Pesachim 39aפסחים ל״ט א
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
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39aל״ט א

מתני׳ ואלו ירקות שאדם יוצא בהן ידי חובתו בפסח בחזרת בתמכא ובחרחבינא ובעולשין ובמרור יוצאין בהן בין לחין בין יבשין אבל לא כבושין ולא שלוקין ולא מבושלין

MISHNA: And these are the vegetables with which a person can fulfill his obligation to eat bitter herbs on Passover: One can fulfill his obligation with ḥazeret, with chervil [tamkha], and with field eryngo [ḥarḥavina], and with endives [olashin], and with maror. One fulfills his obligation with them whether they are fresh or whether they are dry. However, one does not fulfill his obligation if they are pickled in water or vinegar, nor if they are over-boiled [shaluk] in hot water, nor if they are boiled [mevushal].

ומצטרפין לכזית ויוצאין בקלח שלהן ובדמאי ובמעשר ראשון שנטלה תרומתו ומעשר שני והקדש שנפדו:

The mishna adds: And all these different types of vegetables join together to the measure of an olive-bulk, i.e., it is not necessary to eat this amount from one specific type of vegetable. And one fulfills his obligation by eating their stalk, as it is not necessary to eat the leaves. And one fulfills the obligation with doubtfully tithed produce, with first-tithe produce whose teruma has been taken and given to a priest, and with both second-tithe produce and consecrated property that were redeemed.

גמ׳ חזרת חסא עולשין הינדבי תמכא אמר רבה בר בר חנה תמכתא שמה חרחבינא אמר רבי שמעון בן לקיש אצוותא דדיקלא ובמרור מרירתא

GEMARA: The Gemara identifies the plants mentioned by the mishna by their Aramaic names. Ḥazeret is lettuce. Olashin is called hindevi. With regard to tamkha, Rabba bar bar Ḥana said: It is called temakhta in Aramaic. As for ḥarḥavina, Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish said: This is the plant that grows around the palm tree. The mishna taught: And with maror. The Gemara explains: This is a plant called merirata.

תני בר קפרא אלו ירקות שאדם יוצא בהן ידי חובתו בפסח בעולשין ובתמכא בחרחלין בחרחבינין ובחזרין רב יהודה אומר אף עולשי שדה ועולשי גינה וחזרת

Bar Kappara teaches: These are the vegetables with which a person can fulfill his obligation to eat bitter herbs on Passover: With endives, chervil, ḥarḥallin, field eryngo, and ḥazeret. Rav Yehuda says: Also wild endives, garden endives, and ḥazeret.

עולשי גינה וחזרת הא תנא לה רישא הכי קאמר אף עולשי שדה כעולשי גינה וחזרת רבי מאיר אומר אף עסווס וטורא ומר ירואר אמר ליה רבי יוסי עסווס וטורא אחד הוא ומר זה הוא ירואר

The Gemara asks: Why does Rav Yehuda mention garden endives and ḥazeret? These were already taught in the first clause. The Gemara explains that this is what Rav Yehuda is saying: Even wild endives are equivalent to garden endives and ḥazeret and may be used as bitter herbs on Passover. Rabbi Meir says: The plants asvas, and tura, and sweet myrrh [mar yero’ar] can also be used to fulfill this obligation. Rabbi Yosei said to him: Asvas and tura are two names for one plant, and mar is the same plant as yero’ar.

תני דבי (רבי) שמואל אלו ירקות שאדם יוצא בהן ידי חובתו בפסח בחזרת בעולשין ובתמכא ובחרבינין ובחרגינין ובהרדופנין רבי יהודה אומר אף חזרת יולין וחזרת גלין כיוצא בהן

A Sage of the school of Rabbi Samuel teaches: These are the vegetables with which a person can fulfill his obligation to eat bitter herbs on Passover: With ḥazeret, endives, chervil, field eryngo, ḥarginnin, and hardofannin. Rabbi Yehuda says: One can also fulfill his obligation with ḥazeret yolin and ḥazeret gallin, as they are similar to the aforementioned vegetables.

רבי אילעא אומר משום רבי אליעזר אף ערקבלים וחזרתי על כל תלמידיו ובקשתי לי חבר ולא מצאתי וכשבאתי לפני רבי אליעזר בן יעקב הודה לדברי

Rabbi Ile’a said in the name of Rabbi Eliezer: One can also fulfill his obligation with arkablim. And I went around all of Rabbi Eliezer’s students looking for a colleague who agreed with me that Rabbi Eliezer said this, but I did not find anyone who remembered this ruling. But when I came before Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov, he conceded to my statement.

רבי יהודה אומר כל שיש לו שרף רבי יוחנן בן ברוקה אומר כל שפניו מכסיפין אחרים אומרים [כל] ירק מר יש לו שרף ופניו מכסיפין אמר רבי יוחנן מדברי כולן נלמד ירק מר יש לו שרף ופניו מכסיפין אמר רב הונא הלכה כאחרים

Rabbi Yehuda says: Any plant that has white sap when it is cut may be used as bitter herbs. Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Beroka says: Anything whose surface is light green may be used as bitter herbs. Aḥerim say: Any bitter herb that has sap and whose surface is light green is fit for this mitzva. Rabbi Yoḥanan said: From the statements of all these Sages, we can learn that a bitter green herb has sap and its surface is light green. Rav Huna said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Aḥerim.

רבינא אשכחיה לרב אחא בריה דרבא דהוה מהדר אמרירתא אמר ליה מאי דעתיך דמרירין טפי והא חזרת תנן ותנא דבי שמואל חזרת ואמר רבי אושעיא מצוה בחזרת ואמר רבא מאי חזרת חסא

Ravina found Rav Aḥa, son of Rava, searching for merirata to use as bitter herbs. He said to him: What is your opinion, that you seek this particular herb? If you are looking for that which is most bitter, but we learned ḥazeret first in the mishna, which indicates that this is the preferred choice. And likewise, a Sage of the school of Shmuel taught ḥazeret first, before the other types of bitter herbs. And Rabbi Oshaya said: The optimal fulfillment of the mitzva is with ḥazeret, and Rava said: What is ḥazeret? It is lettuce [ḥassa].

מאי חסא דחס רחמנא עילוון ואמר רבי שמואל בר נחמני אמר רבי יונתן למה נמשלו מצריים כמרור לומר לך מה מרור זה שתחילתו רך וסופו קשה אף מצריים תחילתן רכה וסופן קשה אמר ליה הדרי בי

The Gemara explains: What is the meaning of lettuce [ḥassa]? It refers to the fact that God has mercy [ḥas] on us. And Rabbi Samuel bar Naḥmani said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: Why are the Egyptians likened to bitter herbs in the verse: “And they embittered their lives” (Exodus 1:14)? This comparison serves to tell you that just as these bitter herbs are soft at first and harsh in the end, so too, the Egyptians were soft at first, when they paid the Jews for their work, but were harsh in the end, as they enslaved them. This idea applies solely to ḥazeret, which has a bitter aftertaste, but not to other types of bitter herbs, which are bitter from the beginning. Rav Aḥa, son of Rava, said to Ravina: I retract my position and concede that it is preferable to use ḥazeret for bitter herbs.

אמר ליה רב רחומי לאביי ממאי דהאי מרור מין ירק הוא אימא מרירתא דכופיא דומיא דמצה מה מצה גידולי קרקע אף מרור גידולי קרקע ואימא הירדוף דומיא דמצה מה מצה מין זרעים אף מרור מין זרעים

Rav Reḥumi said to Abaye: From where is it known that this bitter herb that must be eaten on Passover night is a type of vegetable? Perhaps one could say that the mitzva should be performed with the bile of a kufya fish,which is very bitter, but not necessarily with a type of plant? He answered: Bitter herbs are similar to matza; just as matza must be prepared only from food that grows from the ground, so too, bitter herbs must be from food that grows from the ground. The Gemara asks: How do we know that a bitter herb is specifically a vegetable rather than the bitter oleander bush? The Gemara answers: Bitter herbs are similar to matza; just as matza is prepared from a type of plant, but not including a tree, so too, bitter herbs must be from a type of plant that is not a tree.

ואימא הרזיפו דומיא דמצה מה מצה שניקחת בכסף מעשר אף מרור שניקח בכסף מעשר

The Gemara asks a similar question: Perhaps I can say that one may use harzipu, a vegetable that poisons animals, as the bitter herb. The Gemara answers: It must be similar to matza; just as matza is prepared from plants that are fit for human consumption and can be purchased with second-tithe money, so too, bitter herbs must be from a species that can be purchased with second-tithe money.

אמר ליה רבה בר רב חנין לאביי אימא מרור חד מרורים כתיב ואימא מרורים תרי דומיא דמצה מה מצה מינין הרבה אף מרור מינין הרבה

Rabba bar Rav Ḥanin said to Abaye: I can say that the bitter herb mentioned in the Torah includes merely one species, i.e., only the bitterest plant can be used for this obligation. Abaye responded: For this reason it is written: “Bitter herbs” (Exodus 12:8) in the plural, indicating that many types of bitter herbs are fit for this purpose. Rabba retorted: But one can say that “bitter herbs” refers to two different species, but no more. Abaye explained: Bitter herbs are similar to matza; just as matza can be prepared from many types of grain, so too, bitter herbs can be taken from many different types of vegetables.

אמר רבה בר רב הונא אמר רב ירקות שאמרו חכמים שאדם יוצא בהן ידי חובתו בפסח כולן נזרעין בערוגה אחת למימרא דלית בהו משום כלאים

Rabba bar Rav Huna said that Rav said: With regard to the vegetables that the Sages said a person can fulfill with them his obligation to eat bitter herbs on Passover, they may all be planted in one garden bed. The Gemara concludes: That is to say that the prohibition against planting diverse kinds of seeds does not apply to them? Rav’s statement indicates that all these species are so similar that they may be planted together without violating the prohibition against planting different species of crops in one area of a field.

מתיב רבא חזרת וחזרת גלין עולשין ועולשי שדה כרישין וכרישי שדה כוסבר וכוסבר שדה חרדל וחרדל מצרי ודלעת המצרי והרמוצה אינם כלאים זה בזה חזרת וחזרת גלין אין חזרת ועולשין לא

Rava raised an objection from a mishna: Ḥazeret and ḥazeret gallin; endive and wild endive; leek and wild leek; coriander and wild coriander; mustard and Egyptian mustard; and Egyptian gourd and harmutza, a type of gourd, are not considered a mixture of diverse kinds when planted together. This indicates that ḥazeret and ḥazeret gallin, yes, they may be planted together; however, ḥazeret and endives, no, they may not be planted together.

וכי תימא כולהו בהדדי קתני להו והא אמר רב זוגות זוגות קתני

And lest you say that all these species are taught together, and the mishna is actually saying that any of these species may be planted together, but didn’t Rav himself say that these plants were taught in pairs, i.e., one may plant each plant only with its pair that is listed in the mishna, due to their similarity; however, one may not, e.g., plant lettuce and endive together. It therefore remains unclear what Rav meant when he said that vegetables fit for use as bitter herbs may be planted in a single garden bed.

מאי נזרעין דאמר רב נזרעין כהלכתן כהלכתן תנינא

The Gemara explains: What is the meaning of the term planted, which Rav said? It means that these plants may be properly planted. In other words, they may be planted together provided that there is an appropriate amount of space between them, so that there is no violation of the prohibition against planting diverse kinds of seeds. The Gemara asks: If he wishes to inform us about planting them properly, we already learned this in a mishna: