ושמע מינה אומר שתי קדושות על כוס אחד ושמע מינה בית שמאי היא ואליבא דרבי יהודה
And learn from it that if one has only one cup of wine, he may recite two sanctifications over one cup, as the baraita states that one may recite two entirely unrelated blessings over a single cup. And learn from it that this baraita is according to the ruling of Beit Shammai, in accordance with the explanation of Rabbi Yehuda, who says that Beit Shammai maintain that one should recite the blessing over fire before the blessing over spices.
רב אשי אמר טעמו פגמו וכוס של ברכה צריך שיעור חדא מילתא היא
Rav Ashi said: On close examination, two of the inferences from the baraita, the ruling that once one who has tasted the cup has disqualified it and the ruling that a cup of blessing requires a specific minimum measure, are actually one matter and should not be counted separately.
והכי קאמר מאי טעמא טעמו פגמו משום דכוס של ברכה צריך שיעור
Rav Ashi elaborates: And this is what the baraita is saying: What is the reason that once one has tasted the cup he has disqualified it from further usage as a cup of blessing? It is because a cup of blessing requires a specific minimum measure. Once one has tasted, there is not enough wine left in the cup. The disqualification is not because of the act of tasting itself. If enough wine remains in the cup after one has taken a sip, it may be used again as a cup of blessing. This ruling is not in accordance with the opinion of certain Sages, who maintain that sipping from the cup itself constitutes an inherent disqualification.
רבי יעקב בר אידי קפיד אחצבא פגימא רב אידי בר שישא קפיד אכסא פגימא מר בר רב אשי קפיד אפילו אחביתא פגימתא
The Gemara relates that Rabbi Ya’akov bar Idi was particular with regard to a blemished pitcher, i.e., he would not recite kiddush or havdala with a pitcher from which someone had already taken a sip. Rav Idi bar Sheisha was particular with regard to a blemished cup. Mar bar Rav Ashi was particular even with regard to a blemished barrel and would take wine for kiddush only from a previously unopened barrel.
תנו רבנן זכור את יום השבת לקדשו זוכרהו על היין אין לי אלא ביום בלילה מנין תלמוד לומר זכור את יום השבת לקדשו
The Sages taught in a baraita with regard to the verse: “Remember the day of Shabbat to sanctify it” (Exodus 20:7): Remember it over wine, through the recitation of kiddush. I have only derived that there is a mitzva to recite kiddush during the day, as the verse is referring to the day of Shabbat. From where do I derive that one must also recite kiddush at night? The verse states: “Remember the day of Shabbat to sanctify it,” which indicates that one should also remember Shabbat as soon as it is sanctified.
בלילה מנין אדרבה עיקר קדושא בלילה הוא קדיש דכי קדיש תחלת יומא בעי לקידושי ותו בלילה מנין תלמוד לומר זכור את יום תנא מיהדר אלילה וקא נסיב ליה קרא דיממא
The Gemara expresses surprise at this last question: From where is it derived that one must recite kiddush at night? Is this the appropriate question? On the contrary, the essential mitzva of kiddush is to sanctify the day at night, as one must sanctify the beginning of the day, i.e., Friday night; there is no reason to sanctify Shabbat in the middle of the day, i.e., in the morning. And furthermore, the continuation of the baraita states: From where do we derive the obligation of kiddush at night? The verse states: “Remember the day of Shabbat.” The tanna is seeking a source for kiddush at night, and yet he cites a verse that is referring to the day.
הכי קאמר זכור את יום השבת לקדשו זוכרהו על היין בכניסתו אין לי אלא בלילה ביום מנין תלמוד לומר זכור את יום השבת
The Gemara answers that this is what the tanna is saying: “Remember the day of Shabbat to sanctify it” is a mitzva to remember it over wine when it begins. I have only derived the obligation to recite kiddush at night; from where do I derive that one must also recite kiddush during the day? The verse states: “Remember the day of Shabbat.” The emphasis of the word day indicates that one must recite kiddush again during the day.
ביום מאי מברך אמר רב יהודה בורא פרי הגפן רב אשי איקלע למחוזא אמרו ליה ליקדיש לן מר קידושא רבה הבו ליה
The Gemara asks: During the day, when one does not recite the same kiddush as at night, what blessing does one recite? Rav Yehuda said: Before the meal, one brings a cup of wine and simply recites the usual blessing over wine: Who creates the fruit of the vine. The Gemara relates that Rav Ashi happened to come to the city of Meḥoza. The Sages of Meḥoza said to him on Shabbat day: Will the Master recite for us the great kiddush? And they immediately brought him a cup of wine.
סבר מאי ניהו קידושא רבה אמר מכדי כל הברכות כולן בורא פרי הגפן אמרי ברישא אמר בורא פרי הגפן ואגיד ביה חזייה לההוא סבא דגחין ושתי קרי אנפשיה החכם עיניו בראשו
Rav Ashi was unsure what they meant by the term great kiddush and wondered if the residents of Meḥoza included other matters in their kiddush. He thought: What is this great kiddush to which they refer? He said to himself: Since with regard to all the blessings that require a cup of wine, one first recites the blessing: Who creates the fruit of the vine, I will start with that blessing. He recited: Who creates the fruit of the vine, and lengthened it to see if they were expecting an additional blessing. He saw a particular elder bending over his cup and drinking, and he realized that this was the end of the great kiddush. He read the following verse about himself: “The wise man, his eyes are in his head” (Ecclesiastes 2:14), as he was alert enough to discern the expectations of the local residents.
אמרי בני רבי חייא מי שלא הבדיל במוצאי שבת מבדיל והולך בכל השבת כולו ועד כמה אמר רבי זירא עד רביעי בשבת
As stated above, the sons of Rabbi Ḥiyya say: One who did not recite havdala at the conclusion of Shabbat may recite havdala anytime over the course of the entire week. The Gemara asks: And until how many days of that week have passed may one still recite havdala? Rabbi Zeira said: Until the fourth day of the week, Wednesday, after which it is no longer considered the same week as the previous Shabbat.
כי הא דיתיב רבי זירא קמיה דרב אסי ואמרי לה רב אסי קמיה דרבי יוחנן ויתיב וקאמר לענין גיטין חדא בשבתא תרי ותלתא בתר שבתא ארבע וחמשא ומעלי יומא קמי שבתא
This is like that ruling of halakha stated when Rabbi Zeira sat before Rav Asi, and some say it was Rav Asi who sat before Rabbi Yoḥanan. And he sat and said: With regard to the wording of bills of divorce, the first day of the week and the second and third days of the week are all called: After Shabbat. If a bill of divorce or a condition upon which the document depends includes the phrase: After Shabbat, it refers to one of the first three days of the week. However, the fourth and fifth days of the week and the eve of the day of Shabbat are called: Before Shabbat. Likewise, with regard to havdala, the first three days of the week are considered the time period after Shabbat, and therefore one may still recite havdala on these days.
אמר רבי יעקב בר אידי אבל לא על האור
Rabbi Ya’akov bar Idi said: However, one who recites havdala during this time period may not recite the blessing over fire. This blessing may be recited only at the conclusion of Shabbat, at the time when fire was originally created.
אמר רב ברונא אמר רב
Rav Beruna said that Rav said: