Pesachim 48bפסחים מ״ח ב
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48bמ״ח ב

חמשת רבעים קמח ועוד חייבין בחלה הכי קאמר קבא מלוגנאי נמי אהאי שיעורא קאי

Dough made from five-quarters of a log of flour and a bit more obligates one to separate ḥalla? The Gemara answers that this is what Rav is saying: A kav from Melogna is the same measure as this, as it is not a regular kav but a larger measure, identical to the amount from which one is required to separate ḥalla.

אמר רב יוסף הני נשי דידן נהוג למיפא קפיזא קפיזא לפיסחא אמר ליה אביי מאי דעתיך לחומרא חומרא דאתי לידי קולא הוא דקא מפקע לה מחלה

Rav Yosef said: These women of our family ordinarily bake kefiza by kefiza, i.e., three-quarters of a log at a time, on Passover, since it is easier to prevent small quantities of dough from becoming leavened. Abaye said to him: What is your opinion? Do you tell them to do this in order to be stringent? That is a stringency that leads to a leniency, as by working with small quantities one removes the dough from the obligation to separate ḥalla.

אמר ליה דעבדן כרבי אליעזר (דתניא) רבי אליעזר אומר הרודה ונותן לסל הסל מצרפן לחלה ואמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל הלכה כרבי אליעזר

Rav Yosef said to him: They do separate ḥalla from the dough, in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer. As it was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Eliezer says: One who removes loaves of bread from an oven and places them in a basket, the basket combines them to reach the quantity from which one is required to separate ḥalla, even if each of the loaves would not attain the necessary measure for separating ḥalla on their own. And Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer. Therefore, the women of Rav Yosef’s household would put all the finished matzot into a basket and separate ḥalla from them.

אמר ליה והא איתמר עלה אמר רבי יהושע בן לוי לא שנו אלא ככרות של בבל שנושכות זו מזו אבל כעכין לא הא איתמר עלה אמר רבי חנינא אפילו כעכין

Abaye said to him: But wasn’t it stated with regard to that baraita that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: They taught that a basket combines the loaves only with regard to Babylonian loaves that bite from one another. In other words, the loaves are slightly attached, and when one separates them, a bit from one loaf comes off with the other loaf. However, it does not apply to long, rod-like loaves [ke’akhin] that were baked separately. Therefore, that principle cannot be applied to the case discussed here, in which each batch of matza was baked on its own. Rav Yosef answered: Wasn’t it stated with regard to that baraita that Rabbi Ḥanina said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer even with regard to long, rod-like loaves? This indicates that Rav Yosef accepted the view of Rabbi Ḥanina.

בעי רבי ירמיה טבלא שאין לה לבזבזין מהו תוך כלי בעינן והא ליכא או דילמא אויר כלי בעינן והא איכא תיקו:

In light of this discussion, Rabbi Yirmeya raised a dilemma: With regard to a board without a rim [levizbezin], what is the halakha? Is it considered to be a vessel that combines loaves baked separately into one unit with regard to ḥalla? Do we require the inside of the vessel in order to combine the loaves, and that is lacking, since the board is flat rather than concave? Or perhaps we require the airspace of the vessel, and that is present in this case? The Gemara concludes: Let it stand unresolved.

תניא רבי אליעזר אומר הסל מצרפן רבי יהושע אומר תנור מצרפן רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר ככרות של בבל שנושכות זו מזו מצטרפות:

It was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Eliezer says: A basket combines different loaves placed in it with regard to the obligation to separate ḥalla. Rabbi Yehoshua says: An oven combines them. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: Babylonian loaves that bite from one another are combined; however, if the loaves are connected to any lesser degree, e.g., if they are together in an oven or basket, they are not considered combined for the purpose of separating ḥalla.

מתני׳ רבן גמליאל אומר שלש נשים לשות כאחת ואופות בתנור אחד זו אחר זו

MISHNA: Rabban Gamliel says: Three women may knead their dough as one, meaning at one time, and bake the batches of dough in one oven, one after the other, and they need not be concerned that their dough will become leavened while they are waiting to use the oven.

וחכמים אומרים שלש נשים עוסקות בבצק כאחת אחת לשה ואחת עורכת ואחת אופה

And the Rabbis say: Three women may be engaged in preparing dough as one, in the following manner: One kneads her dough as another one arranges her own dough so it takes the form of matza, while another one bakes her dough.

רבי עקיבא אומר לא כל הנשים ולא כל העצים ולא כל התנורים שוין זה הכלל תפח תלטוש בצונן:

Rabbi Akiva says: Not all women, not all wood, and not all ovens are the same, and therefore no set rules should be established. Rather, this is the principle: If the dough begins to rise, she should spread cold water in which she immersed her hands, onto the dough, in order to stop the leavening process.

גמ׳ תנו רבנן לשה היא מקטפת וחבירתה לשה תחתיה מקטפת היא אופה וחבירתה מקטפת תחתיה והשלישית לשה אופה היא לשה וחבירתה אופה תחתיה והשלישית מקטפת וחוזרת חלילה כל זמן שעוסקות בבצק אינו בא לידי חימוץ:

GEMARA: The Sages taught in a baraita: When the woman who kneads first completes her kneading, she arranges her dough and another woman kneads in her place. When the first woman finishes arranging her dough, she bakes and another woman arranges her dough in her place, and the third woman kneads her dough. When the first woman finishes baking, she kneads the dough for her next batch, and another woman bakes in her place, and the third woman arranges her dough, and they continue in turn. As long as they are engaged in handling the dough, it will not become leavened.

רבי עקיבא אומר לא כל הנשים וכו׳: תניא אמר רבי עקיבא דנתי לפני רבן גמליאל ילמדינו רבינו בנשים זריזות או בנשים שאין זריזות בעצים לחים או בעצים יבשים בתנור חם או בתנור צונן אמר לי אין לך אלא מה ששנו חכמים זה הכלל תפח תלטוש בצונן:

It was taught in the mishna that Rabbi Akiva says that not all women, not all wood, and not all ovens are the same. It was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Akiva said: I deliberated this matter before Rabban Gamliel, asking: May our master teach us if your statement, cited in the mishna, was said with regard to diligent women or women who are not diligent? Was it said with regard to an oven fueled with moist wood or dry wood? Was it said with regard to a hot oven or a cold oven? Rabban Gamliel himself said to me: You have only what the Sages taught, which is that this is the principle: If the dough begins to rise such that there is a concern that it may become leavened, she should spread cold water onto the dough to prevent it from becoming leavened.

מתני׳ שיאור ישרף והאוכלו פטור סידוק ישרף והאוכלו חייב כרת

MISHNA: Dough at the beginning of the leavening process [siur], must be burned, but one who eats it is exempt from the punishment of karet because the dough had not become fully leavened. Dough that has reached the stage of cracking must be burned, and one who eats it intentionally is liable to receive karet, as he has intentionally eaten leavened bread during Passover.

איזהו שיאור כקרני חגבים סידוק שנתערבו סדקין זה בזה דברי רבי יהודה וחכמים אומרים זה וזה האוכלו חייב כרת ואיזהו שיאור כל שהכסיפו פניו כאדם שעמדו שערותיו:

What is considered siur? Dough that has been leavened to the point that it has cracks that look like the antennae of locusts. The stage of cracking occurs later in the leavening process, when the cracks intermingle. This is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda. And the Rabbis say: One who intentionally eats either this or that, dough with cracks like locust antennae or with cracks that have become intermingled, is liable to receive karet, as once dough begins to crack it has certainly become leavened. And what is siur? It is any dough whose surface has becomes pale like the face of a person whose hair stands on end due to fear.

גמ׳ תנו רבנן איזהו שיאור כל שהכסיפו פניו כאדם שעמדו שערותיו סידוק כקרני חגבים דברי רבי מאיר וחכמים אומרים איזהו שיאור כקרני חגבים סידוק שנתערבו סדקין זה בזה וזה וזה האוכלו חייב כרת

GEMARA: The Sages taught: What is siur? It is any dough whose surface has become pale like the face of a person whose hair stands on end due to fear. Cracking is considered to have occurred when cracks like the antennae of locusts appear. This is the statement of Rabbi Meir. And the Rabbis say: What is siur? It is when the dough forms cracks like the antennae of locusts, and cracking is when the cracks intermingle. And one who intentionally eats either this or that is liable to receive karet.

והאנן תנן שיאור ישרף והאוכלו פטור דברי רבי יהודה אימא לרבי מאיר זה וזה האוכלו חייב כרת

The Gemara asks: But didn’t we learn in the mishna that siur must be burned but that one who eats it is exempt from karet; this is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda. The opinion attributed to the Rabbis in the baraita appears to be the same as that which is attributed to Rabbi Yehuda in the mishna, but according to Rabbi Yehuda, one who eats siur is exempt from karet. The Gemara answers: Say that the baraita should be understood in the following manner: According to the opinion of Rabbi Meir, whose opinion was mentioned previously, one who intentionally eats either this or that is liable to receive karet, whereas according to the Rabbis he is exempt.

אמר רבא מאי טעמא דרבי מאיר אין לך כל סדק וסדק מלמעלה שאין לו כמה סדקים מלמטה:

Rava said: What is the reason for the opinion of Rabbi Meir? It is that there is no crack above that does not have several cracks below. Therefore, even if only one small crack appears on the surface, it is a sign that the inside of the dough is filled with cracks and has become leavened.