מפני שאור הנר יפה לבדיקה ואף על פי שאין ראיה לדבר זכר לדבר שנאמר שבעת ימים שאר לא ימצא בבתיכם ואומר ויחפש בגדול החל ואומר בעת ההיא אחפש את ירושלים בנרות ואומר נר ה׳ נשמת אדם חפש כל חדרי בטן
because the light of a lamp is effective for searching. And even though there is no proof for this matter, there is an allusion to this matter, as it is stated: “Seven days leaven shall not be found in your houses” (Exodus 12:19), and it says: “And he searched, starting with the eldest, and ending with the youngest; and the goblet was found in Benjamin’s sack…” (Genesis 44:12). And it says: “At that time I will search Jerusalem with lamps” (Zephaniah 1:12), and it says: “The spirit of man is the lamp of God, searching all the inward parts” (Proverbs 20:27).
האי אור החמה היכי דמי אי נימא בחצר האמר רבא חצר אינה צריכה בדיקה מפני שהעורבין מצויין שם אלא באכסדרה האמר רבא אכסדרה לאורה נבדקת
The Gemara asks a question: This light of the sun, by which one may not conduct the search for leaven, what are the circumstances of this case? If we say it is referring to conducting a search in the courtyard, didn’t Rava say that a courtyard does not require searching, due to the ravens and other birds that are found there, and will certainly eat any leaven there? Rather, perhaps this ruling is referring to a portico, which is not frequented by ravens. However, this cannot be the correct interpretation either, as didn’t Rava say with regard to that case that a portico may be searched by its own light, i.e., one need not use a lamp at all when searching a portico, but one may search it by sunlight?
לא צריכא לארובה דבחדר ודהיכא אי לבהדי ארובה היינו אכסדרה אלא לצדדין
The Gemara answers: No, this statement with regard to sunlight is necessary with regard to the skylight that is in a room. The Gemara asks: And with regard to the area to which the tanna is referring, where in the room is it located? If he is referring to the place opposite the skylight, the legal status of that area is like that of a portico, as its abundant sunlight is adequate to search for leaven. Rather, the tanna is referring to the sides of the room. In those areas, one cannot rely on the sunlight from the skylight. He must search by the light of the lamp.
ואבוקה לא והאמר רבא מאי דכתיב ונגה כאור תהיה קרנים מידו לו ושם חביון עזו למה צדיקים דומין בפני שכינה כנר בפני האבוקה ואמר רבא אבוקה להבדלה מצוה מן המובחר
The Gemara asks: And is the light of a torch not bright enough for searching? But didn’t Rava say: What is the meaning of that which is written, “And a brightness appears as the light; He has rays at His side; and there is the hiding of His power” (Habakkuk 3:4), which indicates that God will provide rays of glory for the righteous in the future? The Sages explained this verse by means a parable: To what are the righteous comparable before the Divine Presence? They are comparable to a lamp in the face of a torch. This statement indicates that the light of a torch is significantly greater than that of a lamp, and consequently, a torch should be more effective in the search for leaven. And likewise Rava said: One who uses a torch for the blessing over fire in havdala has performed the mitzva in the optimal manner. Apparently, the light of a torch is greater than that of a lamp.
אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק זה יכול להכניסו לחורין ולסדקין וזה אינו יכול להכניסו לחורין ולסדקין רב זביד אמר זה אורו לפניו וזה אורו לאחריו רב פפא אמר האי בעית והאי לא בעית רבינא אמר האי משך נהורא והאי מיקטף איקטופי:
Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: The baraita does not prohibit the use of a torch due to its failure to provide sufficient light. Rather, it is due to the fact that one can put this lamp into holes and crevices, as it is a small flame, and one cannot put that torch into holes and crevices, as it is a large flame.
Rav Zevid said: This lamp projects its light before it, facilitating the search, and that torch projects its light behind it, on the person conducting the search.
Rav Pappa said: The reason is that when using this torch one fears starting a fire, and when using that lamp he does not fear starting a fire.
Ravina said: This lamp consistently draws light, and the light of that torch fluctuates. Although overall the torch provides greater light than a lamp, it is less effective for use in a search.
כל מקום שאין מכניסין כו׳: כל מקום לאתויי מאי לאתויי הא דתנו רבנן חורי בית העליונים והתחתונים וגג היציע וגג המגדל ורפת בקר ולולין ומתבן ואוצרות יין ואוצרות שמן אין צריכין בדיקה רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר מטה החולקת בתוך הבית ומפסקת צריכה בדיקה
We learned in the mishna: Any place into which one does not typically take leaven does not require searching. The Gemara asks: What does the inclusive phrase: Any place, come to include? The Gemara answers that it comes to include that which the Sages taught in a baraita: The upper and lower holes in the wall of a house that are difficult to use, as well as a veranda roof, a closet roof, a cowshed, chicken coops, a storehouse for straw, a wine cellar, and a storeroom for oil; all these do not require that a search be conducted. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: A bed that divides the area inside a house and space separates the bottom of the bed from the floor requires a search, as there might be leaven beneath it.
ורמינהו חור שבין אדם לחבירו זה בודק עד מקום שידו מגעת וזה בודק עד מקום שידו מגעת והשאר מבטלו בלבו רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר מטה החולקת בתוך הבית ועצים ואבנים סדורים תחתיה ומפסקת אינה צריכה בדיקה
The Gemara raises a contradiction between this baraita and another: With regard to a hole in a wall that is between a house belonging to one person and a house belonging to another, this neighbor searches to the point that his hand reaches, and that neighbor searches to the point that his hand reaches. And as for leaven found in the rest of the hole, each one renders it null and void in his heart. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: A bed that divides the area inside a house, with wood and stones placed under it, and space separates the bottom of the bed from the wood and stones beneath it, does not require searching.
קשיא מטה אמטה קשיא חורין אחורין
This is difficult due to a contradiction between the ruling with regard to a bed in the first baraita, where Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says that it requires a search, and the ruling with regard to a bed in the second baraita, where he rules that no search is required. Furthermore, it is similarly difficult due to a contradiction between the ruling with regard to holes in the first baraita, that a search is not required, and the ruling with regard to holes in the second baraita, that a search is required.
חורין אחורין לא קשיא הא בעילאי ובתתאי והא במיצעי מטה אמטה לא קשיא הא דמידליא הא דמיתתאי
The Gemara answers: The apparent contradiction between the first ruling with regard to holes and the second ruling with regard to holes is not difficult. This baraita, which rules that one need not search them, is referring to upper and lower holes, which are difficult to use. And that baraita, which rules that one is required to search them, is referring to intermediate holes, whose use is convenient. The apparent contradiction between the first ruling with regard to a bed and the second ruling with regard to a bed is similarly not difficult. This baraita, which rules that one is required to search them, is referring to a bed that is raised off the floor, and that ruling, that one need not search them, is referring to a bed that is low and the space beneath it cannot be used, and presumably, there is no leaven there.
ואוצרות יין אין צריך בדיקה והתניא אוצרות יין צריך בדיקה אוצרות שמן אין צריך בדיקה הכא במאי עסקינן במסתפק אי הכי שמן נמי
With regard to this baraita, the Gemara asks: And do wine storages not require searching? But wasn’t it taught in a baraita: Wine storages require searching; oil storages do not require searching. The Gemara answers: With what are we dealing here? It is a case where one supplies wine from the storage during the meal. The Gemara raises a difficulty: If so, then in the case of oil storages, if one supplies oil from the storage during the meal, he should be obligated to search there as well.
שמן יש קבע לאכילה יין אין קבע לשתיה
The Gemara answers: With regard to oil, there is a fixed quantity used for eating a meal. A person knows how much oil he will require before the meal begins, and he will therefore supply himself with any oil that he will need before the meal, and no leaven will enter the storage. However, with regard to wine, there is no fixed quantity used for drinking, as one does not know how much wine he will drink during the meal. Consequently, it is possible that he will descend to his wine cellar with bread in his hand to replenish his supply of wine.
תני רבי חייא עשו אוצרות שכר בבבל כאוצרות יין בארץ ישראל במסתפק
Rabbi Ḥiyya teaches: The Sages rendered the legal status of the beer storages in Babylonia like that of wine storages in Eretz Yisrael, with regard to one who supplies wine from the storage during the meal. Any storage from which one replenishes his supply during the meal requires searching for leaven.
אמר רב חסדא בי דגים אין צריך בדיקה והתניא צריכין בדיקה לא קשיא הא ברברבי הא בזוטרי
Rav Ḥisda said: A fish storage does not require searching. The Gemara raises a difficulty: But wasn’t it taught in a baraita that a fish storage requires searching? The Gemara answers: This is not difficult; this lenient ruling is referring to large fish, and that stringent ruling deals with small fish. Since one does not know exactly how many small fish he will require for the meal, he might need to replenish his supply during his meal.
אמר רבה בר רב הונא בי מילחי ובי קירי צריך בדיקה אמר רב פפא בי ציבי ובי תמרי צריך בדיקה
Rabba bar Rav Huna said: A salt storage and a storage for candles require searching for leaven, as one might have entered those storages during a meal. Rav Pappa likewise said: A wood storage and a storage for dates require searching for the same reason.
תנא אין מחייבין אותו להכניס ידו לחורין ולסדקין לבדוק מפני הסכנה מאי סכנה אי נימא מפני סכנת עקרב כי משתמש היכי אישתמש לא צריכא דנפל
It was taught in the Tosefta: The Sages do not require one to place his hand into holes and crevices to search for leaven, due to the danger involved. The Gemara asks: Due to what danger? If we say it is due to the danger of a scorpion that might be in this hole, when he made use of the hole in the first place, how did he make use of it if there were scorpions there? If the hole is never used, there is no need to search it in any case. The Gemara answers: No, it is necessary to search this hole in a case where leaven fell into it unintentionally.
אי נפל למה לי בדיקה והתנן חמץ שנפלה עליו מפולת הרי הוא כמבוער התם שאין הכלב יכול לחפש אחריו הכא כשהכלב יכול לחפש אחריו
The Gemara asks: If the tanna is referring to a case where leaven fell into the hole, again, why do I need to conduct a search? But didn’t we learn in a mishna with regard to leaven upon which a rockslide fell, it is considered removed from the owner’s possession? Here too, any leaven that fell into the hole should be considered removed. The Gemara answers: There, where the tanna said it is as though it were removed, he is referring to a case where the rockslide buries the leaven so that even a dog cannot search for it. Here, it is referring a hole that is not so deep, and therefore a dog can search for it and extract the leaven from the hole.
והא אמר רבי אלעזר שלוחי מצוה אינן ניזוקין אמר רב אשי שמא תאבד לו מחט ואתי לעיוני בתרה
The Gemara questions the halakha in the Tosefta from a different angle. Why is there any concern about danger in this case? But didn’t Rabbi Elazar say: Those on the path to perform a mitzva are not susceptible to harm throughout the process of performing the mitzva? Rav Ashi said: Here we are concerned lest he will also have lost a needle in the same place, and he will look for it while he is searching for the leaven. Since he is not merely searching for leaven, the merit of the mitzva will not protect him.
וכהאי גוונא לאו מצוה הוא והתניא האומר סלע זו לצדקה בשביל שיחיה בני או שאהיה בן העולם הבא
The Gemara asks: And in a case like that, where there is personal interest intermingled with the performance of a mitzva, is it not nevertheless considered a mitzva? But wasn’t it taught in a baraita that one who says: I am contributing this sela to charity so that my son will live, or if he says: I am performing the mitzva so that I will be one destined for the World-to-Come,