Pesachim 76bפסחים ע״ו ב
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
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76bע״ו ב

בשר שחוטה שמן שצלאו עם בשר נבילה כחוש אסור מאי טעמא מפטמי מהדדי

Fatty kosher meat that one roasted in an oven together with lean non-kosher meat is forbidden, even if the two meats never came into contact with one another. What is the reason for this halakha? It is that they are flavored from one another. The fatty meat emits an aroma that is absorbed in the non-kosher meat. The aroma is then transferred back to the kosher meat, causing the kosher meat to absorb some aroma from the non-kosher meat.

ולוי אמר אפילו בשר שחוטה כחוש שצלאו עם בשר נבילה שמן מותר מאי טעמא ריחא בעלמא הוא וריחא לאו מילתא היא עביד לוי עובדא בי ריש גלותא בגדי ודבר אחר

And Levi said: That aroma does not cause meat to be forbidden. Even lean kosher meat that one roasted with fatty non-kosher meat is permitted. What is the reason for this halakha? Although the non-kosher meat emits an aroma that is absorbed into the kosher meat, it is merely an aroma, and an aroma is nothing significant. The Gemara relates that Levi took action, meaning that he put his opinion into practice, in the house of the Exilarch with a kid and something else, i.e., a pig, that had been roasted together. Levi did not prohibit the meat of the kid due to the aroma of the pig.

מיתיבי אין צולין שני פסחים כאחד מפני התערובת מאי לאו תערובת טעמים וקשיא ללוי לא מפני תערובת גופין

The Gemara raises an objection: One may not roast two Paschal lambs together due to the mixing. What, is it not prohibited due to the mixing of flavors, i.e., due to the aromas that waft from one to the other, and it poses a difficulty to the opinion of Levi? The Gemara rejects this challenge: No, it is prohibited due to the mixing of carcasses. The groups who are roasting their Paschal offerings might accidentally switch offerings, in which case the offerings will be eaten by people who did not register for them.

הכי נמי מסתברא מדקתני סיפא אפילו גדי וטלה אי אמרת בשלמא מפני גופין היינו דקתני אפילו גדי וטלה אלא אי אמרת מפני תערובת טעמים מה לי גדי וטלה מה לי גדי וגדי

The Gemara adds: So too, one can conclude that this explanation is reasonable from the fact that it is taught in the latter clause that the ruling applies even if the two offerings are a kid and a lamb. Granted, if you say that the reason is due to the mixing of carcasses, this is why it was taught that the halakha applies to even a kid and a lamb. The baraita needed to teach that although they do not look alike, there is still a concern that after they have been skinned they will be mixed up. But if you say that the reason is due to the mixing of flavors, what is the difference between a case in which the two offerings are a kid and a lamb and one in which they are a kid and another kid? The case of the kid and the lamb mentioned at the end of the baraita would not teach anything new.

אלא מאי על כרחיך מפני תערובת גופין הוא דאסור אבל תערובת טעמים שרי לימא תיהוי תיובתיה דרב אמר רבי ירמיה הכא במאי עסקינן כגון שצלאו בשתי קדירות

The Gemara asks: Rather, what do you say? Perforce, it is due to the mixing of carcasses that it is prohibited, but a mixing of flavors is permitted. Let us say that this will be a refutation of the opinion of Rav, who prohibited the mixing of flavors by means of an aroma. Rabbi Yirmeya said: With what are we dealing here? It is a case where one roasted the offerings in two pots. Consequently, they do not absorb flavor from one another.

בשתי קדירות סלקא דעתך אלא אימא כעין שתי קדירות והכי קאמר אין צולין שני פסחים כאחד מפני תערובת מאי תערובת תערובת טעמים ואפילו כעין שתי קדירות דליכא תערובת טעמים אסור משום תערובת גופין ואפילו גדי וטלה

The Gemara expresses surprise: Could it enter your mind to say that they roasted the Paschal offerings in two pots? It is prohibited to the roast the Paschal offering in a pot. Rather, say that they were roasted in a manner similar to two pots, meaning that they were distanced from each other and separated by a partition. And this is what the baraita is saying: One may not roast two Paschal offerings together due to mixing. What is this mixing? It is the mixing of flavors. And even roasting them in a manner similar to two pots, where there is no mixing of flavors, is also prohibited, due to the concern with regard to the mixing of carcasses. And this is the halakha even if the animals are a kid and a lamb.

אמר רב מרי כתנאי הרודה פת חמה ונתנה על פי חבית יין של תרומה רבי מאיר אוסר ורבי יהודה מתיר ורבי יוסי מתיר בשל חיטין ואוסר בשל שעורים מפני שהשעורים שואבות מאי לאו תנאי היא דמר סבר ריחא לאו מילתא היא ומר סבר ריחא מילתא היא

Rav Mari said: This is like the following dispute between tanna’im: In the case of one who removes hot bread from an oven and places it on top of a barrel of wine that is teruma, Rabbi Meir prohibits a non-priest from eating the bread. In his opinion, the bread absorbs the aroma of the teruma wine and therefore attains the status of teruma. And Rabbi Yehuda permits it. And Rabbi Yosei permits bread made of wheat, which is not very absorbent, but prohibits bread made of barley, because barley draws out and absorbs the aroma. What, is it not a dispute between tanna’im? One Sage, Rabbi Yehuda, holds that an aroma is nothing significant, and one Sage, Rabbi Meir, holds that an aroma is something significant.

ללוי ודאי תנאי היא לרב נימא תנאי היא

The Gemara says: According to the opinion of Levi, i.e., that aroma is insignificant, it certainly is a dispute between tanna’im. Rabbi Meir and Rabbi Yosei hold that it is significant, and Levi accepts the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda that aroma is insignificant. However, according to the opinion of Rav, shall we say it is a dispute between tanna’im?

אמר לך רב דכולי עלמא ריחא מילתא היא לאו איתמר עלה דההיא אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר ריש לקיש בפת חמה וחבית פתוחה דברי הכל אסור בפת צוננת וחבית מגופה דברי הכל מותר לא נחלקו אלא בפת חמה וחבית חתומה פת צוננת וחבית פתוחה והא נמי כפת חמה וחבית פתוחה דמיא

Rav could have said to you: Everyone agrees that aroma is something significant. The dispute is about whether bread absorbs aroma in the circumstance under discussion. Was it not stated with regard to that mishna that Rabba bar bar Ḥana said that Reish Lakish said: With regard to hot bread and an open barrel, everyone agrees that it is prohibited because it certainly draws out the aroma; and with regard to cold bread and a closed barrel, everyone agrees it is permitted? They disagreed only with regard to hot bread and a sealed barrel because perhaps the bread nonetheless draws out aroma through the cracks. Similarly, they disputed the case of cold bread and an open barrel. And this case of two Paschal offerings roasted in the same oven is also considered like the case of hot bread and an open barrel.

תני רב כהנא בריה דרב חיננא סבא פת שאפאה עם צלי בתנור אסור לאכלה בכותחא ההיא ביניתא דאיטווא בהדי בישרא אסרה רבא מפרזיקיא למיכליה בכותחא מר בר רב אשי אמר אפילו במילחא נמי אסורה משום דקשיא לריחא ולדבר אחר:

Rav Kahana, son of Rav Ḥinnana the Elder, teaches: In the case of bread that one baked together with roasting meat in the oven, it is prohibited to eat the bread with kutaḥ, which contains milk, because the bread absorbs some of the meat’s aroma. The Gemara relates: There was a certain fish that was roasted together with meat, Rava of Parzikiyya prohibited it from being eaten with kutaḥ, due to the meat flavor absorbed in the fish. Mar bar Rav Ashi said: Even to merely eat it with salt is also prohibited because meat that is roasted or cooked with fish is bad for odor, meaning it causes bad breath, and for something else, i.e., leprosy. Therefore, one should avoid eating it due to the danger involved.

מתני׳ חמשה דברים באין בטומאה ואינן נאכלין בטומאה העומר ושתי הלחם ולחם הפנים וזבחי שלמי צבור ושעירי ראשי חדשים הפסח שבא בטומאה נאכל בטומאה שלא בא מתחילתו אלא לאכילה:

MISHNA: Five items, i.e., offerings, may be brought in a state of ritual impurity, but they may not be eaten in a state of ritual impurity. They are all communal offerings: The omer, which is brought in Nisan; the two loaves brought on Shavuot; the shewbread, which were arranged each week; the communal peace-offerings, which were brought on Shavuot; and the goats sacrificed on the New Moons, which were sin-offerings eaten by the priests. However, the Paschal lamb that is sacrificed in impurity is eaten even in impurity, as it is brought to begin with only for eating, which is the essence of the mitzva. With regard to other offerings, the essence of their mitzva is fulfilled when they are sacrificed on the altar, and the eating is non-essential.

גמ׳ חמשה למעוטי מאי למעוטי חגיגת חמשה עשר

GEMARA: The mishna mentions the number five. The Gemara asks: To exclude what does the mishna emphasize this number? The Gemara answers: It is to exclude the Festival peace-offering of the fifteenth of Nisan, which is a Festival peace-offering brought on the Festival itself and which may not be sacrificed in a state of ritual impurity.

דסלקא דעתך אמינא כיון דקרבן ציבור הוא וקביעא ליה מועד תדחי טומאה קא משמע לן כיון דאית ליה תשלומין כל שבעה לא דחיא שבת ומדשבת לא דחיא לא דחיא טומאה

It could enter your mind to say: Since it is a communal offering, as each individual sacrifices it on the Festival in a public setting, and its time is set, as it cannot be brought every day, it should override ritual impurity like the other communal offerings that have a set time. Therefore, the mishna teaches us: Since there is redress all seven days of the Festival if the offering was not brought on the fifteenth, it does not override Shabbat. And since it does not override Shabbat, it does not override ritual impurity. Therefore, this offering may not be brought in a state of ritual impurity.

וניתני נמי שעירי הרגלים הא תנא ליה זבחי שלמי צבור אי הכי שעירי ראשי חדשים נמי לא ניתני דהא תנא זבחי שלמי צבור אמרי

The Gemara asks: Let it also teach that the goats brought as sin-offerings on the Festivals override ritual impurity. The Gemara answers: It did teach that, as the goats are included in the category of communal peace-offerings. The Gemara asks: If so, it should also not be necessary to teach separately that the goats sacrificed on the New Moons are brought in a state of ritual impurity, as it already taught the halakha with regard to the communal peace-offerings. Say in answer to this question: