Pesachim 103a:5פסחים ק״ג א:ה
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103aק״ג א

ורבה אמר יהנק ולוי אמר קניה ורבנן אמרי קינה מר בריה דרבנא אמר נקיה מרתא אמר משמיה דרבי יהושע ניהק

And Rabba said that the correct order is yod, heh, nun, kuf: Wine [yayin], havdala, candle [ner], and kiddush. And Levi said the order is kuf, nun, yod, heh: Kiddush, candle [ner], wine [yayin], and havdala. And the Rabbis say the order is kuf, yod, nun, heh: kiddush, wine [yayin], candle [ner], and havdala. Mar, son of Rabbana, said the order is nun, kuf, yod, heh: Candle [ner], kiddush, wine [yayin], and havdala. The Sage named Marta said in the name of Rabbi Yehoshua that the proper order is nun, heh, yod, kuf: Candle [ner], wine [yayin], havdala, and kiddush.

שלח ליה אבוה דשמואל לרבי ילמדנו רבינו סדר הבדלות היאך שלח ליה כך אמר רבי ישמעאל בר רבי יוסי שאמר משום אביו שאמר משום רבי יהושע בן חנניה נהיק

With regard to this issue, the father of Shmuel, Abba ben Abba, sent a letter to Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi: Teach us, our Rabbi. How should one recite the order of havdala when a Festival occurs after Shabbat? Rabbi sent him the following response: This is what Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, said, who said it in the name of his father, who himself said it in the name of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥananya: The proper order of the blessings is nun, heh, yod, kuf: Candle [ner], wine [yayin], havdala, and kiddush.

אמר רבי חנינא משל דרבי יהושע בן חנניה למלך שיוצא ואפרכוס נכנס מלווין את המלך ואחר כך יוצאים לקראת אפרכוס

Rabbi Ḥanina said that the following parable serves to explain the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥananya: This is comparable to a king who is exiting a city and a governor is entering. Etiquette dictates that the inhabitants of the city first escort the king out of the city to take leave of him in a dignified fashion, and afterward they go out to greet the governor. Similarly, one should first recite havdala, to take leave of Shabbat, and only then recite kiddush over the Festival, whose sanctity is lesser than that of Shabbat.

מאי הוי עלה אביי אמר יקזנה ורבא אמר יקנהז והילכתא כרבא

The Gemara asks: What halakhic conclusion was reached about this matter? What is the proper order of the blessings? The amora’im accept Rav’s opinion that one should recite kiddush before havdala; however, they disagree about the blessing of time, which is generally relevant in such cases and which Rav did not address. Abaye said that the proper order is yod, kuf, zayin, nun, heh: The blessing over wine [yayin], kiddush, the blessing for time [zeman], the blessing over the candle [ner], and havdala. And Rava said the order is yod, kuf, nun, heh, zayin: Wine [yayin], kiddush, candle [ner], havdala, and time [zeman]. The Gemara concludes: And the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rava.

רב הונא בר יהודה איקלע לבי רבא אייתו לקמייהו מאור ובשמים בריך רבא אבשמים ברישא והדר אמאור אמר ליה והא בין בית שמאי ובין בית הילל מאור ברישא והדר אבשמים

With regard to this issue of havdala, the Gemara relates that Rav Huna bar Yehuda happened to come to the house of Rava. After Shabbat, they brought before them a light and spices. Rava recited the blessing over the spices first and then the blessing over the light. Rav Huna bar Yehuda said to him: But both Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel, who dispute the order of the blessings at havdala, agree that the blessing over light is first, and only then comes the blessing over the spices.

ומאי היא דתנן בית שמאי אומרים נר ומזון בשמים והבדלה ובית הילל אומרים נר ובשמים ומזון והבדלה

And what is this; what is the source that this is the dispute between Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel? As we learned in a mishna: Beit Shammai say that with regard to one who is required to say Grace after Meals and havdala, and he has only one cup of wine, the proper order of the blessings is: The blessing over the candle, and the blessing of Grace After Meals, followed by the blessing over the spices, and finally havdala. And Beit Hillel say: The blessing over the candle comes first, and then the blessing over the spices, and afterward the blessing of Grace After Meals, and last is havdala. Both Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel agree that the blessing over the candle is recited before havdala.

עני רבא בתריה ואמר זו דברי רבי מאיר אבל רבי יהודה אומר לא נחלקו בית שמאי ובית הילל על המזון שהוא בתחלה ועל הבדלה שהיא בסוף

Rava answered after him and said: This mishna is the statement of Rabbi Meir. However, Rabbi Yehuda says: Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel did not disagree over Grace After Meals, as everyone concurs that it is recited first, nor did they disagree over the blessing over the spices, as it is recited last.

על מה נחלקו על המאור ועל הבשמים בית שמאי אומרים מאור ואחר כך בשמים ובית הילל אומרים בשמים ואחר כך מאור ואמר רבי יוחנן נהגו העם כבית הילל ואליבא דרבי יהודה:

With regard to what did they disagree? They disagreed over the blessings recited in the middle of havdala, i.e., the blessings over light and over the spices. Beit Shammai say: Light first, and spices thereafter; and Beit Hillel say: Spices first, and light thereafter. And Rabbi Yoḥanan said: The people were accustomed to conduct themselves in accordance with the opinion of Beit Hillel, according to the interpretation of Rabbi Yehuda. Rava acted as dictated by this custom.

רב יעקב בר אבא איקלע לבי רבא חזיה דבריך בורא פרי הגפן אכסא קמא והדר בריך אכסא דברכתא ואישתי אמר ליה למה לך כולי האי הא בריך לן מר חדא זימנא אמר ליה כי הוינן בי ריש גלותא הכי עבדינן

The Gemara relates another incident with regard to establishing meals and reciting blessings. Rav Ya’akov bar Abba happened to come to Rava’s house for a Shabbat meal. He saw that Rava recited the blessing: Who creates the fruit of the vine, over the first cup of wine he drank at the meal, and then he recited the same blessing upon the cup of wine he used for the blessing of Grace after Meals and drank it. He said to him: Why do you have to say all this, i.e., why is it necessary to recite a second blessing? The Master has recited a blessing for us once already, at the beginning of the meal, and thereby exempted us from a blessing on all the wine drunk during the meal. Rava said to him: When we were in the house of the Exilarch, this was our practice. It was the custom among the Sages to recite two blessings.

אמר ליה תינח בי ריש גלותא דהכי עביד דספק מייתי לן ספק לא מייתי לן הכא הא מנח כסא קמן ודעתן עילויה אמר ליה אנא עבדי כתלמידי דרב דרב ברונא ורב חננאל תלמידי דרב הוו יתבי בסעודתא

He said to him: It works out well to act this way in the house of the Exilarch, as there is uncertainty as to whether he will bring us another cup of wine to drink, or whether he will not bring us another cup. Since we are dependent upon the host and cannot anticipate in advance whether we will drink more wine, each cup requires its own blessing. Here, however, the cup is resting before us and our attention is on it, i.e., we intend to drink this wine after Grace after Meals. What need is there to recite another blessing? He said to him: I acted in accordance with the opinion of the students of Rav, as Rav Beruna and Rav Ḥananel, the students of Rav, were sitting together at a meal,