Niddah 2aנדה ב׳ א
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
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2aב׳ א

מתני׳ שמאי אומר

Mishnah: Shammai says,

כל הנשים דיין שעתן

All women, their hour (i.e. the time at which they see menstrual blood) is [a] sufficient (starting point for determining whether the terumot and taharot they handled are ritually impure).

הלל אומר

Hillel says,

מפקידה לפקידה ואפילו לימים הרבה

From [a more recent] check (where she is found to be ritually impure) to [an earlier] check (where she is found to be ritually pure, all terumot and taharot handled will be retroactively declared impure), and even where there are many days [in between checks].

וחכ"א

And the sages say,

לא כדברי זה ולא כדברי זה אלא מעת לעת ממעטת על יד מפקידה לפקידה ומפקידה לפקידה ממעטת על יד מעת לעת

The law is neither like this (Shammai, who is lenient) nor like this (Hillel, who is stringent). Rather a twenty four hour period can reduce (a longer than twenty four hour period) between two checks, and a period between two checks (that is less than twenty four hours) can reduce a twenty four hour period.

כל אשה שיש לה וסת דיה שעתה

Any woman who has a regular time (i.e. menstrual cycle), her hour (i.e. the time at which she sees menstrual blood) is [a] sufficient (starting point for determining whether the terumot and taharot she handled are ritually impure).

והמשמשת בעדים הרי זו כפקידה וממעטת על יד מעת לעת ועל יד מפקידה לפקידה

And a woman who uses cloths [to perform a check (i.e. bedikah) at the time of intercourse], this counts as a [valid] check (i.e. bedikah) [for the purposes of determining which terumot and taharot are retroactively ritually impure], and [such a check] can reduce a twenty four hour period as well as period of time in between two checks (i.e. bedikot) [that is less than twenty four hours].

כיצד דיה שעתה

What is an example of, "her hour (i.e. the time at which they see menstrual blood) is [a] sufficient (starting point for determining whether the terumot and taharot they handled are ritually impure)"?

היתה יושבת במטה ועסוקה בטהרות ופרשה וראתה היא טמאה והן טהורות

She was sitting on a bed, dealing with taharot (i.e. ritually pure items), and she separates [from the bed and the taharot] and [afterwards] sees [blood], she is ritually impure, and they (the bed and the taharot) are ritually pure.

אע"פ שאמרו

Even though [the sages] said,

מטמאה מעת לעת אינה מונה אלא משעה שראתה

that she causes [terumah and taharot] to retroactively become ritually impure for [a maximum of] twenty four hours, she only [begins to] count [days of Niddah impurity] from the time she sees [blood].

גמ׳ מאי טעמיה דשמאי

Gemarah: What is the reasoning of Shammai?

קסבר

[Shammai] reasons,

העמד אשה על חזקתה ואשה בחזקת טהורה עומדת

"Maintain the woman on her status, and the woman [in our Mishnah] has a status of ritual purity."

והלל כי אמר העמד דבר על חזקתו היכא דלית ליה ריעותא מגופיה אבל איתתא

And Hillel [reasons], "When [we] say 'maintain something on its status', [that] is where it does not have an inherent disqualification. However, a woman