בודקו שכונות שכונות
He examines it section by section, as by examining each part of the garment separately he will discover any remaining blood stain.
אבדה בו שכבת זרע חדש בודקו במחט שחוק בודקו בחמה תנא אין שכונה פחותה משלש אצבעות
In the case of a garment in which a seminal emission, which is also ritually impure, was lost, i.e., it is not known where on the garment the semen is, if the garment is new, one examines it by sticking a needle into every part of it. In this manner he will feel if the semen is in the garment. If the garment is worn out, one examines it by holding it up to the sun, as the sun’s rays will not pass through the stained part of the garment. It was taught in a baraita: The section mentioned need not be less than three fingerbreadths by three fingerbreadths in area.
ת"ר בגד שאבד בו כלאים הרי זה לא ימכרנו לעובד כוכבים ולא יעשנו מרדעת לחמור אבל עושה ממנו תכריכין למת אמר רב יוסף זאת אומרת מצות בטלות לעתיד לבא
The Gemara cites another case of a garment in which something was lost. The Sages taught in a baraita: With regard to a garment in which diverse kinds, a prohibited mixture of wool and linen, was lost, i.e., it is a wool garment into which a linen thread was sewn or vice versa and it is not known where on the garment the thread is located, one may not sell it to a gentile and one may not even fashion it into a saddlecloth for a donkey. This is prohibited lest one remove a piece of the garment and sew it onto his own clothing. But one may fashion it into a shroud for a corpse, as there is no concern that one might remove it from the dead. Rav Yosef said: That is to say that the mitzvot will be nullified in the future. If this were not the case, then when the dead are resurrected they will be deriving benefit from the garment of diverse kinds in which they were buried.
א"ל אביי ואי תימא רב דימי והא א"ר מני א"ר ינאי לא שנו אלא לספדו אבל לקוברו אסור א"ל לאו איתמר עלה א"ר יוחנן אפילו לקוברו
Abaye said to Rav Yosef, and some say that Rav Dimi said to Rav Yosef: But didn’t Rabbi Mani say that Rabbi Yannai said: They taught that it is permitted to place a corpse in a shroud of diverse kinds only in order to eulogize him, but it is prohibited to bury him in a shroud of diverse kinds? Rav Yosef said to him: Wasn’t it stated with regard to that matter that Rabbi Yoḥanan says: It is even permitted to bury him in a shroud of diverse kinds?
ור' יוחנן לטעמיה דא"ר יוחנן מאי דכתיב (תהלים פח, ו) במתים חפשי כיון שמת אדם נעשה חפשי מן המצות
And Rabbi Yoḥanan conforms to his standard line of reasoning in this regard, as Rabbi Yoḥanan said: What is the meaning of that which is written: “Set apart [ḥofshi] among the dead, like the slain that lie in the grave, whom You remember no more” (Psalms 88:6)? Once a person dies, he becomes free [ḥofshi] from the mitzvot.
אמר רפרם בר פפא אמר רב חסדא בגד שאבד בו כלאים צובעו ומותר א"ל רבא לרפרם בר פפא מנא ליה לסבא הא
§ Rafram bar Pappa says that Rav Ḥisda says: With regard to a garment in which diverse kinds was lost, one may dye it, and it is permitted to wear the garment, as wool and linen absorb dye differently, and therefore it will be easy to notice the location of the other kind of thread and remove it. Rava said to Rafram bar Pappa: From where does the Elder, i.e., Rav Ḥisda, derive this halakha?
א"ל מתני' היא דתנן בודק עד שמגיע לסלע ואי ליכא אימר עורב נטלה הכי נמי עמרא וכיתנא בהדדי לא סליק להו צבעא וכיון דלא ידיע אימר מנתר נתר
Rafram bar Pappa said to him: It is derived from the mishna, as we learned: With regard to a pile of stones that was known to have an item of ritual impurity buried beneath it, one continues searching beneath each of these piles until he reaches bedrock. And if the impure item is not there, i.e., if he found nothing, one can say that a raven or some other animal took it. So too here, wool and flax, i.e., linen, do not absorb the dye in the same manner. And since he dyed the garment and he does not know of any mixture of linen and wool within it, as the entire garment absorbed the dye in the same way, one must say that that thread has fallen out, and therefore it is permitted to wear the garment.
אמר רב אחא בריה דרב ייבא משמיה דמר זוטרא האי מאן דרמי חוטא דכיתנא בגלימיה דעמרא ונתקיה ולא ידע אי נתיק אי לא נתיק שפיר דמי
Rav Aḥa, son of Rav Yeiva, said in the name of Mar Zutra: In a case of one who put a thread of flax in a cloak of wool and it fell out, but he does not know whether it all fell out or whether it did not all fall out, it is permitted to wear the cloak.
מ"ט מדאורייתא שעטנז כתיב עד שיהיה שוע טווי ונוז ורבנן הוא דגזרו ביה וכיון דלא ידע אי נתקיה שרי
The Gemara asks: What is the reason that the halakha is lenient in this case of uncertainty? By Torah law, it is written: “Diverse kinds [sha’atnez]” (Deuteronomy 22:11), and this is interpreted as an acronym indicating that the halakha of diverse kinds does not apply unless the item is combed smooth [shua], spun [tavui] as a thread, and woven [nuz]. Without these characteristics, the combination is not considered diverse kinds by Torah law. And it is the Sages who decreed that diverse kinds that are merely attached to each other are prohibited, despite the fact that they are not combed and spun together. And in this case, since he does not know if it all fell out it is permitted, as the halakha is lenient with regard to uncertainties involving prohibitions that are by rabbinic law.
מתקיף לה רב אשי אימר או שוע או טווי או נוז והלכתא כמר זוטרא מדאפקינהו רחמנא בחדא לישנא
Rav Ashi objects to this leniency. One can say that by Torah law it is prohibited if the linen and wool are either combed, or spun, or woven. Perhaps the word sha’atnez does not limit the prohibition to a combination of all three activities, but to any one of them. The Gemara concludes: And the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Mar Zutra, from the fact that the Merciful One expresses the prohibition in the Torah in one word, sha’atnez. Therefore, the term means all three characteristics together.
ת"ר בגד צבוע מטמא משום כתם רבי נתן בר יוסף אומר אינו מטמא משום כתם שלא תקנו בגדי צבעונין לאשה אלא להקל על כתמיהן
§ The Sages taught in a baraita: A colored garment renders a woman impure due to blood stains if she sees a blood stain on it. Rabbi Natan bar Yosef says: If she sees a blood stain on the colored garment she is not impure due to a blood stain, as the Sages enacted that women wear colored garments, and this decree was made only in order to be lenient with regard to their blood stains, i.e., so that they do not become impure.
תקנו מאי תקנינהו אלא שלא הותרו בגדי צבעונין לאשה אלא להקל על כתמיהן הותרו מכלל דאסירי
The Gemara questions Rabbi Natan bar Yosef’s use of the word: Enacted. The Sages enacted? What was their enactment? Rather, Rabbi Natan bar Yosef said the reason that the Sages permitted colored garments to women was only in order to be lenient with regard to her blood stains. The Gemara raises an objection: From the statement that the Sages permitted colored garments one can conclude by inference they were previously prohibited. But was there a time when it was not permitted for women to wear colored garments?
אין דתנן בפולמוס של אספסינוס גזרו על עטרות חתנים ועל האירוס בקשו לגזור על בגדי צבעונין אמרי הא עדיפא כדי להקל על כתמיהן
The Gemara answers: Yes, as we learned in a mishna (Sota 49a): In the war [bapulmus] of Vespasian they decreed upon the crowns of bridegrooms, i.e., that bridegrooms may no longer wear crowns, and upon the drum [ha’irus], i.e., they also banned the playing of drums. They also sought to decree with regard to colored garments, i.e., that women may not wear such garments, but they said: This is preferable, that women should wear colored garments, in order to be lenient with regard to their blood stains, as a blood stain found on a colored garment does not render a woman ritually impure.
מתני׳ שבעה סמנין מעבירין על הכתם רוק תפל ומי גריסין ומי רגלים ונתר ובורית
MISHNA: There are seven substances that one applies to the stain on a garment to ascertain whether it is a blood stain or a dye, as these seven substances remove the blood. They are: Tasteless saliva, and liquid from split beans, and urine, and natron, and borit,