19י״ט
1 א

וַיְדַבֵּ֣ר יְהוָ֔ה אֶל־מֹשֶׁ֥ה וְאֶֽל־אַהֲרֹ֖ן לֵאמֹֽר׃

The LORD spoke to Moses and Aaron, saying:

2 ב

זֹ֚את חֻקַּ֣ת הַתּוֹרָ֔ה אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּ֥ה יְהוָ֖ה לֵאמֹ֑ר דַּבֵּ֣ר ׀ אֶל־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל וְיִקְח֣וּ אֵלֶיךָ֩ פָרָ֨ה אֲדֻמָּ֜ה תְּמִימָ֗ה אֲשֶׁ֤ר אֵֽין־בָּהּ֙ מ֔וּם אֲשֶׁ֛ר לֹא־עָלָ֥ה עָלֶ֖יהָ עֹֽל׃

This is the ritual law that the LORD has commanded: Instruct the Israelite people to bring you a red cow without blemish, in which there is no defect and on which no yoke has been laid.

3 ג

וּנְתַתֶּ֣ם אֹתָ֔הּ אֶל־אֶלְעָזָ֖ר הַכֹּהֵ֑ן וְהוֹצִ֤יא אֹתָהּ֙ אֶל־מִח֣וּץ לַֽמַּחֲנֶ֔ה וְשָׁחַ֥ט אֹתָ֖הּ לְפָנָֽיו׃

You shall give it to Eleazar the priest. It shall be taken outside the camp and slaughtered in his presence.

4 ד

וְלָקַ֞ח אֶלְעָזָ֧ר הַכֹּהֵ֛ן מִדָּמָ֖הּ בְּאֶצְבָּע֑וֹ וְהִזָּ֞ה אֶל־נֹ֨כַח פְּנֵ֧י אֹֽהֶל־מוֹעֵ֛ד מִדָּמָ֖הּ שֶׁ֥בַע פְּעָמִֽים׃

Eleazar the priest shall take some of its blood with his finger and sprinkle it seven times toward the front of the Tent of Meeting.

5 ה

וְשָׂרַ֥ף אֶת־הַפָּרָ֖ה לְעֵינָ֑יו אֶת־עֹרָ֤הּ וְאֶת־בְּשָׂרָהּ֙ וְאֶת־דָּמָ֔הּ עַל־פִּרְשָׁ֖הּ יִשְׂרֹֽף׃

The cow shall be burned in his sight—its hide, flesh, and blood shall be burned, its dung included—

6 ו

וְלָקַ֣ח הַכֹּהֵ֗ן עֵ֥ץ אֶ֛רֶז וְאֵז֖וֹב וּשְׁנִ֣י תוֹלָ֑עַת וְהִשְׁלִ֕יךְ אֶל־תּ֖וֹךְ שְׂרֵפַ֥ת הַפָּרָֽה׃

and the priest shall take cedar wood, hyssop, and crimson stuff, and throw them into the fire consuming the cow.

7 ז

וְכִבֶּ֨ס בְּגָדָ֜יו הַכֹּהֵ֗ן וְרָחַ֤ץ בְּשָׂרוֹ֙ בַּמַּ֔יִם וְאַחַ֖ר יָב֣וֹא אֶל־הַֽמַּחֲנֶ֑ה וְטָמֵ֥א הַכֹּהֵ֖ן עַד־הָעָֽרֶב׃

The priest shall wash his garments and bathe his body in water; after that the priest may reenter the camp, but he shall be unclean until evening.

8 ח

וְהַשֹּׂרֵ֣ף אֹתָ֔הּ יְכַבֵּ֤ס בְּגָדָיו֙ בַּמַּ֔יִם וְרָחַ֥ץ בְּשָׂר֖וֹ בַּמָּ֑יִם וְטָמֵ֖א עַד־הָעָֽרֶב׃

He who performed the burning shall also wash his garments in water, bathe his body in water, and be unclean until evening.

9 ט

וְאָסַ֣ף ׀ אִ֣ישׁ טָה֗וֹר אֵ֚ת אֵ֣פֶר הַפָּרָ֔ה וְהִנִּ֛יחַ מִח֥וּץ לַֽמַּחֲנֶ֖ה בְּמָק֣וֹם טָה֑וֹר וְ֠הָיְתָה לַעֲדַ֨ת בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֧ל לְמִשְׁמֶ֛רֶת לְמֵ֥י נִדָּ֖ה חַטָּ֥את הִֽוא׃

A man who is clean shall gather up the ashes of the cow and deposit them outside the camp in a clean place, to be kept for water of lustration for the Israelite community. It is for cleansing.

10 י

וְ֠כִבֶּס הָאֹסֵ֨ף אֶת־אֵ֤פֶר הַפָּרָה֙ אֶת־בְּגָדָ֔יו וְטָמֵ֖א עַד־הָעָ֑רֶב וְֽהָיְתָ֞ה לִבְנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל וְלַגֵּ֛ר הַגָּ֥ר בְּתוֹכָ֖ם לְחֻקַּ֥ת עוֹלָֽם׃

He who gathers up the ashes of the cow shall also wash his clothes and be unclean until evening. This shall be a permanent law for the Israelites and for the strangers who reside among you.

11 יא

הַנֹּגֵ֥עַ בְּמֵ֖ת לְכָל־נֶ֣פֶשׁ אָדָ֑ם וְטָמֵ֖א שִׁבְעַ֥ת יָמִֽים׃

He who touches the corpse of any human being shall be unclean for seven days.

12 יב

ה֣וּא יִתְחַטָּא־ב֞וֹ בַּיּ֧וֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁ֛י וּבַיּ֥וֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִ֖י יִטְהָ֑ר וְאִם־לֹ֨א יִתְחַטָּ֜א בַּיּ֧וֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁ֛י וּבַיּ֥וֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִ֖י לֹ֥א יִטְהָֽר׃

He shall cleanse himself with it on the third day and on the seventh day, and then be clean; if he fails to cleanse himself on the third and seventh days, he shall not be clean.

13 יג

כָּֽל־הַנֹּגֵ֡עַ בְּמֵ֣ת בְּנֶפֶשׁ֩ הָאָדָ֨ם אֲשֶׁר־יָמ֜וּת וְלֹ֣א יִתְחַטָּ֗א אֶת־מִשְׁכַּ֤ן יְהוָה֙ טִמֵּ֔א וְנִכְרְתָ֛ה הַנֶּ֥פֶשׁ הַהִ֖וא מִיִּשְׂרָאֵ֑ל כִּי֩ מֵ֨י נִדָּ֜ה לֹא־זֹרַ֤ק עָלָיו֙ טָמֵ֣א יִהְיֶ֔ה ע֖וֹד טֻמְאָת֥וֹ בֽוֹ׃

Whoever touches a corpse, the body of a person who has died, and does not cleanse himself, defiles the LORD’s Tabernacle; that person shall be cut off from Israel. Since the water of lustration was not dashed on him, he remains unclean; his uncleanness is still upon him.

14 יד

זֹ֚את הַתּוֹרָ֔ה אָדָ֖ם כִּֽי־יָמ֣וּת בְּאֹ֑הֶל כָּל־הַבָּ֤א אֶל־הָאֹ֙הֶל֙ וְכָל־אֲשֶׁ֣ר בָּאֹ֔הֶל יִטְמָ֖א שִׁבְעַ֥ת יָמִֽים׃

This is the ritual: When a person dies in a tent, whoever enters the tent and whoever is in the tent shall be unclean seven days;

15 טו

וְכֹל֙ כְּלִ֣י פָת֔וּחַ אֲשֶׁ֛ר אֵין־צָמִ֥יד פָּתִ֖יל עָלָ֑יו טָמֵ֖א הֽוּא׃

and every open vessel, with no lid fastened down, shall be unclean.

16 טז

וְכֹ֨ל אֲשֶׁר־יִגַּ֜ע עַל־פְּנֵ֣י הַשָּׂדֶ֗ה בַּֽחֲלַל־חֶ֙רֶב֙ א֣וֹ בְמֵ֔ת אֽוֹ־בְעֶ֥צֶם אָדָ֖ם א֣וֹ בְקָ֑בֶר יִטְמָ֖א שִׁבְעַ֥ת יָמִֽים׃

And in the open, anyone who touches a person who was killed or who died naturally, or human bone, or a grave, shall be unclean seven days.

17 יז

וְלָֽקְחוּ֙ לַטָּמֵ֔א מֵעֲפַ֖ר שְׂרֵפַ֣ת הַֽחַטָּ֑את וְנָתַ֥ן עָלָ֛יו מַ֥יִם חַיִּ֖ים אֶל־כֶּֽלִי׃

Some of the ashes from the fire of cleansing shall be taken for the unclean person, and fresh water shall be added to them in a vessel.

18 יח

וְלָקַ֨ח אֵז֜וֹב וְטָבַ֣ל בַּמַּיִם֮ אִ֣ישׁ טָהוֹר֒ וְהִזָּ֤ה עַל־הָאֹ֙הֶל֙ וְעַל־כָּל־הַכֵּלִ֔ים וְעַל־הַנְּפָשׁ֖וֹת אֲשֶׁ֣ר הָֽיוּ־שָׁ֑ם וְעַל־הַנֹּגֵ֗עַ בַּעֶ֙צֶם֙ א֣וֹ בֶֽחָלָ֔ל א֥וֹ בַמֵּ֖ת א֥וֹ בַקָּֽבֶר׃

A person who is clean shall take hyssop, dip it in the water, and sprinkle on the tent and on all the vessels and people who were there, or on him who touched the bones or the person who was killed or died naturally or the grave.

19 יט

וְהִזָּ֤ה הַטָּהֹר֙ עַל־הַטָּמֵ֔א בַּיּ֥וֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁ֖י וּבַיּ֣וֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִ֑י וְחִטְּאוֹ֙ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִ֔י וְכִבֶּ֧ס בְּגָדָ֛יו וְרָחַ֥ץ בַּמַּ֖יִם וְטָהֵ֥ר בָּעָֽרֶב׃

The clean person shall sprinkle it upon the unclean person on the third day and on the seventh day, thus cleansing him by the seventh day. He shall then wash his clothes and bathe in water, and at nightfall he shall be clean.

20 כ

וְאִ֤ישׁ אֲשֶׁר־יִטְמָא֙ וְלֹ֣א יִתְחַטָּ֔א וְנִכְרְתָ֛ה הַנֶּ֥פֶשׁ הַהִ֖וא מִתּ֣וֹךְ הַקָּהָ֑ל כִּי֩ אֶת־מִקְדַּ֨שׁ יְהוָ֜ה טִמֵּ֗א מֵ֥י נִדָּ֛ה לֹא־זֹרַ֥ק עָלָ֖יו טָמֵ֥א הֽוּא׃

If anyone who has become unclean fails to cleanse himself, that person shall be cut off from the congregation, for he has defiled the LORD’s sanctuary. The water of lustration was not dashed on him: he is unclean.

21 כא

וְהָיְתָ֥ה לָּהֶ֖ם לְחֻקַּ֣ת עוֹלָ֑ם וּמַזֵּ֤ה מֵֽי־הַנִּדָּה֙ יְכַבֵּ֣ס בְּגָדָ֔יו וְהַנֹּגֵ֙עַ֙ בְּמֵ֣י הַנִּדָּ֔ה יִטְמָ֖א עַד־הָעָֽרֶב׃

That shall be for them a law for all time. Further, he who sprinkled the water of lustration shall wash his clothes; and whoever touches the water of lustration shall be unclean until evening.

22 כב

וְכֹ֛ל אֲשֶׁר־יִגַּע־בּ֥וֹ הַטָּמֵ֖א יִטְמָ֑א וְהַנֶּ֥פֶשׁ הַנֹּגַ֖עַת תִּטְמָ֥א עַד־הָעָֽרֶב׃ (פ)

Whatever that unclean person touches shall be unclean; and the person who touches him shall be unclean until evening.

19:22י״ט:כ״ב
1 א

וכל אשר יגע בו הטמא. הַזֶּה שֶׁנִּטְמָא בְּמֵת, יטמא:

וכל אשר יגע בו הטמא AND WHATSOEVER THE UNCLEAN PERSON TOUCHETH — i.e., this unclean person who has become unclean by reason of a corpse, SHALL TOUCH, יטמא SHALL BECOME UNCLEAN.

2 ב

והנפש הנגעת בּוֹ. בִּטְמֵא מֵת:

והנפש הנגעת AND THE SOUL THAT TOUCHETH him that hath become unclean by reason of a corpse,

3 ג

תטמא עד הערב. כַּאן לָמַדְנוּ שֶׁהַמֵּת אֲבִי אֲבוֹת הַטֻּמְאָה, וְנוֹגֵעַ בּוֹ אַב הַטֻּמְאָה וּמְטַמֵּא אָדָם; זֶה פֵרוּשָׁהּ לְפִי מַשְׁמָעָהּ וְהִלְכוֹתֶיהָ. וּמִ"אַ הֶעְתַּקְתִּי מִיְּסוֹדוֹ שֶׁל רַבִּי מֹשֶׁה הַדַּרְשָׁן וְזֶהוּ: 

תטמא עד הערב SHALL BE UNCLEAN UNTIL THE EVEN — Here we learn that a corpse is a progenitor of a primary source of uncleanness, and he that touches it becomes a primary source of uncleanness and can render a human being unclean. — This is its explanation (that of the whole chapter) according to what it literally implies and according to the Halachoth connected with it. — A Midrashic explanation I have copied from the work of R. Moses the Preacher, and this is:

4 ד

ויקחו אליך. מִשֶּׁלָּהֶם, כְּשֵׁם שֶׁהֵם פָּרְקוּ נִזְמֵי הַזָּהָב לָעֵגֶל מִשֶּׁלָּהֶם, כַּךְ יָבִיאוּ זוּ לְכַפָּרָה מִשֶּׁלָּהֶם:

ויקחו אליך AND THEY SHALL TAKE UNTO THEE — They shall take from that which is their own: just as they divested themselves of their golden earrings for making of the calf — i.e., of that which was their own, so shall they bring this calf-like animal as an atonement from that which is their own.

5 ה

פרה אדמה. מָשָׁל לְבֶן שִׁפְחָה שֶׁטִּנֵּף פַּלְטִין שֶׁל מֶלֶךְ, אָמְרוּ תָּבֹא אִמּוֹ וּתְקַנַּח הַצּוֹאָה, כָּךְ תָּבֹא פָרָה וּתְכַפֵּר עַל הָעֵגֶל (תנחומא):

פרה אדמה A RED COW — Why this rite was performed with a cow may be exemplified by a parable it may be compared to the case of a handmaid’s child that defiled the king’s palace. They said: Let the mother come and wipe up the excrement. Similarly here: since they became defiled by a calf, let its mother (a cow) come and atone for the calf (cf. Midrash Tanchuma, Chukat 8).

6 ו

אדמה. עַל שֵׁם "אִם יַאְדִּימוּ כַתּוֹלָע" (ישעיהו א'), שֶׁהַחֵטְא קָרוּי אָדוֹם:

אדמה RED — It had to be red in allusion to the idea contained in the text (Isaiah 1:18): “Though they (your sins) be red as scarlet [they shall become as white as snow]” — so you see that sin is termed red.

7 ז

תמימה. עַל שֵׁם יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁהָיוּ תְמִימִים, וְנַעֲשׂוּ בוֹ בַּעֲלֵי מוּמִין, תָּבֹא זוּ וּתְכַפֵּר עֲלֵיהֶם וְיַחְזְרוּ לְתַמּוּתָם:

תמימה PERFECT — in allusion to the Israelites who were perfect but through it (the calf) became morally maimed: let this perfect animal come and atone for them so that they may regain their state of perfection.

8 ח

לא עלה עליה על. כְּשֵׁם שֶׁפָּרְקוּ מֵעֲלֵיהֶם עוׂל שָׁמַיִם: 

לא עלה עליה על [A COW] UPON WHICH NEVER CAME A YOKE — just as they cast off themselves the yoke of Heaven.

9 ט

אל אלעזר הכהן. כְּשֵׁם שֶׁנִּקְהֲלוּ עַל אַהֲרֹן, שֶׁהוּא כׂהֵן, לַעֲשׂוֹת הָעֵגֶל; וּלְפִי שֶׁאַהֲרֹן עָשָׂה אֶת הָעֵגֶל לֹא נִתְּנָה לוֹ עֲבוֹדָה זוֹ עַל יָדוֹ, שֶׁאֵין קַטֵּיגוֹר נַעֲשֶׂה סַנֵּיגוֹר:

אל אלעזר הכהן TO ELEAZAR THE PRIEST — just as they gathered together against Aaron who was a priest to force him to make the golden calf. But because Aaron had made the calf this rite was not entrusted to him that it should be carried out by him, because the prosecuting counsel cannot become the defending counsel (Rosh Hashanah 26a; cf. Rashi on Leviticus 16:4; Aaron who had caused the sin was not a fitting person to atone for it: therefore the rite had to be performed by another priest, viz., by Eleazar).

10 י

ושרף את הפרה. כְּשֵׁם שֶׁנִּשְׂרַף הָעֵגֶל: 

ושרף את הפרה AND ONE SHALL BURN THE COW, just as the calf was burnt (Exodus 32:20).

11 יא

עץ ארז ואזוב ושני תולעת. שְׁלֹשָׁה מִינִין הֲלָלוּ כְּנֶגֶד שְׁלֹשֶׁת אַלְפֵי אִישׁ שֶׁנָּפְלוּ בָעֵגֶל, וְאֶרֶז הוּא הַגָּבוׂהַּ מִכָּל הָאִילָנוֹת וְאֵזוֹב נָמוּךְ מִכֻּלָּם, סִימָן שֶׁהַגָּבוׂהַּ שֶׁנִּתְגָּאָה וְחָטָא יַשְׁפִּיל אֶת עַצְמוֹ כְּאֵזוֹב וְתוֹלַעַת וְיִתְכַּפֵּר לוׂ:

עץ ארז ואזוב ושני תולעת CEDAR WOOD AND HYSSOP AND CRIMSON — These three species correspond to the three thousand men who fell by the edge of the sword on account of the golden calf. The cedar is the loftiest of all trees and the hyssop the lowliest of all — a symbol that the man of high position who displays pride and on that account falls into sin should make himself as lowly as the hyssop and the worm (תולעת), and he will then gain atonement.

12 יב

למשמרת. כְּמוֹ שֶׁפָּשַׁע הָעֵגֶל שָׁמוּר לַדּוֹרוֹת לְפוּרְעָנוּת, וְאֵין לְךָ פְקוּדָה שֶׁאֵין בָּהּ מִפְּקוּדַת הָעֵגֶל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר "וּבְיוֹם פָּקְדִי וּפָקַדְתִּי וְגוֹ'" (שמות ל"ב), וּכְשֵׁם שֶׁהָעֵגֶל מְטַמֵּא כּׂל הָעוֹסְקִים בּוֹ, כַּךְ פָּרָה תְטַמֵּא כׂל הָעוֹסְקִין בּוׂ, וּכְשֵׁם שֶׁנִּטְהֲרוּ בַאֲפָרוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר "וַיִּזֶר עַל פְּנֵי הַמַּיִם וְגוֹ'" (שם), כַּךְ "וְלָקְחוּ לַטָּמֵא מֵעֲפַר שְׂרֵפַת הַחַטָּאת וְגוׂ'":

למשמרת [IT SHALL BE] KEPT [FOR THE CONGREGATION OF THE CHILDREN OF ISRAEL], just as the transgression of the calf is kept in remembrance for all future generations for punishment, for there is no visitation of Israel in which there is not something of the visitation of the sin caused by the calf, as it is said, (Exodus 32:34) “On the day when I visit I will visit [their sin upon them]” (cf. Rashi on that verse, and Sanhedrin 102a; Yerushalmi Taanit 14). And just as the calf rendered unclean everyone who busied himself with it (cf. Avodah Zarah 32b), so, too, does the cow make unclean all who busy themselves with it. And just as they (Israel) were purified by its dust (Exodus 22:20), similarly it states, (v. 17) “And for an unclean person shall they take of the dust of the burnt cow of purification, etc.”