Pesachim 108bפסחים ק״ח ב
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
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108bק״ח ב

שאף הן היו באותו הנס

As they too were included in that miracle of the Exodus, they are therefore obligated to participate in the celebration.

אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל ארבעה כוסות הללו צריך שיהא בהן כדי מזיגת כוס יפה שתאן חי יצא שתאן בבת אחת יצא השקה מהן לבניו ולבני ביתו יצא

Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: These four cups must contain enough undiluted wine to allow for diluting a significant cup. In talmudic times, people would not drink pure wine. They would dilute it with water, generally adding three times as much water as wine. If one drank them undiluted, he has fulfilled his obligation. If one drank them all at once, i.e., he poured all four cups of wine into one large cup and drank it, he has fulfilled the obligation. If one gave his sons or the members of his household to drink from them, he has nevertheless fulfilled the obligation.

שתאן חי יצא אמר רבא ידי יין יצא ידי חירות לא יצא

The Gemara now addresses each of these rulings of Shmuel in turn. Shmuel said that if one drank them undiluted he has fulfilled his obligation. Rava said: He has fulfilled the obligation to drink the four cups of wine, but he has not fulfilled the obligation to drink in a way that expresses freedom, which is the preferable way to fulfill the mitzva, as aristocrats do not drink undiluted wine.

שתאן בבת אחת רב אמר ידי יין יצא ידי ארבעה כוסות לא יצא השקה מהן לבניו ולבני ביתו יצא אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק והוא דאשתי רובא דכסא

If one drank the four cups all at once, Rav said that he has fulfilled the obligation to drink wine as an expression of rejoicing on the Festival, but he has not fulfilled the obligation to drink four cups, which requires four distinct cups, each drunk separately. Shmuel also stated that if one gave his sons or the members of his household to drink from them, he has nevertheless fulfilled his obligation. Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: And this is the case only if he himself drank the majority of the cup.

מיתיבי ארבעה כוסות הללו צריך שיהא בהן כדי רביעית אחד חי ואחד מזוג אחד חדש ואחד ישן רבי יהודה אומר צריך שיהא בו טעם ומראה יין קתני מיהת כדי רביעית ואת אמרת כוס יפה

The Gemara raises an objection to the above rulings from a baraita: These four cups must contain one quarter-log, whether the wine is undiluted or diluted, whether it is new or aged. Rabbi Yehuda says: It must have the taste and appearance of wine. In any event, this baraita is teaching that each cup must contain at least the amount of one quarter-log, and yet you said that each must contain enough for diluting a significant cup.

אמרי אידי ואידי חד שיעורא הוא מאי כדי מזיגת כוס יפה דקאמר לכל חד וחד דהוי להו כולהו רביעית

They say in response that this and that are one and the same measure. The Gemara explains: What is the meaning of the expression: Enough for diluting a significant cup, which Shmuel said? He meant that there must be enough undiluted wine for each and every one of the cups, i.e., one quarter-log of diluted wine. This amounts to one quarter-log of undiluted wine for all of them combined. A significant cup contains one quarter-log. This quarter-log is comprised of one quarter undiluted wine and three quarters water. Therefore, each cup must contain at least one quarter of one quarter-log of undiluted wine, so that one consumes a full quarter-log of liquid from each cup.

רבי יהודה אומר צריך שיהא בו טעם ומראה אמר רבא מאי טעמא דרבי יהודה דכתיב אל תרא יין כי יתאדם

The baraita stated that Rabbi Yehuda says the cup from which one drinks must have the taste and appearance of wine. Rava said: What is the reason for the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda? As it is written: “Look not upon wine when it is red” (Proverbs 23:31). This verse proves that the appearance of wine and not only its taste is important.

תנו רבנן הכל חייבין בארבעה כוסות הללו אחד אנשים ואחד נשים ואחד תינוקות אמר רבי יהודה וכי מה תועלת יש לתינוקות ביין אלא מחלקין להן

The Sages taught in a baraita: All are obligated in these four cups, including men, women, and children. Rabbi Yehuda said: What benefit do children receive from wine? They do not enjoy it. Rather, one distributes to them