Peirush Hafla'ah on Pesach Haggadah
Magid, Ha Lachma Anya 3 מגיד, הא לחמא עניא ג׳

כל דכפין ייתי ויכול כל דצריך ייתי ויפסח כו׳. שמעתי בשם אבי אמי הגאון מהר״ז מרגליות זצלל״הה דכוונתו עפ״י מה שאמרו דבעינן שיהיה הפסח נאכל לשובע כל מה דצריך ואח״כ יפסח כדי שיהא נאכל על השובע {ודמח״ח?} ולענ״ד י״ל כך עפ״י מ״ש אא״ז דשאלת החכם ממ״נ מדוע אוכלין מצה ולא פסח כי׳ ע״ש ובאמת אנו בח״ל טמאי מתים וחוץ לעזרה אסור לאכול קדשים דמה״ט אסור לאכול צלי בלילי פסח כמובא׳ בא״ח רק אנו אוכלין אפיקומן זכר למקדש שיהי׳ נאכל הפסח ואחז״ל ששאל לר׳ עקיבא למה נותנים לעניים הרי עבד ששנא אותו אדונו למה מקרבין אותו עיין בבבא בתר׳ דף יו״ד עד תשובת ר״ע כתיב ועניים מרודים תביא בית פרוס לרעב לחמך אימתי עניים השתא וכת פריס לרעב כו׳ ע״ש וז״ש בעל ההגדה כל דכפין ייתי ויכול וכל דצריך ייתי ויפסח זכר לפסח ובעינן בבית אחד יאכל כמ״ש אא״ז הנ״ל שם דאסור לאכול בשני מקומות ובעינן שיקבע מקום והדר מתרץ למה אנו אוכלין דומיא דפסח השתא הכא לשנה הבאה בארעא דישראל ומהרה יבנה בית המקדש ויאמרו אשתקד לא אכלנו כו׳ כמאמר חז״ל ועל מה שאנו נותנים לענים השיב השתא עבדי לשנה הבאה בני חורין ואנו בנים למקום כתשובת ר״ע ולענ״ד הוא רמז נפלא למה כפל לשונו ודי״ק (ע״כ מנכד המחבר):

The opening statement of the Haggadah beginning with the words, “This is the bread of affliction” appears to contain four unrelated statements. The grandson of the Hafla’ah begins with his own meditation on this statement explaining the connection between these four statements. He quotes his maternal as well as his paternal grandfather, thus paying homage to his familial legacy.
All who are hungry come and eat - Rabbi Ephraim Zalman Margoliot1Rabbi Margoliot was an in-law of Rabbi Horowitz; Horowitz’s son was married to Margoliot’s daughter. The two rabbis shared a common grandchild who was the editor of this commentary. suggests that since our ancestors only ate the Passover offering at the end of the meal when they were not hungry,2Our ancestors would eat the festive offering earlier in the evening and the Passover offering later so that the Passover offering was consumed when one was already full they would begin the Seder by saying “All who are hungry come and eat;” and only then would they say, “All who are needy come eat the Passover offering.” That is, first one must eat a full meal. When one is sated, then one may eat the Passover offering.
The opening statement in the Haggadah is also an answer to the Hakham’s question3Later Rabbi Horowitz explains that it is a mimah nafshach, literally “whichever side you take.” This is a two-sided question in which both possible arguments are equally problematic: in this case, ‘if we eat matzah shouldn’t we also be allowed to eat the Passover offering; and if we can’t eat the Passover offering then we shouldn’t be permitted to eat matzah either.’: why do we eat matzah if we are not permitted to eat the Passover offering? We explain to him that the afikomen has replaced the Passover offering now that the Holy Temple is no longer standing; we cannot eat it at this time because we are living outside the land of Israel at a time when we are impure and unable to enter the temple precincts. The afikomen is consumed as a reminder of the sacrifice; like the Passover offering, we eat it at the end of the meal as a reminder of the Temple service on Passover. This statement is not an answer to the question “why we cannot eat the Passover offering,” but rather, ab abswer to the question “why we can eat matzah” on this night?
The opening statement of the Haggadah (“come and eat…come and celebrate the Passover”) is a reference to a verse in the book of Isaiah. 4Isaiah chapter 58 based on a passage in the Talmud in Baba Batra 10a “Is it not to deal bread to the hungry and bring the poor that are cast out to your house? When do you “bring the poor who are cast out of Your house”?5“Cast out of the house” here is taken as an allusion to the destruction of the Temple. Now that the Temple has been destroyed, we must invite others to join us for the afikomen, which has replaced the Passover sacrifice. According to Jewish law it is forbidden to partake of several Pesach offerings on the eve of Passover – one had to remain with the family or group with whom one began the meal. That is why we say “All who are hungry…needy, come celebrate the Passover” – we invite our guests to join us for our celebration and remain with us until the end of the meal when we consume the afikomen.
We then go on to answer his questions: why do we eat something that is compared to the Passover offering? We answer: “Now we are here, next year in the land of Israel.” We eat the afikomen in lieu of the sacrifice because we are not in the land of Israel and have no Temple. We hope the Temple will be rebuilt speedily in our day; then we will be able to say, “last year we could not consume the Passover offering but now we can!” And why do we invite needy to join us in this meal? As Rabbi Akiva points out6See Baba Batra 10a: Turnus Rufus asked Rabbi Akiba: ‘If your God loves the poor, why does He not support them?’ He replied, ‘So that we may be saved through them from the punishment of Gehinnom.’ ‘On the contrary,’ said the other, ‘it is this which condemns you to Gehinnom. I will illustrate by a parable. Suppose an earthly king was angry with his servant and put him in prison and ordered that he should be given no food or drink, and a man went and gave him food and drink. If the king heard, would he not be angry with him? And you are called "servants", as it is written, ‘For unto me the children of Israel are servants.’ Rabbi Akiba answered: ‘I will illustrate by another parable. Suppose an earthly king was angry with his son, and put him in prison and ordered that no food or drink should be given to him, and someone went and gave him food and drink. If the king heard of it, would he not send him a present? And we are called "sons’, as it is written, ‘Sons are ye to the Lord your God.’ He said to him: ‘You are called both sons and servants. When you carry out the desires of the Omnipresent you are called "sons", and when you do not carry out the desires of the Omnipresent, you are called "servants”. At the present time you are not carrying out the desires of the Omnipresent. Horowitz understands the expression “Now we are slaves” to be a reference to Israel’s service to God. Because the Israelites are God’s servants, we have an obligation to help them. even though we are slaves, we are really the servants of the Holy One and it is our obligation to help God’s servants! Next year, however, we will all be free and each person will have his own offering! This explains the repetitive language in Ha lahma: “Now we are here…Now we are slaves.” The first statement explains why we eat the afikomen and not the sacrifice and the second explains why we invite others to join us at this meal.