of minors and slaves, due to a concern that it may lead to