Pesachim 71aפסחים ע״א א
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71aע״א א

בשעת שמחה וליכא משום חגיגה הוי דבר שבחובה וכל דבר שבחובה אינו בא אלא מן החולין

at the time of rejoicing, on the Festival itself, and if it was slaughtered on the fourteenth it is not. The mitzva to bring a Festival peace-offering is also not fulfilled, for it is something that is an obligation, as everyone is obligated to bring this offering, and the principle is that anything that is an obligation must come only from that which is unconsecrated, meaning that one cannot bring an obligatory offering from an animal that has already been consecrated for another purpose.

לימא מסייע ליה והיית אך שמח לרבות לילי יום טוב האחרון לשמחה אתה אומר לילי יום טוב האחרון או אינו אלא לילי יום טוב הראשון תלמוד לומר אך (שמח) חלק

The Gemara proposes: Let us say that a baraita supports him. The verse states: “Seven days shall you celebrate to the Lord your God in the place that the Lord shall choose, for the Lord your God shall bless you in all your produce and in all the work of your hands, and you shall be but joyous” (Deuteronomy 16:15). This verse seems superfluous, as it was already stated in the previous verse: “And you shall rejoice in your Festival.” The baraita expounds: “And you shall be but joyous” comes to include the last night of the Festival. Even then you must make sure there is rejoicing by eating the appropriate peace-offerings. The baraita considers: Do you say that the verse comes to include the last night of the Festival? Or perhaps it comes to include only the first night of the Festival. Therefore, the verse states: “And you shall be but joyous”; the word “but” restricts this mitzva, meaning that there is not always a mitzva to be joyous.

מאי טעמא לאו משום דאין לו במה ישמח

The Gemara clarifies how this baraita supports Ulla: What is the reason that we learn from this expression that it is specifically on the first night that there is no mitzva of rejoicing? Is it not because on the first night he has nothing with which to rejoice? As Ulla said, one cannot fulfill the mitzva of rejoicing with a peace-offering that was slaughtered on the eve of the Festival, because it was not slaughtered at the time of rejoicing. On the last night of the Festival, on the other hand, one can rejoice with a peace-offering that was slaughtered the previous day, i.e., the last intermediate day of the Festival, which is also a time of rejoicing.

לא כדתני טעמא מה ראית לרבות לילי יום טוב האחרון ולהוציא לילי יום טוב ראשון מרבה אני לילי יום טוב האחרון שיש שמחה לפניו ומוציא אני לילי יום טוב ראשון שאין שמחה לפניו

The Gemara rejects this support: No, it is not for this reason, but rather for the reason taught in the continuation of the baraita: What did you see to include the last night of the Festival in the mitzva of rejoicing and to exclude the first night of the Festival, a distinction that is not even hinted at in the verse? The baraita explains: I include the last night of the Festival in the mitzva of rejoicing, for there is rejoicing on the days of the Festival preceding it, and I exclude the first night of the Festival, for there is no day of rejoicing preceding it. Thus, no support for Ulla can be deduced from the baraita.

מתיב רב יוסף חגיגת ארבעה עשר יוצא בה משום שמחה ואין יוצא בה משום חגיגה אמאי הא בעינן זביחה בשעת שמחה וליכא אמר רב אידי בר אבין שעיכב ושחטה

Rav Yosef raised an objection against the opinion of Ulla: It was taught in a baraita with regard to the Festival peace-offering of the fourteenth that one fulfills with it the mitzva to bring peace-offerings of rejoicing, but one does not fulfill with it the mitzva to bring a Festival peace-offering. We can ask, why? Surely, according to Ulla, we require that the slaughter be performed at a time of rejoicing, and this requirement is not fulfilled in this case. The Gemara answers: Rav Idi bar Avin said that the baraita is referring here to a case where he delayed and slaughtered it only on the fifteenth, i.e., on the Festival, which is a time of rejoicing.

אמר רב אשי הכי נמי מסתברא דאי לא תימא הכי הא מתניתא מאן קתני לה בן תימא בן תימא הא פסלה לה בלינה שמע מינה

Rav Ashi said: So too, it is reasonable to understand the baraita in this manner, for if you do not say so, but rather that the Festival peace-offering was slaughtered on the fourteenth, there is a difficulty, for who taught this baraita? Is it not ben Teima who taught it? According to ben Teima, however, he has disqualified it by leaving it overnight, for in his view this Festival peace-offering is similar to a Paschal lamb and may not be eaten the following day. Learn from this that the baraita must be referring to a case where the Festival peace-offering was slaughtered not on the fourteenth, but on the fifteenth.

מתיב רבא ההלל והשמחה שמנה ואי אמרת בעינן זביחה בשעת שמחה הא זמנין סגיאין דלא משכחת לה אלא שבעה כגון שחל יום טוב הראשון להיות בשבת אמר רב הונא בריה דרב יהודה משמחו בשעירי הרגלים

Rava raised an objection against the opinion of Ulla: It was taught in a baraita that the hallel is recited and the mitzva of rejoicing with the peace-offerings of rejoicing is observed on the festival of Sukkot for eight days. Now if you say we require that the slaughter be performed at a time of rejoicing, many times you find that the mitzva of rejoicing is observed for only seven days, such as when the first day of the Festival occurs on Shabbat, when a peace-offering of rejoicing may not be slaughtered. Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehuda, said: One rejoices with the male goats of the Festivals. That is to say, in such a situation the mitzva of rejoicing can be fulfilled with the meat of the goats that are brought on the Festivals as sin-offerings, as these offerings, being communal offerings, may be slaughtered even on Shabbat.

אמר רבא שתי תשובות בדבר חדא דשעירי הרגלים חי נאכלין צלי אין נאכלין ושמחה בחי ליכא ועוד כהנים אוכלין וישראל במה שמחים אלא אמר רב פפא משמחו בכסות נקיה ויין ישן

Rava said: There are two possible responses to refute this. One is that the male goats of the Festivals are eaten raw and are not eaten roasted. Being a non-essential part of the service, roasting the meat is forbidden on Shabbat. Therefore, the meat can be eaten only raw, and there is no rejoicing with raw meat. And furthermore, only the priests eat of the meat of these sin-offerings. With what then do ordinary Israelites rejoice? Rather, Rav Pappa said: In such a situation, one rejoices with clean clothes and old wine.

כי אתא רבין אמר רבי אלעזר שלמים ששחטן מערב יום טוב יוצא בהן משום שמחה ואין יוצא בהן משום חגיגה יוצא משום שמחה לא בעינן זביחה בשעת שמחה ולא משום חגיגה הוי דבר שבחובה וכל דבר שבחובה אינו בא אלא מן החולין

When Ravin came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, he related a different version of what Rabbi Elazar said: With regard to peace-offerings that one slaughtered on the eve of the Festival, one fulfills with them the mitzva to bring peace-offerings of rejoicing, but one does not fulfill with them the mitzva to bring a Festival peace-offering. He explains: One fulfills the mitzva of rejoicing, because we do not require that the slaughter be performed at the time of rejoicing as long as the offering is eaten at the time of rejoicing. But one does not fulfill the mitzva of the Festival peace-offering, because the Festival peace-offering is something that is an obligation, and the principle is that anything that is an obligation must come only from unconsecrated animals.

מיתיבי והיית אך שמח לרבות לילי יום טוב האחרון לשמחה אתה אומר לרבות לילי יום טוב האחרון או אינו אלא לרבות לילי יום טוב הראשון תלמוד לומר אך חלק

The Gemara raises an objection against Ravin from the baraita that was taught above: “And you shall be but joyous” comes to include the last night of the Festival in the mitzva of rejoicing. The baraita considers: Do you say that the verse comes to include the last night in the mitzva of rejoicing? Or perhaps it comes to include only the first night of the Festival? Therefore, the verse states: “And you shall be but joyous”; the word “but” restricts this mitzva, meaning that there is not always a mitzva to be joyous.

מאי טעמא לאו משום דאין לו במה ישמח לא כדתניא מה ראית לרבות לילי יום טוב האחרון ולהוציא לילי יום טוב הראשון מרבה אני לילי יום טוב האחרון שיש שמחה לפניו ומוציא אני לילי יום טוב הראשון שאין שמחה לפניו

The Gemara explains how this baraita is difficult according to Ravin: What is the reason that we learn from here that it is specifically on the first night that there is no mitzva of rejoicing? Is it not because on the first night he has nothing with which to rejoice, as one cannot fulfill the mitzva of rejoicing with peace-offerings slaughtered not at a time of rejoicing? The Gemara rejects this argument: No, the reason is as it was taught in the continuation of the baraita: What did you see to include the last night of the Festival in the mitzva of rejoicing and to exclude the first night of the Festival? The baraita explains: I include the last night of the Festival, for there is rejoicing on the days of the Festival preceding it, and I exclude the first night of the Festival, for there is no day of rejoicing preceding it.

אמר רב כהנא מנין לאימורי חגיגת חמשה עשר שנפסלין בלינה שנאמר ולא ילין חלב חגי עד בקר וסמיך ליה ראשית למימרא דהאי בקר בקר ראשון

Rav Kahana said: From where is it derived that the sacrificial parts of the Festival peace-offering of the fifteenth of Nisan, i.e., those portions of the offering that are consumed on the altar, are disqualified when left overnight on the first night after the offering is slaughtered, despite the fact that the meat of the offering may be consumed for an additional day? As it is stated: “You shall not offer the blood of My offering with leaven; neither shall the fat of my Festival offering be left over until morning” (Exodus 23:18), and, juxtaposed with it is the word first, in the verse: “The first of the first fruits of your land you shall bring to the house of the Lord your God” (Exodus 23:19). This comes to say to us that the morning mentioned in the first verse is the first morning after the offering has been sacrificed.

מתקיף לה רב יוסף טעמא דכתב ראשית הא לא כתב ראשית הוה אמינא מאי בקר בקר שני מי איכא מידי דבשר איפסיל ליה מאורתא ואמורין עד צפרא

Rav Yosef strongly objects to this proof: The reason is that it wrote the word first. But had it not written the word first, I would have said: What is the meaning of the term morning? The second morning after it was sacrificed. This raises a question: Is there anything like this where the meat of an offering that is to be eaten is disqualified already from the evening, as the meat of a Festival peace-offering may be eaten only for two days and the night between them, while the sacrificial parts to be consumed on the altar are permitted until the next morning?

אמר ליה אביי אלמה לא והרי פסח לרבי אלעזר בן עזריה דבשר איפסיל ליה מחצות ואמורין עד צפרא

Abaye said to him: Why not? For there is the Paschal offering according to the opinion of Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya, who holds that the meat that is to be eaten is disqualified already from midnight and may no longer be eaten after that time, while the sacrificial parts to be consumed on the altar may be offered until morning.

אמר רבא רב יוסף הכי קא קשיא ליה מי איכא מידי דאלו תנא לבשר לא בעי ראשית ורב כהנא לאימורין בעי ראשית

Rava said: This is what was difficult to Rav Yosef: Is there anything like this, i.e., that the tanna does not need the word “first” to teach us that the word “morning,” written with regard to the meat of an offering, is referring to the first morning, whereas Rav Kahana requires the word “first” to teach us that the word “morning,” written with regard to the sacrificial portions to be consumed on the altar, is referring to the first morning? This is despite the fact that the latter, owing to their greater sanctity, are obviously more easily disqualified than the former.

מאי היא דתניא לא ילין מן הבשר אשר תזבח בערב ביום הראשון לבקר

The Gemara asks: What is this source alluded to by Rava? The Gemara explains: As it was taught in a baraita with regard to the verse: “Nor shall any of the meat that you sacrifice on the first day at evening remain overnight until the morning” (Deuteronomy 16:4),