Pesachim 54aפסחים נ״ד א
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
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54aנ״ד א
1 א

וְאִישׁ תְּבוּנָה יִדְלֶנָּה״. ״מַיִם עֲמוּקִּים עֵצָה בְלֶב אִישׁ״ — זֶה עוּלָּא. ״וְאִישׁ תְּבוּנָה יִדְלֶנָּה״ — זֶה רַבָּה בַּר בַּר חָנָה. וְאִינְהוּ כְּמַאן סַבְרוּהָ? כִּי הָא דְּאָמַר רַבִּי בִּנְיָמִין בַּר יֶפֶת אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן: מְבָרְכִין עַל הָאוּר בֵּין בְּמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת בֵּין בְּמוֹצָאֵי יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים. וְכֵן עַמָּא דָּבַר.

but a man of understanding will draw it out” (Proverbs 20:5). Counsel in the heart of man is like deep water; that is a reference to Ulla, who had a thought but did not articulate it. But a man of understanding will draw it out; that is a reference to Rabba bar bar Ḥana, who understood the allusion even though it was not articulated. The Gemara asks: And in accordance with whose opinion do Ulla and Rabba bar bar Ḥana hold, leading them to reject Rabbi Abba’s statement of Rabbi Yoḥanan’s opinion? The Gemara answers: They hold in accordance with that which Rabbi Binyamin bar Yefet said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: One recites the blessing over fire both at the conclusion of Shabbat and at the conclusion of Yom Kippur. And that is how the people act.

2 ב

מֵיתִיבִי: אֵין מְבָרְכִין עַל הָאוּר אֶלָּא בְּמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת, הוֹאִיל וּתְחִילַּת בְּרִיָּיתוֹ הוּא. וְכֵיוָן שֶׁרוֹאֶה — מְבָרֵךְ מִיָּד. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, סוֹדְרָן עַל הַכּוֹס. וְאָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן: הֲלָכָה כְּרַבִּי יְהוּדָה!

The Gemara raises an objection from that which was previously taught: One recites a blessing over fire only at the conclusion of Shabbat and not at the conclusion of Festivals or Yom Kippur, since the conclusion of Shabbat is the time of its original creation. And once he sees it, he recites the blessing immediately. Rabbi Yehuda says: One does not recite the blessing immediately; rather, he waits and arranges and recites the blessings over fire and spices over the cup of wine that accompanies the recitation of havdala. And Rabbi Yoḥanan said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda. How does Rabbi Yoĥanan explain the baraita?

3 ג

לָא קַשְׁיָא: כָּאן בְּאוּר שֶׁשָּׁבַת, כָּאן בְּאוּר הַיּוֹצֵא מִן הָעֵצִים וּמִן הָאֲבָנִים.

The Gemara answers: This is not difficult. Here, where Rabbi Yoḥanan said that one recites the blessing at the conclusion of Yom Kippur, it is referring to fire that rested on Yom Kippur, i.e., fire for which no prohibition was involved in its kindling, either because it was kindled before Yom Kippur or because it was kindled in a permitted manner, e.g., for a dangerously ill person. There, where Rabbi Yoḥanan said that the blessing is recited only at the conclusion of Shabbat, it is referring to fire generated from wood and from stones after Shabbat, similar to the primordial fire, which was created at the conclusion of Shabbat.

4 ד

תָּנֵי חֲדָא: אוּר הַיּוֹצֵא מִן הָעֵצִים וּמִן הָאֲבָנִים מְבָרְכִין עָלָיו, וְתָנֵי חֲדָא: אֵין מְבָרְכִין עָלָיו. לָא קַשְׁיָא: כָּאן בְּמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת, כָּאן בְּמוֹצָאֵי יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים.

It was taught in one baraita: With regard to fire generated from wood and stones, one recites a blessing over it; and it was taught in one other baraita: One does not recite a blessing over it. This apparent contradiction is not difficult. Here, where the baraita states that one recites a blessing, it is referring to the conclusion of Shabbat. There, where the baraita states that one does not recite a blessing, it is referring to the conclusion of Yom Kippur.

5 ה

רַבִּי מְפַזְּרָן. רַבִּי חִיָּיא מְכַנְּסָן. אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק בַּר אַבְדִּימִי: אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁרַבִּי מְפַזְּרָן — חוֹזֵר וְסוֹדְרָן עַל הַכּוֹס, כְּדֵי לְהוֹצִיא בָּנָיו וּבְנֵי בֵּיתוֹ.

Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi would distribute the blessings over the fire and the spices, reciting each when the opportunity arose. Rabbi Ḥiyya would collect them, reciting all the blessings at the same time in the framework of havdala. Rabbi Yitzḥak bar Avdimi said: Even though Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi distributes them and recites each blessing at his first opportunity, he repeats the blessings and arranges and recites them over the cup of wine in order to discharge the obligation of his children and the members of his household.

6 ו

וְאוּר בְּמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת אִיבְּרִי? וְהָא תַּנְיָא: עֲשָׂרָה דְּבָרִים נִבְרְאוּ בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת, אֵלּוּ הֵן: בְּאֵר, וְהַמָּן, וְקֶשֶׁת, כְּתָב, וּמַכְתֵּב, וְהַלּוּחוֹת, וְקִבְרוֹ שֶׁל מֹשֶׁה, וּמְעָרָה שֶׁעָמַד בּוֹ מֹשֶׁה וְאֵלִיָּהוּ, פְּתִיחַת פִּי הָאָתוֹן, וּפְתִיחַת פִּי הָאָרֶץ לִבְלוֹעַ אֶת הָרְשָׁעִים.

The Gemara stated that fire was originally created at the conclusion of Shabbat. The Gemara asks: Was fire created at the conclusion of Shabbat? Wasn’t it taught in a baraita: Ten miraculous phenomena were created in heaven on Shabbat eve during twilight, and were revealed in the world only later? They were: Miriam’s well, and the manna that fell in the desert, and the rainbow, writing [ketav], and the writing instrument [mikhtav], and the tablets of the Ten Commandments, and the grave of Moses, and the cave in which Moses and Elijah stood, the opening of the mouth of Balaam’s donkey, and the opening of the earth’s mouth to swallow the wicked in the incident involving Korah.

7 ז

רַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה אוֹמֵר מִשּׁוּם אָבִיו: אַף הָאוּר וְהַפֶּרֶד. רַבִּי יֹאשִׁיָּה אוֹמֵר מִשּׁוּם אָבִיו: אַף הָאַיִל, וְהַשָּׁמִיר. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר: אַף הַצְּבָת. הוּא הָיָה אוֹמֵר: צְבָתָא בִּצְבָתָא מִתְעַבְדָא, וּצְבָתָא קַמַּיְיתָא מַאן עֲבַד? הָא לָאיֵ בְּרִיָּה בִּידֵי שָׁמַיִם הִיא. אֲמַר לֵיהּ: אֶפְשָׁר יַעֲשֶׂנָּה בִּדְפוּס וְיִקְבָּעֶנָּה כֵּיוָן. הָא לָאיֵ בְּרִיָּה בִּידֵי אָדָם הִיא.

Rabbi Neḥemya said in the name of his father: Even the fire and the mule, which is a product of crossbreeding, were created at that time. Rabbi Yoshiya said in the name of his father: Even the ram slaughtered by Abraham in place of Isaac, and the shamir worm used to shape the stones for the altar, were created at that time. Rabbi Yehuda says: Even the tongs were created at this time. He would say: Tongs can be fashioned only with other tongs, but who fashioned the first tongs? Indeed, the first pair of tongs was fashioned at the hand of Heaven. An anonymous questioner said to him: It is possible to fashion tongs with a mold and align it without the need for other tongs. Indeed, the first tongs were a creation of man. In any event, fire was originally created before Shabbat, not at the conclusion of Shabbat.

8 ח

לָא קַשְׁיָא: הָא בְּאוּר דִּידַן, הָא בְּאוּר דְּגֵיהִנָּם. אוּר דִּידַן — בְּמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת, אוּר דְּגֵיהִנָּם — בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת. וְאוּר דְּגֵיהִנָּם בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת אִיבְּרִי? וְהָא תַּנְיָא: שִׁבְעָה דְּבָרִים נִבְרְאוּ קוֹדֶם שֶׁנִּבְרָא הָעוֹלָם, וְאֵלּוּ הֵן: תּוֹרָה, וּתְשׁוּבָה, וְגַן עֵדֶן, וְגֵיהִנָּם, וְכִסֵּא הַכָּבוֹד, וּבֵית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ, וּשְׁמוֹ שֶׁל מָשִׁיחַ.

The Gemara answers: This is not difficult. This baraita is referring to our fire, and that baraita is referring to the fire of Gehenna. The Gemara explains: Our fire was created at the conclusion of Shabbat, but the fire of Gehenna was created on Shabbat eve. The Gemara proceeds to ask: Was the fire of Gehenna created on Shabbat eve? Wasn’t it taught in a baraita: Seven phenomena were created before the world was created, and they are: Torah, and repentance, and the Garden of Eden, and Gehenna, and the Throne of Glory, and the Temple, and the name of Messiah.

9 ט

תּוֹרָה, דִּכְתִיב: ״ה׳ קָנָנִי רֵאשִׁית דַּרְכּוֹ״. תְּשׁוּבָה, דִּכְתִיב: ״בְּטֶרֶם הָרִים יֻלָּדוּ״, וּכְתִיב: ״תָּשֵׁב אֱנוֹשׁ עַד דַּכָּא וַתֹּאמֶר שׁוּבוּ בְנֵי אָדָם״.

The Gemara provides sources for the notion that each of these phenomena was created before the world was. Torah was created before the world was created, as it is written: “The Lord made me as the beginning of His way, the first of His works of old” (Proverbs 8:22), which, based on the subsequent verses, is referring to the Torah. Repentance was created before the world was created, as it is written: “Before the mountains were brought forth, or ever You had formed the earth and the world, even from everlasting to everlasting, You are God,” and it is written immediately afterward: “You return man to contrition; and You say: Repent, children of man” (Psalms 90:2–3).

10 י

גַּן עֵדֶן, דִּכְתִיב: ״וַיִּטַּע ה׳ אֱלֹהִים גַּן בְּעֵדֶן מִקֶּדֶם״. גֵּיהִנָּם, דִּכְתִיב: ״כִּי עָרוּךְ מֵאֶתְמוּל תׇּפְתֶּה״.

The Garden of Eden was created before the world was created, as it is written: “And God planted the Garden of Eden in the east [mikedem]” (Genesis 2:8). The term: In the east [mikedem] is interpreted in the sense of: Before [mikodem], i.e., before the world was created. Gehenna was created before the world was created, as it is written: “For its hearth is ordained of old” (Isaiah 30:33). The hearth, i.e., Gehenna, was created before the world was created.

11 יא

כִּסֵּא הַכָּבוֹד וּבֵית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ, דִּכְתִיב: ״כִּסֵּא כָבוֹד מָרוֹם מֵרִאשׁוֹן מְקוֹם מִקְדָּשֵׁנוּ״. שְׁמוֹ שֶׁל מָשִׁיחַ, דִּכְתִיב: ״יְהִי שְׁמוֹ לְעוֹלָם לִפְנֵי שֶׁמֶשׁ יִנּוֹן שְׁמוֹ״!

The Throne of Glory and the Temple were created before the world was created, as it is written: “Your Throne of Glory on high from the beginning, in the place of our Sanctuary” (Jeremiah 17:12). The name of Messiah was created before the world was created, as it is written in the chapter discussing the Messiah: “May his name endure forever; his name existed before the sun” (Psalms 72:17). The name of Messiah already existed before the creation of the sun and the rest of the world. This baraita states that Gehenna was created before the world was created and not during twilight before the first Shabbat.

12 יב

אָמְרִי, חֲלָלָהּ הוּא דְּנִבְרָא קוֹדֶם שֶׁנִּבְרָא הָעוֹלָם, וְאוּר דִּידֵיהּ בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת.

They say in answer: The void of Gehenna was created before the world, but its fire was created on Shabbat eve.

13 יג

וְאוּר דִּידֵיהּ בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת אִיבְּרִי? וְהַתַּנְיָא, רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר: אוּר שֶׁבָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בְּשֵׁנִי בַּשַּׁבָּת אֵין לוֹ כְּבִיָּיה לְעוֹלָם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״וְיָצְאוּ וְרָאוּ בְּפִגְרֵי הָאֲנָשִׁים הַפּוֹשְׁעִים בִּי כִּי תוֹלַעְתָּם לֹא תָמוּת וְאִשָּׁם לֹא תִכְבֶּה״, וְאָמַר רַבִּי בְּנָאָה בְּרֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי עוּלָּא: מִפְּנֵי מָה לֹא נֶאֱמַר ״כִּי טוֹב״ בְּשֵׁנִי בַּשַּׁבָּת — מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנִּבְרָא בּוֹ אוּר שֶׁל גֵּיהִנָּם. וְאָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר: אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא נֶאֱמַר בּוֹ ״כִּי טוֹב״, חָזַר וּכְלָלוֹ בַּשִּׁשִּׁי, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים אֶת כׇּל אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה וְהִנֵּה טוֹב מְאֹד״.

The Gemara asks: And was its fire created on Shabbat eve? Wasn’t it taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yosei says: The fire that the Holy One, Blessed be He, created on the second day of the week will never be extinguished, as it is stated: “And they shall go forth, and look upon the carcasses of the men who have rebelled against Me; for their worm shall not die, nor will their fire be extinguished; and they shall be an abhorrence to all flesh” (Isaiah 66:24)? And Rabbi Bana’a, son of Rabbi Ulla, said: Why doesn’t the verse state: That it was good, at the end of the second day of the week of Creation, as it does on the other days? It is because on that day the fire of Gehenna was created. And Rabbi Elazar said that even though: That it was good, was not stated with regard to the creations of the second day, He later included it on the sixth day, as it is stated: “And God saw all that He had done and behold, it was very good” (Genesis 1:31).

14 יד

אֶלָּא: חֲלָלָהּ — קוֹדֶם שֶׁנִּבְרָא הָעוֹלָם, וְאוּר דִּידֵיהּ — בְּשֵׁנִי בַּשַּׁבָּת. וְאוּר דִּידַן — בְּמַחְשָׁבָה עָלָה לִיבָּרְאוֹת בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת, וְלֹא נִבְרָא עַד מוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת. דְּתַנְיָא, רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר: שְׁנֵי דְבָרִים עָלוּ בְּמַחְשָׁבָה לִיבָּרְאוֹת בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת, וְלֹא נִבְרְאוּ עַד מוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת, וּבְמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת נָתַן הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא דֵּיעָה בְּאָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן מֵעֵין דּוּגְמָא שֶׁל מַעְלָה, וְהֵבִיא שְׁנֵי אֲבָנִים וּטְחָנָן זוֹ בָּזוֹ, וְיָצָא מֵהֶן אוּר, וְהֵבִיא שְׁתֵּי בְהֵמוֹת וְהִרְכִּיב זוֹ בָּזוֹ וְיָצָא מֵהֶן פֶּרֶד. רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר: פֶּרֶד בִּימֵי עֲנָה הָיָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״הוּא עֲנָה אֲשֶׁר מָצָא אֶת הַיֵּמִם בַּמִּדְבָּר״.

Rather, the void of Gehenna was created before the world was created, and its fire was created only on the second day of the week. And the thought arose in God’s mind to create our fire on Shabbat eve; however, it was not actually created until the conclusion of Shabbat, as it was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yosei says: The thoughts of two phenomena arose in God’s mind on Shabbat eve, but were not actually created until the conclusion of Shabbat. At the conclusion of Shabbat, the Holy One, Blessed be He, granted Adam, the first man, creative knowledge similar to divine knowledge, and he brought two rocks and rubbed them against each other, and the first fire emerged from them. Adam also brought two animals, a female horse and a male donkey, and mated them with each other, and the resultant offspring that emerged from them was a mule. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel disagrees and says that the first mule was in the days of Anah, as it is stated: “And these are the children of Zibeon: Aiah and Anah; this is Anah who found the mules in the wilderness, as he fed the donkeys of Zibeon his father” (Genesis 36:24).

15 טו

דּוֹרְשֵׁי חֲמוּרוֹת, הָיוּ אוֹמְרִים: עֲנָה פָּסוּל הָיָה, לְפִיכָךְ הֵבִיא פְּסוּל לְעוֹלָם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״אֵלֶּה בְנֵי שֵׂעִיר הַחֹרִי״, וּכְתִיב: ״אֵלֶּה בְנֵי צִבְעוֹן וְאַיָּה וַעֲנָה״! אֶלָּא, מְלַמֵּד שֶׁבָּא צִבְעוֹן עַל אִמּוֹ וְהוֹלִיד מִמֶּנָּה עֲנָה.

The interpreters of Torah symbolism [ḥamurot] would say: Anah was the product of an incestuous relationship, and as a result he was spiritually unfit to produce offspring. Therefore, he brought an example of unfitness, i.e., an animal physically unfit to produce offspring, into the world, as it is stated: “These are the sons of Seir the Horite, the inhabitants of the land: Lotan, and Shoval, and Zibeon, and Anah” (Genesis 36:20). And it is also stated: “And these are the sons of Zibeon: Aiah and Anah” (Genesis 36:24). One verse describes both Anah and Zibeon as sons of Seir, meaning that they are brothers, while the other verse describes Anah as Zibeon’s son. Rather, this teaches that Zibeon cohabited with his mother, the wife of Seir, and fathered Anah from her. He is called Seir’s son although in fact he was the offspring of Seir’s son and Seir’s wife.

16 טז

וְדִילְמָא תְּרֵי עֲנָה הֲווֹ?! אָמַר רָבָא: אָמֵינָא מִילְּתָא דְּשַׁבּוּר מַלְכָּא לָא אַמְרַהּ, וּמַנּוּ? שְׁמוּאֵל. אִיכָּא דְּאָמְרִי: אָמַר רַב פָּפָּא: אָמֵינָא מִילְּתָא דְּשַׁבּוּר מַלְכָּא לָא אַמְרַהּ, וּמַנּוּ? רָבָא; אָמַר קְרָא: ״הוּא עֲנָה״ — הוּא עֲנָה דְּמֵעִיקָּרָא.

The Gemara asks: And perhaps there were two people named Anah, one the son of Zibeon and the other the son of Seir? Rava said: I will state a matter that even King Shapur did not state. And who is this King Shapur? This cannot be a reference to Shapur, king of Persia; rather, it must be an epithet for someone else. He is Shmuel, whose legal rulings were accepted by the public like the edicts of a king by his subjects. Some say a different version, that it was Rav Pappa who said: I will state a matter that even King Shapur did not state. And who is he that Rav Pappa is referring to by the epithet King Shapur? He is Rava. The verse said: “This is Anah who found the mules,” indicating that he is the same Anah mentioned initially in the earlier verse.

17 יז

תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן: עֲשָׂרָה דְּבָרִים נִבְרְאוּ בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת, וְאֵלּוּ הֵן: בְּאֵר, וּמָן, וְקֶשֶׁת, הַכְּתָב, וְהַמַּכְתֵּב, וְהַלּוּחוֹת, קִבְרוֹ שֶׁל מֹשֶׁה, וּמְעָרָה שֶׁעָמַד בָּהּ מֹשֶׁה וְאֵלִיָּהוּ, פְּתִיחַת פִּי הָאָתוֹן, וּפְתִיחַת פִּי הָאָרֶץ לִבְלוֹעַ אֶת הָרְשָׁעִים. וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים: אַף מַקְלוֹ שֶׁל אַהֲרֹן שְׁקֵדֶיהָ וּפְרָחֶיהָ, וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים: אַף הַמַּזִּיקִין, וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים: אַף

The Sages taught: Ten phenomena were created on Shabbat eve during twilight, and they were: Miriam’s well, and manna, and the rainbow, writing, and the writing instrument, and the tablets, the grave of Moses, and the cave in which Moses and Elijah stood, the opening of the mouth of Balaam’s donkey, and the opening of the mouth of the earth to swallow the wicked in the time of Korah. And some say that even Aaron’s staff was created then with its almonds and its blossoms. Some say that even the demons were created at this time. And some say that even