מַאן שָׁמְעַתְּ לֵיהּ דְּאָמַר ״מִיחוּ״ וְ״לֹא מִיחוּ״ — רַבִּי יְהוּדָה. וְקָתָנֵי: קוֹצְרִין בִּרְצוֹן חֲכָמִים! וְלִיטַעְמָיךְ, הָנֵי אַרְבְּעָה הֲוָה! אֶלָּא: סְמִי מִיכָּן קְצִירָה. Whom did you hear that said: Reprimanded and did not reprimand? It is Rabbi Yehuda, as Rabbi Meir uses the terminology: In keeping with the will and against the will. And yet, Rabbi Yehuda is teaching in the baraita that they would harvest in keeping with the will of the Sages. The Gemara answers with a question: And according to your reasoning, these three activities listed in the mishna, for which the Sages did not reprimand them, are actually four: Grafting palms, bundling Shema, harvesting, and piling. They are not three activities, as stated. Rather, delete harvest from the mishna here. Harvesting should not be listed with the activities for which the Sages did not reprimand them.
וּמַתִּירִין גַּמְזִיּוֹת שֶׁל הֶקְדֵּשׁ שֶׁל חָרוּב וְשֶׁל שִׁקְמָה. אָמְרוּ: אֲבוֹתֵינוּ לֹא הִקְדִּישׁוּ אֶלָּא קוֹרוֹת, וְאָנוּ נַתִּיר גַּמְזִיּוֹת שֶׁל הֶקְדֵּשׁ שֶׁל חָרוּב וְשֶׁל שִׁקְמָה. וּבְגִידּוּלִין הַבָּאִין לְאַחַר מִכָּאן עָסְקִינַן, וְסָבְרִי לַהּ כְּמַאן דְּאָמַר: אֵין מְעִילָה בְּגִידּוּלִין. וְרַבָּנַן סָבְרִי: נְהִי דִּמְעִילָה לֵיכָּא, אִיסּוּרָא מִיהָא אִיכָּא. It was taught in the baraita: They would permit the use of consecrated branches of carob and of sycamore trees. The Gemara explains the reason: They said: Our fathers consecrated only the tree trunks, and therefore we can permit the consecrated branches that have grown from the branches of carob and of sycamore trees. The Gemara explains that we are dealing with the growth that came afterward, and they hold in accordance with the one who said: There is no misuse of consecrated property with regard to subsequent growth. And the Rabbis hold: Although there is no misuse of consecrated property, in any case, there is a prohibition.
וּפוֹרְצִין פְּרָצוֹת. אָמַר עוּלָּא אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ: מַחְלוֹקֶת בְּשֶׁל מַכְבֵּדוֹת, דְּרַבָּנַן סָבְרִי: גָּזְרִינַן שֶׁמָּא יַעֲלֶה וְיִתְלוֹשׁ, וְאַנְשֵׁי יְרִיחוֹ סָבְרִי: לָא גָּזְרִינַן שֶׁמָּא יַעֲלֶה וְיִתְלוֹשׁ. אֲבָל בְּשֶׁל בֵּין הַכִּיפִּין — דִּבְרֵי הַכֹּל מוּתָּר. It was taught in the baraita that the residents of Jericho created breaches so that during years of famine the poor could take fruit that fell on Shabbat and Festivals. Ulla said that Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish said: This dispute between the residents of Jericho and the Sages is with regard to dates no longer attached to the tree that fell onto the upper palm branches [makhebedot]. The Sages hold: We issue a decree to prohibit taking these dates, lest one climb the tree and pick dates still attached to the tree. And the people of Jericho hold: We do not issue a decree lest one climb the tree and pick dates. However, with regard to dates that fell onto lower palm branches [keifin], everyone agrees that taking fruit from these branches is permitted.
אֲמַר לֵיהּ רָבָא: וְהָא מוּקְצוֹת נִינְהוּ. וְכִי תֵּימָא: הוֹאִיל דַּחֲזֵי לְעוֹרְבִין. הַשְׁתָּא מוּכָן לְאָדָם לָא הָוֵי מוּכָן לִכְלָבִים, דִּתְנַן: רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר: אִם לֹא הָיְתָה נְבֵילָה מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת — אֲסוּרָה, לְפִי שֶׁאֵינָהּ מִן הַמּוּכָן, מוּכָן לְעוֹרְבִים הָוֵי מוּכָן לְאָדָם?! Rava said to Ulla: But aren’t they set-aside, as they are not prepared as food before Shabbat, since they fell from the tree on Shabbat itself? Any item prohibited during twilight on Shabbat eve remains prohibited throughout day, even if circumstances change. And if you say: These dates are not set-aside, since they are fit for consumption by domestic ravens, which can fly and gather the dates still attached to the tree, now, an item that is prepared for use for a person is not considered prepared for use for dogs, as we learned in a mishna that Rabbi Yehuda says: If the animal was alive and not a carcass on Shabbat eve, it may not be fed to dogs on Shabbat because it was not expressly prepared for that purpose. Is food prepared for ravens considered prepared for a person? While it was alive, the animal was prepared for human consumption during twilight; nevertheless, it is prohibited to feed its carcass to the dogs.
אֲמַר לֵיהּ: אִין, מוּכָן לְאָדָם — לָא הָוֵי מוּכָן לִכְלָבִים, דְּכׇל מִידֵּי דַּחֲזֵי לְאִינִישׁ, לָא מַקְצֵה לֵיהּ מִדַּעְתֵּיהּ. מוּכָן לְעוֹרְבִים — הָוֵי מוּכָן לְאָדָם, כׇּל מִידֵּי דַּחֲזֵי לְאִינִישׁ, דַּעְתֵּיהּ עִלָּוֵיהּ. Ulla said to Rava: Yes, an item that is prepared for consumption for a person is not prepared for dogs, as any item that is fit for a person, one does not remove it from his thoughts; it remains exclusively for the use of a person. However, an item that is prepared for ravens is also prepared for the use of a person. Any item that is fit for the use of a person, his thoughts are upon it. Although initially it is available only to ravens, a person is prepared to eat any food that becomes available to him. That is Ulla’s version of the statement of Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish.
כִּי אֲתָא רָבִין, אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ: מַחְלוֹקֶת בְּשֶׁל בֵּין כִּיפִּין, דְּרַבָּנַן סָבְרִי: מוּכָן לְעוֹרְבִים — לָא הָוֵי מוּכָן לְאָדָם, וְאַנְשֵׁי יְרִיחוֹ סָבְרִי: מוּכָן לָעוֹרְבִים — הָוֵי מוּכָן לְאָדָם, אֲבָל בְּשֶׁל מַכְבֵּדוֹת — דִּבְרֵי הַכֹּל אָסוּר, גָּזְרִינַן שֶׁמָּא יַעֲלֶה וְיִתְלוֹשׁ. When Ravin came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, he said a different version of that which Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish said: This dispute is with regard to dates that fell onto the lower palm branches, as the Sages hold: An item that is prepared for ravens is not prepared for a person. And the people of Jericho hold: An item that is prepared for ravens is prepared for a person. However, with regard to the dates on upper branches, everyone agrees that they are prohibited, as we issue a decree lest one climb the tree and pick dates.
וְנוֹתְנִין פֵּיאָה לַיָּרָק. וְלֵית לְהוּ לְאַנְשֵׁי יְרִיחוֹ הָא דִּתְנַן, כְּלָל אָמְרוּ בַּפֵּיאָה: כׇּל שֶׁהוּא אוֹכֶל, וְנִשְׁמָר, וְגִידּוּלוֹ מִן הָאָרֶץ, וּלְקִיטָתוֹ כְּאַחַת, וּמַכְנִיסוֹ לְקִיּוּם — חַיָּיב בְּפֵיאָה. We learned in the mishna: And the residents of Jericho would designate for the poor the produce in the corner [pe’a] in a field of vegetables. The Gemara asks: And aren’t the people of Jericho of the opinion of that which we learned in a mishna: A principle was stated with regard to the produce of the corner of the field: Anything that is food, and is protected, and grows from the ground, and is gathered as one, and one brings it in to store for preservation is obligated in the halakhot of the produce in the corner of the field?
״כׇּל שֶׁהוּא אוֹכֶל״ — פְּרָט לִסְפִיחֵי סְטִיס וְקוֹצָה. ״וְנִשְׁמָר״ —פְּרָט לְהֶפְקֵר. ״וְגִידּוּלוֹ מִן הָאָרֶץ״ — פְּרָט לִכְמֵהִין וּפִטְרִיּוֹת. ״וּלְקִיטָתָן כְּאַחַת״ — פְּרָט לִתְאֵנִים. ״וּמַכְנִיסוֹ לְקִיּוּם״ — פְּרָט לְיָרָק. The Gemara elaborates on each criterion in the mishna. Anything that is food; this comes to exclude the after-growths of woad and safflower. These plants are used as dyes and not for food. Therefore, one need not designate the produce in the corners from them. And is protected; this comes to exclude ownerless crops. And grows from the ground; this comes to exclude truffles and mushrooms, which, unlike other plants, do not draw sustenance from the ground. And is gathered as one; this comes to exclude the fig tree, whose fruit is gathered throughout an extended period, as the figs do not ripen together. And one brings it in to storage for preservation; this comes to exclude vegetables, which cannot be stored for lengthy periods.
אָמַר רַב יְהוּדָה אָמַר רַב: הָכָא בְּרָאשֵׁי לְפָתוֹת עָסְקִינַן, וּמַכְנִיסוֹ לְקִיּוּם עַל יְדֵי דָּבָר אַחֵר קָמִיפַּלְגִי. מָר סָבַר: מַכְנִיסוֹ לְקִיּוּם עַל יְדֵי דָּבָר אַחֵר — שְׁמֵיהּ קִיּוּם, וּמָר סָבַר: לָא שְׁמֵיהּ קִיּוּם. Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: Here we are dealing with turnip heads, which can be stored for an extended period of time, and they disagree with regard to bringing it in to storage for preservation by means of another substance. Turnips are not stored alone. In order to store them, one preserves them in vinegar or a similar substance (Rabbeinu Ḥananel). One Sage, the residents of Jericho, holds: Storage by means of another substance such as vinegar is considered storage. And one Sage, i.e., the Sages, holds: It is not considered storage, and therefore one need not designate produce from the corner of the field from turnips.
תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן: בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה הָיוּ נוֹתְנִין פֵּיאָה לְלֶפֶת וְלִכְרוּב, רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר: אַף לְקַפְלוֹט. וְתַנְיָא אִידַּךְ: הָיוּ נוֹתְנִין פֵּיאָה לְלֶפֶת וּלְקַפְלוֹט, רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר: אַף לִכְרוּב. The Sages taught: Initially, they would designate the produce in the corner of the field from turnips and cabbages. Rabbi Yosei says: They would do so even from leeks [kaflot]. And it was taught in another baraita: They would designate the produce in the corner of the field from turnips and leeks. Rabbi Shimon says: They would do so even from cabbages.