Pesachim 119aפסחים קי״ט א
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
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119aקי״ט א

זה המכיר מקום חבירו בישיבה איכא דאמרי אמר רבי אלעזר זה המקבל פני חבירו בישיבה

This is one who recognizes his colleague’s place in the yeshiva, as he is there often enough to know where everyone sits. Some say that Rabbi Elazar said a different explanation: This is one who greets his colleague in the yeshiva, as he is always there to meet him.

מאי למכסה עתיק זה המכסה דברים שכיסה עתיק יומין ומאי נינהו סתרי תורה ואיכא דאמרי זה המגלה דברים שכיסה עתיק יומין מאי נינהו טעמי תורה

The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of the continuation of this verse: “For stately clothing [limekhaseh atik]” This is one who conceals [mekhaseh] matters that the Ancient of Days [atik yomin], i.e., God, concealed. And what are these? These are the secrets of the Torah, the esoteric Act of Creation and the Act of the Divine Chariot, which should remain hidden. And some say: This verse is referring to one who reveals matters that the Ancient of Days concealed. And what are these? These are the reasons for different mitzvot in the Torah, which should be kept secret.

אמר רב כהנא משום רבי ישמעאל ברבי יוסי מאי דכתיב למנצח מזמור לדוד זמרו למי שנוצחין אותו ושמח

The Gemara cites another statement attributed to Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei. Rav Kahana said, citing Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei: What is the meaning of that which is written: “Lamenatzeaḥ a psalm of David” (e.g., Psalms 13:1)? It means: Sing to the One who rejoices when conquered [shenotzḥin oto].

בא וראה שלא כמדת הקדוש ברוך הוא מדת בשר ודם בשר ודם מנצחין אותו ועצב אבל הקדוש ברוך הוא נוצחין אותו ושמח שנאמר ויאמר להשמידם לולי משה בחירו עמד בפרץ לפניו

Come and see how the characteristics of the Holy One, Blessed be He, are unlike the characteristics of flesh and blood: When a flesh and blood person is conquered, he is sad; however, when the Holy One, Blessed be He, is conquered, He rejoices, as it is stated: “Therefore He said that He would destroy them, had not Moses His chosen stood before Him in the breach, to turn back His wrath lest He should destroy them” (Psalms 106:23). In this verse Moses is called “His chosen,” although he defeated God, as it were, by preventing Him from destroying the Jewish people.

אמר רב כהנא משום רבי ישמעאל ברבי יוסי אמר רבי שמעון בן לקיש משום רבי יהודה נשיאה מאי דכתיב וידי אדם מתחת כנפיהם ידו כתיב זה ידו של הקדוש ברוך הוא שפרוסה תחת כנפי החיות כדי לקבל בעלי תשובה מיד מדת הדין

Furthermore, Rav Kahana said, citing Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, who said that Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish said, citing Rabbi Yehuda Nesia: What is the meaning of that which is written in the description of the sacred ḥayyot, the angels that carried the Divine chariot: “And they had the hands of a man under their wings” (Ezekiel 1:8)? Although the word is read hands in the plural, actually “his hand” is written in the singular. This is the hand of the Holy One, Blessed be He, that is spread under the wings of the ḥayyot to accept penitents from the claims of the attribute of justice. God accepts sincere penitents, despite the fact that in accordance with the strict attribute of justice they should not be given the opportunity to repent.

אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל כל כסף וזהב שבעולם יוסף לקטו והביאו למצרים שנאמר וילקט יוסף את כל הכסף הנמצא אין לי אלא שבארץ מצרים ושבארץ כנען בשאר ארצות מנין תלמוד לומר וכל הארץ באו מצרימה

Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: Joseph collected all the silver and gold in the world and brought it to Egypt, as it is stated: “And Joseph collected all the money found in the land of Egypt and in the land of Canaan” (Genesis 47:14). I have derived only that he collected the money that was in the land of Egypt and that was in the Land of Canaan. From where do I derive that he also collected all the money that was in other lands? The verse states “And all the land came to Egypt to buy food from Joseph, because the famine was sore in all the earth” (Genesis 41:57).

וכשעלו ישראל ממצרים העלוהו עמהן שנאמר וינצלו את מצרים רב אסי אמר עשאוה כמצודה זו שאין בה דגן רבי שמעון אמר כמצולה שאין בה דגים

And when the Jewish people ascended from Egypt they took this treasure with them, as it is stated: “They despoiled [vayenatzlu] Egypt” (Exodus 12:36). The Sages explain this term. Rav Asi said: They made Egypt like this trap [metzuda] for birds, where grain is usually placed as bait, in which there is no grain. Rabbi Shimon said: They made Egypt like the depths [kimetzula] of the sea in which there are no fish.

והיה מונח עד רחבעם בא שישק מלך מצרים ונטלו מרחבעם שנאמר ויהי בשנה החמישית למלך רחבעם עלה שישק מלך מצרים [על ירושלים] ויקח את אוצרות בית ה׳ ואת אוצרות בית המלך בא זרח מלך כוש ונטלו משישק

And this treasure remained in Eretz Yisrael until the time of Rehoboam, at which point Shishak, king of Egypt, came and took it from Rehoboam, as it is stated: “And it came to pass in the fifth year of king Rehoboam, that Shishak king of Egypt came up against Jerusalem. And he took the treasures of the house of the Lord, and the treasures of the king’s house; and he took away all” (I Kings 14:25–26). Zerah, king of Kush, who ruled over Egypt, later came and took it from Shishak.

בא אסא ונטלוהו מזרח מלך כוש ושיגרו להדרימון בן טברימון באו בני עמון ונטלום מהדרימון בן טברימון בא יהושפט ונטלו מבני עמון והיה מונח עד אחז

Asa came and took it from Zerah, king of Kush, when he defeated him in battle (II Chronicles 14) and sent it to Hadrimmon ben Tabrimmon, king of Aram (see I Kings 15). The children of Ammon came and took it from Hadrimmon ben Tabrimmon, as learned by tradition. Jehosaphat came and took it from the children of Ammon (see II Chronicles 20), and it remained in Eretz Yisrael until the reign of Ahaz.

בא סנחריב ונטלו מאחז בא חזקיה ונטלו מסנחריב והיה מונח עד צדקיה באו כשדיים ונטלוהו מצדקיה באו פרסיים ונטלוהו מכשדיים באו יוונים ונטלוהו מפרסיים באו רומיים ונטלוהו מיד יוונים ועדיין מונח ברומי:

Sennacherib came and took it from Ahaz. Hezekiah came and took it from Sennacherib, and it remained in Jerusalem until the reign of Zedekiah. The Chaldeans came and took it from Zedekiah. The Persians came and took it from the Chaldeans. The Greeks came and took it from the Persians. The Romans came and took it from the Greeks, and this treasure of silver and gold still remains in Rome.

אמר רבי חמא (בר) חנינא שלש מטמוניות הטמין יוסף במצרים אחת נתגלה לקרח ואחת נתגלה לאנטונינוס בן אסוירוס ואחת גנוזה לצדיקים לעתיד לבא

With regard to this matter, Rabbi Ḥama bar Ḥanina said: Joseph hid three treasures in Egypt. One of them was revealed to Korah, one was revealed to Antoninos ben Asveiros, king of Rome, and one is hidden for the righteous in the future.

עושר שמור לבעליו לרעתו אמר רבי שמעון בן לקיש זו עשרו של קרח (שנאמר) ואת כל היקום אשר ברגליהם אמר רבי אלעזר זה ממונו של אדם שמעמידו על רגליו אמר רבי לוי משאוי שלש מאות פרדות לבנות היו מפתחות בית גנזיו של קרח וכולהו אקלידי וקליפי דגלדא:

With regard to Korah’s wealth, the Gemara cites the verse: “Riches kept by his owner to his hurt” (Ecclesiastes 5:12). Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish said: This is the wealth of Korah, which caused him to grow arrogant and lead to his destruction. As it is stated: “And what He did to Dathan and Abiram, the sons of Eliab, son of Reuben; how the earth opened her mouth and swallowed them up, and their households, and their tents, and all the sustenance that was at their feet” (Deuteronomy 11:6). Rabbi Elazar said: This is referring to a person’s money that stands him upon his own two feet. Rabbi Levi said: The keys to Korah’s treasuries were a load of three hundred strong white mules, and they were all keys [aklidei] and locks made of leather.

(דיאש אדיש כשדך מאודך סימן) אמר רבי שמואל בר נחמני אמר רבי יונתן אודך כי עניתני אמר דוד אבן מאסו הבונים היתה לראש פנה אמר ישי מאת ה׳ היתה זאת אמרו אחיו זה היום עשה ה׳ אמר שמואל

Dalet, yod, alef, shin, alef, dalet, yod, shin, khaf, shin, dalet, khaf, mem, alef, vav, dalet, khaf is a mnemonic device for the following passage. Returning to the issue of hallel, the Gemara states that these psalms include choruses in which each section is sung by a different person. Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said that Rabbi Yonatan said that David recited: “I will give thanks to You, for You have answered me” (Psalms 118:21), with regard to the success of his reign. Yishai recited: “The stone which the builders rejected has become the chief keystone” (Psalms 118:22). The brothers of David recited: “This is the Lord’s doing; it is marvelous in our eyes” (Psalms 118:23). Samuel the Prophet recited: “This is the day which the Lord has made; we will rejoice and be glad in it” (Psalms 118:24).

אנא ה׳ הושיעה נא אמרו אחיו אנא ה׳ הצליחה נא אמר דוד ברוך הבא בשם ה׳ אמר ישי ברכנוכם מבית ה׳ אמר שמואל אל ה׳ ויאר לנו אמרו כולן אסרו חג בעבותים אמר שמואל אלי אתה ואודך אמר דוד אלהי ארוממך אמרו כולן:

The brothers of David recited: “We beseech You, Lord, save now” (Psalms 118:25). David recited: “We beseech You, Lord, make us prosper now” (Psalms 118:25). Yishai recited: “Blessed be he who comes in the name of the Lord” (Psalms 118:26). Samuel recited: “We bless you out of the house of the Lord” (Psalms 118:26). They all recited: “The Lord is God, and has given us light” (Psalms 118:27). Samuel recited: “Order the Festival procession with boughs, even to the horns of the altar” (Psalms 118:27). David recited: “You are my God, and I will give thanks to You” (Psalms 118:28). They all recited: “You are my God, I will exalt You” (Psalms 118:28).

תנן התם מקום שנהגו

We learned in a mishna there, in Sukka: In a place where they were accustomed