Pesachim 8bפסחים ח׳ ב
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
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8bח׳ ב

הרי זה צדיק גמור דילמא בתר דבדק אתי לעיוני בתרה

this person is a full-fledged righteous person as far as that mitzva is concerned? These ulterior motives, e.g., seeking a reward, do not detract from the value of the mitzva. The Gemara answers: There is still concern lest he look for the needle after he searched for leaven and completed the search. There is danger that since he already completed the mitzva, its merit will not protect him when he is searching for the needle.

רב נחמן בר יצחק אמר משום סכנת הגוים ופלימו היא דתניא חור שבין יהודי לארמאי בודק עד מקום שידו מגעת והשאר מבטלו בלבו פלימו אמר כל עצמו אינו בודק מפני הסכנה

Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: The danger referred to by the Tosefta is the danger posed by gentiles. And this ruling is in accordance with the opinion of the tanna Pelimu. As it was taught in a baraita: With regard to a hole in a wall located between the residences of a Jew and a gentile, one searches in the hole as far as his hand reaches, and the rest he renders null and void in his heart. Pelimu said: One does not search the entire hole at all, due to the danger involved.

מאי סכנה אי נימא סכנת כשפים כי אישתמיש היכי אישתמיש התם כי אישתמיש יממא ונהורא ולא מסיק אדעתיה הכא ליליא ושרגא הוא ומסיק אדעתיה

The Gemara asks: Due to what danger? If we say it is due to the danger of sorcery, i.e., the gentile will suspect the Jew of casting spells on him and will come to hate him and threaten him, if so, when he made use of the hole in the first place, how did he make use of it without arousing the enmity of his gentile neighbor? If the hole is never used there is no need to search it in any case. The Gemara answers: There, when he made use of the hole, it was during the day and there was light, and the gentile would not raise the suspicion that the Jew was casting spells in his mind. Here, it is during the night and the search is performed with a lamp, and the gentile would raise the suspicion that the Jew was casting spells in his mind.

והאמר רבי אלעזר שלוחי מצוה אינן ניזוקין היכא דשכיח היזיקא שאני שנאמר ויאמר שמואל איך אלך ושמע שאול והרגני ויאמר ה׳ עגלת בקר תקח בידך וגו׳

The Gemara raises a difficulty: But didn’t Rabbi Elazar say that those on the path to perform a mitzva are not susceptible to harm throughout the process of performing the mitzva? The Gemara responds: In a place where danger is commonplace it is different, as one should not rely on a miracle, as it is stated with regard to God’s command to Samuel to anoint David as king in place of Saul: “And Samuel said: How will I go, and Saul will hear and kill me; and God said: Take in your hand a calf and say: I have come to offer a sacrifice to God” (I Samuel 16:2). Even when God Himself issued the command, there is concern with regard to commonplace dangers.

בעו מיניה מרב הני בני בי רב דדיירי בבאגא מהו למיתי קדמא וחשוכא לבי רב אמר להו ניתו עלי ועל צוארי ניזיל מאי אמר להו לא ידענא

They raised a dilemma before Rav: With regard to those members of the school of Rav who live in the fields [baga] far away from the city, what is the halakha as to whether they may come early before dawn and in the evening after dark to Rav’s school, or should they be concerned about robbers? He said to them: Let them come, and responsibility for their safety is upon me and my neck. They asked him: What is your opinion about returning home? He said to them: I do not know if it is possible to rely on the protection of the mitzva when returning home.

איתמר אמר רבי אלעזר שלוחי מצוה אינן ניזוקין לא בהליכתן ולא בחזירתן כמאן

On a related note, it was stated that Rabbi Elazar said: Those on the path to perform a mitzva are not susceptible to harm; neither when they go nor when they return. The Gemara asks: In accordance with whose opinion did he say this?

כי האי תנא דתניא איסי בן יהודה אומר כלפי שאמרה תורה ולא יחמד איש את ארצך מלמד שתהא פרתך רועה באפר ואין חיה מזיקתה תרנגולתך מנקרת באשפה ואין חולדה מזיקתה

The Gemara answers: It is in accordance with the opinion of this tanna, as it was taught in a baraita that Isi ben Yehuda says: With regard to that which the Torah said: “And no man shall covet your land, when you go up to appear before God your Lord three times in the year” (Exodus 34:24), this teaches that your cow shall graze in the meadow and no beast will harm it, and your rooster shall peck in the garbage dump and no marten [ḥulda] shall harm it. In other words, your property will be protected while everyone ascends to Jerusalem for the Festival, despite the fact that the farm will not be defended.

והלא דברים קל וחומר ומה אלו שדרכן לזוק אינן ניזוקין בני אדם שאין דרכן לזוק על אחת כמה וכמה אין לי אלא בהליכה בחזרה מנין תלמוד לומר ופנית בבקר והלכת לאהליך מלמד שתלך ותמצא אהלך בשלום

And are these matters not inferred a fortiori? And if those animals that typically are harmed by other animals are not harmed, due to the protection provided by the mitzva, people who typically are not harmed, as they are capable of protecting themselves, all the more so, will not be harmed due to the protection provided by the mitzva of ascending to Jerusalem for the Festival. I have only derived that one is protected when going to Jerusalem; from where is it derived that one is protected even when returning from the Temple? The verse states: “You shall roast and eat the Paschal lamb in the place which God your Lord shall choose; and you shall turn in the morning and go to your tents” (Deuteronomy 16:7). This teaches that you shall go and upon your return find your tent in peace, unharmed.

וכי מאחר דאפילו בחזירה בהליכה למה לי לכדרבי אמי דאמר רבי אמי כל אדם שיש לו קרקע עולה לרגל ושאין לו קרקע אין עולה לרגל

The Gemara asks: And once we derived that the merit of a mitzva protects a person even when returning, why do I need a source to teach that he is protected when he goes? This teaching could also be derived by means of an a fortiori inference. The Gemara answers: Actually, the first verse is interpreted in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Ami, as Rabbi Ami said: Any person who has land in his possession is obligated to ascend to the Temple for the three pilgrim Festivals. And one who does not have land in his possession is not obligated to ascend for the Festivals, as the verse states: Your land, in the context of the obligation to ascend to Jerusalem for the three Pilgrim Festivals.

אמר רבי אבין בר רב אדא אמר רבי יצחק מפני מה אין פרות גינוסר בירושלים כדי שלא יהו עולי רגלים אומרים אלמלא לא עלינו אלא לאכול פרות גינוסר בירושלים דיינו נמצאת עלייה שלא לשמה

Apropos the ascent to Jerusalem for a Festival and the performance of a mitzva with ulterior motives, the Gemara cites that which Rabbi Avin bar Rav Adda said that Rabbi Yitzḥak said: Due to what reason are there no fruits of Ginnosar, which were of the highest quality, growing in Jerusalem? Why is Jerusalem not graced with this produce? The reason is so that the pilgrims would not say: If we had ascended only to eat the fruit of Ginnosar, it would have been sufficient for us. The ascent to Jerusalem would then be performed not for its own sake.

כיוצא בו אמר רבי דוסתאי ברבי ינאי מפני מה אין חמי טבריא בירושלים כדי שלא יהו עולי רגלים אומרים אלמלא לא עלינו אלא לרחץ בחמי טבריא דיינו ונמצאת עלייה שלא לשמה:

On a similar note, Rabbi Dostai, son of Rabbi Yannai, said: Due to what reason are the hot springs of Tiberias not located in Jerusalem? It is so that the pilgrims would not say: If we had only ascended to bathe in the hot springs of Tiberias, it would have been sufficient for us. The ascent to Jerusalem would then be performed not for its own sake.

ובמה אמרו שתי שורות וכו׳: מרתף מאן דכר שמיה

We learned in the mishna: And with regard to what did the Sages of previous generations say that one must search two rows of wine barrels in a cellar, etc. The Gemara asks: A cellar, who mentioned anything about that? What led the tanna to begin a discussion of a wine cellar?

הכי קאמר כל מקום שאין מכניסין בו חמץ אין צריך בדיקה ואוצרות יין ואוצרות שמן נמי אין צריך בדיקה ובמה אמרו שתי שורות במרתף מקום שמכניסין בו חמץ ובמסתפק:

The Gemara answers that this is what the tanna is saying: Any place into which one does not take leaven does not require searching, and wine storages and oil storages also do not require searching. And with regard to what did the Sages say that one must search two rows in a cellar? This statement is referring to a place into which one brings leavened bread, and where one supplies wine from the storage during the meal.

בית שמאי אומרים שתי שורות וכו׳: אמר רב יהודה שתי שורות שאמרו מן הארץ ועד שמי קורה ורבי יוחנן אמר שורה אחת כמין גאם

We learned in the mishna that Beit Shammai say that one must search the first two rows across the entire cellar. Rav Yehuda said: The two rows that they stated are two full rows in the front, from the ground up to the ceiling. And Rabbi Yoḥanan said: These two rows are one row at a right angle, like the shape of the letter gamma [gam], i.e., the entire length and height of the front row and the entire top row of the barrels along the length and width of the cellar.

תניא כותיה דרב יהודה תניא כוותיה דרבי יוחנן תניא כוותיה דרב יהודה בית שמאי אומרים שתי שורות על פני כל המרתף ושתי שורות שאמרו מן הארץ ועד שמי קורה תניא כוותיה דרבי יוחנן שתי שורות על פני כל המרתף חיצונה רואה את הפתח ועליונה רואה את הקורה שלפנים הימנה ושלמטה הימנה אין צריך בדיקה:

The Gemara comments: One baraita was taught in accordance with the opinion of Rav Yehuda, and one baraita was taught in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yoḥanan. One baraita was taught in accordance with the opinion of Rav Yehuda: Beit Shammai say that one must search two rows across the entire front of the cellar, and the two rows that were stated are from the ground up to the ceiling. One baraita was taught in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yoḥanan: One must search two rows across the entire cellar, i.e., the outer row that faces the door, and the upper row that faces the ceiling. The rows inward from the outermost one and the rows lower than the uppermost one do not require searching.

בית הלל אומרים שתי שורות החיצונות שהן העליונות: אמר רב עליונה ושלמטה הימנה ושמואל אמר עליונה ושלפנים הימנה מאי טעמא דרב דייק חיצונות והא עליונות קתני למעוטי תתאי דתתייתא

We further learned in the mishna that Beit Hillel say: It is sufficient to search the two external rows, which are the upper ones. There is an amoraic dispute with regard to this statement. Rav said it is referring to the uppermost row of barrels and the row that is beneath it. And Shmuel said it means the uppermost front row and the next one that is inward into the cellar. What is the reason for the opinion of Rav? He infers from the term: Outer rows, that Beit Hillel mean that both rows face outward. The Gemara raises a difficulty: But doesn’t the mishna also teach: Upper rows, indicating that both rows are adjacent to the ceiling? The Gemara answers: This term comes to exclude the lowest of the lower rows. One must search only the top two rows.

ושמואל אמר עליונה ושלפנים הימנה מאי טעמא דייק עליונות והא חיצונה קתני למעוטי גוייאתא דגוייאתא רבי חייא תני כוותיה דרב וכולהו תנאי תנו כוותיה דשמואל והלכתא כוותיה דשמואל:

And Shmuel said the mishna is referring to the uppermost front row and the next one that is inward into the cellar. What is the reason for the opinion of Shmuel? He infers from the term: Upper rows, that one must search the first two rows on the top level of barrels. The Gemara raises a difficulty: But doesn’t the mishna also teach: Outer row? The Gemara answers that this word comes to exclude the innermost of the inner rows. One must search only the two outermost rows. The Gemara comments: Rabbi Ḥiyya teaches a baraita in accordance with the opinion of Rav, and all the other tanna’im, who recite the mishnayot and baraitot by heart, teach in accordance with the opinion of Shmuel. The Gemara concludes: And the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Shmuel.