Pesachim 10bפסחים י׳ ב
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
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10bי׳ ב

הניח בזוית זו ומצא בזוית אחרת פלוגתא דרבן שמעון בן גמליאל ורבנן דתניא קרדום שאבד בבית הבית טמא שאני אומר אדם טמא נכנס לשם ונטלו רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר הבית טהור שאני אומר השאילו לאחר ושכח או שנטלו מזוית זו והניח בזוית האחרת ושכח

The Gemara addresses yet another case: If one placed leaven in this corner and found it in another corner, this is akin to the dispute between Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel and the Rabbis, as it was taught in a baraita: With regard to an axe that was lost in a house, the house is impure, as I say that a ritually impure person entered the house and took the axe, touching other items in the process. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: The house is ritually pure, as I say that he lent the axe to another person and forgot, or that he took it from this corner and placed it in the other corner and forgot.

זוית מאן דכר שמיה

The Gemara asks: A corner, who mentioned anything about it? The baraita was referring to an axe that was lost, not one that was in a different corner.

חסורי מחסרא והכי קתני קרדום שאבד בבית הבית טמא שאני אומר אדם טמא נכנס לשם ונטלו או שהניחו בזוית זו ומצאו בזוית אחרת הבית טמא שאני אומר אדם טמא נכנס לשם ונטלו מזוית זו והניחו בזוית אחרת רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר הבית טהור שאני אומר השאילו לאחר ושכח או שנטלו מזוית זו והניח בזוית זו ושכח

The Gemara answers: The baraita is incomplete, and is teaching the following: With regard to an axe that was lost in a house, the house is ritually impure, as I say that an impure person entered the house and took the axe, or, if the owner placed it in this corner and later found it in another corner, the house is likewise ritually impure, as I say that an impure person entered the house and took the axe from this corner and placed in another corner. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: The house is ritually pure, as I say that he lent it to another person and forgot, or that he took it from this corner and placed it in that corner and forgot about it. When the baraita is interpreted in this manner, the dispute between Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel and the Rabbis applies to the question about leaven.

אמר רבא עכבר נכנס וככר בפיו ונכנס אחריו ומצא פירורין צריך בדיקה מפני שאין דרכו של עכבר לפרר ואמר רבא תינוק נכנס וככר בידו ונכנס אחריו ומצא פירורין אין צריך בדיקה מפני שדרכו של תינוק לפרר

Rava said: If one saw a mouse enter a house with a loaf of bread in its mouth, and he entered after the mouse and found crumbs, the house requires additional searching, due to the fact that a mouse does not typically generate crumbs. Therefore, it cannot be assumed that these crumbs are from the loaf snatched by the mouse. And Rava also said: If one saw a child enter with a loaf in his hand, and he entered after the child and found crumbs, the house does not require additional searching, because a child typically generates crumbs, and one can therefore assume that the crumbs are from that loaf.

בעי רבא עכבר נכנס וככר בפיו ועכבר יוצא וככר בפיו מהו מי אמרינן היינו האי דעל והיינו האי דנפק או דילמא אחרינא הוא

Although the rulings in these cases were clear to Rava, Rava raised a dilemma with regard to a related case: If one saw a mouse enter with a loaf in its mouth, and he saw a mouse leave with a loaf in its mouth,what is the halakha? The Gemara elaborates: Do we say that this mouse that entered is that same mouse that left and there is no more leaven left in the house? Or perhaps it is a different mouse.

אם תמצא לומר היינו האי דעל והיינו האי דנפק עכבר לבן נכנס וככר בפיו ועכבר שחור יוצא וככר בפיו מהו האי ודאי אחרינא הוא או דילמא ארמויי ארמיה מיניה

The Gemara adds: If you say that this mouse that entered was this one that left, another dilemma arises: If one saw a white mouse enter with a loaf of bread in its mouth and a black mouse leave with a loaf of bread in its mouth, what is the halakha? Do I say this is certainly a different mouse, or perhaps the black mouse took the loaf from the white mouse?

ואם תמצא לומר עכברים לא שקלי מהדדי עכבר נכנס וככר בפיו וחולדה יוצאה וככר בפיה מהו חולדה ודאי מעכבר שקלתיה או דילמא אחרינא הוא דאם איתא דמעכבר שקלתיה עכבר בפיה הוה משתכח

The Gemara continues to suggest variations on this case: And if you say that mice do not take from each other, as one mouse is generally not significantly stronger than another, if one saw a mouse enter with a loaf of bread in its mouth and a marten leave with a loaf of bread in its mouth, what is the halakha? Do I say that the marten certainly took it from the mouse, as it is larger and stronger? Or perhaps it is a different loaf, for if it is so, that the marten took the loaf from the mouse, the mouse itself would also be found in its mouth, as the marten would presumably take not only the loaf of bread but the mouse as well.

ואם תמצא לומר אם איתא דמעכבר שקלתיה עכבר בפיה הוה משתכח עכבר נכנס וככר בפיו וחולדה יוצאה וככר ועכבר בפי חולדה מהו הכא ודאי איהו הוא או דילמא אם איתא דאיהו ניהו ככר בפי עכבר משתכח הוה בעי אישתכוחי או דילמא משום ביעתותא הוא נפל ושקלתיה תיקו

And if you say that we accept the contention that if it is so, that if the marten took it from the mouse the mouse itself would be in its mouth, in regard to a case where one saw a mouse enter with a loaf of bread in its mouth and a marten leave with both a loaf of bread and a mouse in its mouth, what is the halakha? Do I say that this is certainly the same mouse and loaf, or perhaps even this conclusion can be disputed: If it is so, that this is the same mouse, the loaf would have been found in the mouse’s mouth rather than in the marten’s mouth. Consequently, this must be a different loaf of bread. Or perhaps the loaf of bread fell from the mouse’s mouth due to its fear and the marten took it separately. No satisfactory answer was found for these dilemmas and the Gemara concludes: Let them stand unresolved.

בעי רבא ככר בשמי קורה צריך סולם להורידה או אין צריך מי אמרינן כולי האי לא אטרחוהו רבנן כיון דלא נחית מנפשיה לא אתי למיכלה או דילמא זימנין דנפל ואתי למיכלה

Rava raised a dilemma: If there was a loaf of bread on a high beam in the ceiling, does one need to climb a ladder to take it down or is this effort not necessary? Do we say: The Sages did not obligate one to exert himself that much in his search for leaven, and since the loaf of bread will not fall on its own he will not come to eat it? Or perhaps it can be claimed that sometimes the loaf may fall and he will come to eat it, as objects placed high up occasionally drop.

ואם תמצי לומר זימנין דנפל ואתי למיכלה ככר בבור צריך סולם להעלותה או אין צריך הכא ודאי דלא עבידא דסלקה מנפשה או דילמא זימנין דנחית למעבד צורכיה ואתי למיכליה

And if you say with regard to a loaf of bread on a beam, sometimes it will fall and he will come to eat it, in a case where the loaf was in a pit, does one need to use a ladder to bring it up, or is this effort not necessary? The Gemara explains the two sides of the dilemma: Here the loaf will certainly not come up on its own, and one can therefore let it remain where it is; or perhaps there is still a concern that sometimes he might go down into the pit to perform some requirement of his, and he will come to eat it.

אם תמצא לומר זימנין דנחית לצורכיה ואתי למיכלה ככר בפי נחש צריך חבר להוציא או אין צריך

The Gemara continues to discuss the various permutations of this case. And if you say that sometimes one goes down into the pit for some requirement of his, and he will come to eat it, with regard to a loaf that was in the mouth of a snake, is it necessary for him to bring a snake charmer to take the loaf out of the snake’s mouth, or is this effort not necessary?

בגופיה אטרחוהו רבנן בממוניה לא אטרחוהו רבנן או דילמא לא שנא תיקו:

Once again the Gemara explains the two sides of the dilemma: Do I say that with regard to his own body the Sages obligate one to exert himself and search everywhere, but with regard to his money the Sages do not obligate one to exert himself, i.e., he is not required to spend money in order to destroy leaven? Or perhaps, the legal status of his money is no different than that of his body, as one must remove leaven wherever he finds it, in any way he can? This series of dilemmas is also left answered and the Gemara concludes: Let them stand unresolved.

מתני׳ רבי יהודה אומר בודקין אור ארבעה עשר ובארבעה עשר שחרית ובשעת הביעור וחכמים אומרים לא בדק אור ארבעה עשר יבדוק בארבעה עשר

MISHNA: Rabbi Yehuda says: One searches for leaven on the evening of the fourteenth of Nisan, and on the fourteenth in the morning, and at the time of the removal of leaven. And the Rabbis say: that is not the case; however, if one did not search on the evening of the fourteenth he should search on the fourteenth during the day.

לא בדק בארבעה עשר יבדוק בתוך המועד לא בדק בתוך המועד יבדוק לאחר המועד ומה שמשייר יניחנו בצינעא כדי שלא יהא צריך בדיקה אחריו:

If he did not search on the fourteenth, he should search during the festival of Passover. If he did not search during the Festival, he should search after the Festival, as any leaven that remained in his possession during the Festival is classified as leaven owned by a Jew during Passover, which one is obligated to remove. And the principle is: With regard to the leaven that one leaves after the search, he should place it in a concealed location where it will most likely be left untouched, so that it will not require searching after it if it goes missing.

גמ׳ מאי טעמא דרבי יהודה רב חסדא ורבה בר רב הונא דאמרי תרוייהו כנגד שלש השבתות שבתורה לא יראה לך חמץ ולא יראה לך שאר שבעת ימים שאר לא ימצא בבתיכם אך ביום הראשון תשביתו שאר מבתיכם

GEMARA: The Gemara asks: What is the reason for the statement of Rabbi Yehuda that one must conduct a search three times? The Gemara answers: It is Rav Ḥisda and Rabba bar Rav Huna who both say: The requirement to conduct three searches corresponds to the three times that the removal of leaven is mentioned in the Torah. One verse says: “Matzot shall be eaten for seven days, and no leavened bread shall be seen with you, neither shall there be leaven seen with you, in all your borders” (Exodus 13:7), and another verse states: “Seven days shall there be no leaven found in your houses” (Exodus 12:19), while a third verse says: “Seven days shall you eat matzot, yet on the first day you shall remove leaven from your houses” (Exodus 12:15).

מתיב רב יוסף רבי יהודה אומר כל שלא בדק בשלשה פרקים הללו שוב אינו בודק אלמא במכאן ואילך הוא דפליגי

Rav Yosef raised an objection to this explanation, seeking to prove that even according to Rabbi Yehuda one need not conduct three searches for leaven. He explained that Rabbi Yehuda lists the three times when one may conduct a search for leaven. It was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yehuda says: Anyone who did not search at these three times may no longer search. Apparently, Rabbi Yehuda does not hold that one must conduct three searches. Rather, in regard to whether or not one may conduct a search for leaven if he failed to conduct a search at one of those three opportunities, it is from this point forward that they disagree. The Rabbis hold that one may conduct the search even after the time of the removal of leaven, and Rabbi Yehuda disagrees.

מר זוטרא מתני הכי מתיב רב יוסף רבי יהודה אומר כל שלא בדק באחד משלשה פרקים הללו שוב אינו בודק אלמא בשוב אינו בודק הוא דפליגי

Mar Zutra taught Rav Yosef’s statement in this manner: Rav Yosef raised an objection from that which Rabbi Yehuda says: Anyone who did not search at one of these three times may no longer search. In Mar Zutra’s version, Rabbi Yehuda explicitly states: One of these three times, which reinforces the claim that he obligates one to conduct only one search. The Gemara similarly concludes: Apparently, it is with regard to whether or not one may no longer search that they disagree.

אלא רבי יהודה נמי אם לא בדק קאמר

Rather, the Gemara concludes that Rabbi Yehuda also said: If one did not search for leaven bread at the first opportunity, he may do so at the second or third opportunities; however, he may not search for leaven after these three times have passed.

והכא בהא קמיפלגי מר סבר מקמי איסורא אין בתר איסורא לא גזירה דילמא אתי למיכל מיניה ורבנן סברי לא גזרינן

And here, in the mishna, it is about this that they disagree: One Sage, Rabbi Yehuda, maintains that before the prohibition against eating leaven takes effect, yes, one may conduct a search; after the prohibition against eating leaven takes effect, no, one may no longer conduct a search, due to a rabbinic decree lest one come to eat from the leaven while searching for it. And the Rabbis maintain: We do not issue a decree lest one come to eat from the leaven, and he may therefore conduct a search even after the prohibition against eating leaven has taken effect.

ומי גזר רבי יהודה דילמא אתי למיכל מיניה והא תנן משקרב העומר יוצאין ומוצאין שוקי ירושלים שהם מלאים קמח וקלי

The Gemara raises a difficulty: And does Rabbi Yehuda issue a decree lest one come to eat from the leaven in whose removal he is engaged? But didn’t we learn in a mishna: Once the omer offering was sacrificed, people would go out and find the markets of Jerusalem filled with flour and toasted grain, all from the new crop. This grain was undoubtedly harvested and processed when the Torah prohibition against eating from the new crop was still in effect.