Pesachim 58bפסחים נ״ח ב
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58bנ״ח ב

אי לא חיישינן ניעבדיה בשש ומחצה קא סבר מוספין קודמין לבזיכין עביד להו למוספין בשש ובזיכין בשבע ועביד ליה לתמיד בשבע ומחצה

The Gemara asks: If, according to the opinion of Rabbi Akiva, we are not concerned that the meat might spoil, let us sacrifice the daily offering at six and a half hours, as there are many Paschal lambs and no voluntary vow or free-will offerings to be sacrificed. Why, then, should they postpone the daily offering? The Gemara responds that Rabbi Akiva holds: The additional offerings precede the bowls and therefore the priest would sacrifice the additional offerings at six hours, and offer the bowls at seven hours, and then sacrifice the daily offering at seven and a half hours.

מתקיף לה רבה בר עולא מידי כסידרו בחול כך סידרו בשבת בערב הפסח דברי רבי ישמעאל קתני כך סידרו בשבת סתמא קתני

Rabba bar Ulla strongly objects to this explanation. Does the baraita teach: Like the arrangement of the daily offering during the week, so is its arrangement on Shabbat that occurs on Passover eve; this is the statement of Rabbi Yishmael? The baraita simply teaches: So is its arrangement on Shabbat. Rava’s explanation also fails to correspond to the wording of the baraita.

אלא אמר רבה בר עולא הכי קתני כסידרו בחול דעלמא כך סידרו בשבת דעלמא דברי רבי ישמעאל

Rather, Rabba bar Ulla said: The baraita should be understood as referring not to the eve of Passover, but to the rest of the days of the year, and this is what it is teaching: Like its arrangement on an ordinary day during the week, so is its arrangement on an ordinary Shabbat, at eight and a half hours; this is the statement of Rabbi Yishmael, who maintains that there is no distinction at all in this regard between Shabbat and a weekday.

רבי עקיבא אומר כסידרו בערב הפסח דעלמא כך סידרו בשבת דעלמא ומתניתין דקתני בין בחול בין בשבת דברי הכל היא

Rabbi Akiva says: Like its arrangement on an ordinary Passover eve that occurs on a weekday, at seven and a half hours, so is its arrangement on an ordinary Shabbat. Since no free-will offerings are offered on Shabbat, the daily offering can be sacrificed earlier. And the mishna, which teaches that the daily offering on Passover eve is slaughtered at the same time, whether during the week or on Shabbat, can be said to be in agreement with all opinions, both that of Rabbi Yishmael and that of Rabbi Akiva.

במאי קמיפלגי בגזרת נדבות ונדרים קמיפלגי רבי ישמעאל סבר גזרינן שבת אטו חול ורבי עקיבא סבר לא גזרינן

According to this explanation, with regard to what principle do these tanna’im disagree? They disagree concerning whether a decree should be issued on account of voluntary vows and free-will offerings. Rabbi Yishmael holds that we issue a decree for Shabbat due to weekdays. During the week, the sacrifice of the daily afternoon offering is postponed until eight and a half hours of the day, due to the voluntary offerings that must be sacrificed before the daily offering. The same should be done on Shabbat, so as to avoid distinctions. And Rabbi Akiva holds that we do not issue such a decree.

אי לא גזרינן ניעבדיה בשש ומחצה קסבר מוספין קודמין לבזיכין מוספין בשש ובזיכין בשבע ועביד ליה לתמיד בשבע ומחצה

The Gemara asks: If we do not issue such a decree, why do we postpone the sacrifice of the daily offering until seven and a half hours? Let us sacrifice it at six and a half hours. The Gemara responds: Rabbi Akiva holds that the additional offerings precede the bowls of frankincense. Consequently, the priest sacrifices the additional offerings at six hours, and offers the bowls at seven hours, and sacrifices the daily offering at seven and a half hours.

מיתיבי תמיד כל השנה כולה קרב כהלכתו נשחט בשמונה ומחצה וקרב בתשע ומחצה ובערב הפסח נשחט בשבע ומחצה וקרב בשמונה ומחצה חל להיות בשבת כחל להיות בשני בשבת דברי רבי ישמעאל רבי עקיבא אומר כסידרו בערב הפסח

The Gemara raises an objection with regard to these explanations from another baraita which teaches: The daily offering is sacrificed throughout the entire year in accordance with its law. In other words, it is slaughtered at eight and a half hours and sacrificed at nine and a half hours. And on the eve of Passover it is slaughtered at seven and a half hours and sacrificed at eight and a half hours. If Passover eve occurs on Shabbat it is as if it occurred on a Monday, i.e., it is like an ordinary weekday. This indicates that no distinction is made with regard to the eve of Passover, whether it occurs on Shabbat or during the week; this is the statement of Rabbi Yishmael. Rabbi Akiva says: If the eve of Passover occurs on Shabbat, its arrangement is like its arrangement on the eve of Passover when it is advanced to six and a half hours of the day.

בשלמא לאביי ניחא אלא לרבא קשיא אמר לך רבא לא תימא כחל בשני בשבת אלא אימא כשני בשבת דעלמא

Granted, according to the opinion of Abaye, this baraita works out well, as it is consistent with his explanation of the previous baraita. But according to the opinion of Rava, it is difficult. The Gemara responds: Rava could have said to you: Do not say: It is as if it occurred on a Monday. Rather say: It is like an ordinary Monday, and explain the words as follows: If the eve of Passover occurs on Shabbat, no changes are introduced, and the daily offering is sacrificed at the same time that it is sacrificed on an ordinary weekday, at eight and a half hours of the day.

מיתיבי חל להיות בשבת כסידרו כל השנה כולה דברי רבי ישמעאל רבי עקיבא אומר כסידרו בערב הפסח דעלמא בשלמא לרבא ניחא אלא לאביי קשיא

The Gemara raises an objection from another baraita: If the eve of Passover occurs on Shabbat, the daily offering is sacrificed in accordance with its arrangement all year long, at eight and a half hours of the day; this is the statement of Rabbi Yishmael. Rabbi Akiva says: It is sacrificed in accordance with its arrangement on an ordinary Passover eve. Granted, according to the opinion of Rava, this baraita works out well. But according to the opinion of Abaye, it is difficult.

אמר לך אביי לא תימא כסידרו כל השנה אלא אימא כסידרו כל השנים כולן דברי רבי ישמעאל רבי עקיבא אומר כסידרו ערב הפסח שחל להיות בערב שבת

Abaye can say to you: Do not say according to Rabbi Yishmael’s statement in the baraita: In accordance with its arrangement all year long. Rather, say: In accordance with its arrangement every year; this is the statement of Rabbi Yishmael. In other words, no distinction is made between the eve of Passover that occurs on Shabbat and the eve of Passover that occurs during the week. The daily offering is sacrificed at seven and a half hours. This is consistent with Abaye’s opinion. According to this explanation, Rabbi Akiva says that the halakha is not so. Instead, the daily offering is sacrificed in accordance with its arrangement on Passover eve that occurs on Shabbat eve. This is the way the baraita must conclude according to Abaye.

תנו רבנן מנין שלא יהא דבר קודם לתמיד של שחר תלמוד לומר וערך עליה העולה מאי תלמודא אמר רבא העולה עולה ראשונה

As the Gemara mentioned previously that the daily morning offering precedes all other sacrifices, it cites a baraita that explains this law. The Sages taught: From where is it derived that no sacrifice shall precede the daily morning offering? The verse states: “And the fire on the altar shall be kept burning on it, it shall not be extinguished; and the priest shall kindle wood upon it every morning, and he shall prepare the burnt-offering upon it and shall cause the fats of the peace-offerings to go up in smoke upon it” (Leviticus 6:5). The Gemara asks: What is the biblical derivation? In other words, how is it derived that the burnt-offering in this verse is referring to the daily morning offering? Rava said: “The burnt-offering,” with the definite article, is referring to the first burnt-offering, i.e., the daily morning offering, which is first both chronologically and in terms of importance.

ומנין שאין דבר קרב אחר תמיד של בין הערבים תלמוד לומר והקטיר עליה חלבי השלמים מאי תלמודא אמר אביי עליה שלמים ולא על חבירתה שלמים

The baraita continues: And from where is it derived that nothing is sacrificed after the daily afternoon offering? The verse states: “And shall cause the fats of the peace-offerings to go up in smoke upon it.” The Gemara again asks: What is the derivation? Abaye said: “Upon it.” Upon, i.e., after, the first burnt-offering, that is, the daily morning offering, may the peace-offerings, i.e., the voluntary vow and free-will offerings, be sacrificed throughout the day. But peace-offerings may not be sacrificed upon, i.e., after, its counterpart, which is the daily afternoon offering.

מתקיף לה רבא אימא שלמים הוא דלא נקריב הא עולות נקריב אלא אמר רבא השלמים עליה השלם כל הקרבנות כולן

Rava strongly objects to this explanation: If so, say it is peace-offerings that we must not sacrifice after the daily afternoon offering, but burnt-offerings we may sacrifice, since this derivation is referring only to peace-offerings. Rather, Rava said: “The peace-offerings [hashelamim] upon it” should be homiletically interpreted to mean that upon the daily morning offering, rather than after the daily afternoon offering, completes [hashlem] the offering of all other sacrifices.

תנו רבנן תמיד קודם לפסח פסח קודם לקטרת קטרת קודמת לנרות

The Sages taught in a baraita: The daily offering precedes the offering of the Paschal lamb, the Paschal lamb precedes the afternoon burning of the incense, and the burning of the incense precedes the lighting of the lamps of the Temple candelabrum.