Niddah 12aנדה י״ב א
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
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12aי״ב א
1 א

בעא מיניה רבי זירא מרב יהודה אשה מהו שתבדוק עצמה לבעלה אמר ליה לא תבדוק ותבדוק ומה בכך אם כן לבו נוקפו ופורש

§ Rabbi Zeira raised a dilemma before Rav Yehuda: What is the halakha as to whether a woman should examine herself before engaging in intercourse with her husband? Rav Yehuda said to him: She should not examine herself. Rabbi Zeira asked: And let her examine herself; what would be the problem with that? Rav Yehuda answered: If so, the heart of a scrupulous husband might strike him with pangs of conscience over sins that he could transgress, and he will separate from his wife out of fear that she is impure.

2 ב

בעא מיניה רבי אבא מרב הונא אשה מהו שתבדוק עצמה כשיעור וסת כדי לחייב בעלה חטאת

Rabbi Abba raised a similar dilemma before Rav Huna: What is the halakha as to whether a woman should examine herself immediately after engaging in intercourse, within the minimum period of time needed for the onset of menstruation, in order to render her husband liable to bring a sin offering for engaging in intercourse with a menstruating woman?

3 ג

א"ל מי משכחת לה לבדיקה כשיעור וסת והתניא איזהו שיעור וסת משל לשמש ועד שעומדים בצד המשקוף ביציאות השמש נכנס עד

Rav Huna said to him: Can you find a case where it is physically possible to perform a full examination after intercourse within the period of time needed for the onset of menstruation? But isn’t it taught in a baraita: What is the period of time needed for the onset of menstruation? This is comparable to a male organ and an examination cloth that are standing alongside the doorpost, i.e., at the entrance to the vagina; upon the exit of the organ the examination cloth immediately enters.

4 ד

הוי וסת שאמרו לקנוח ולא לבדיקה אלא מהו שתקנח

The Gemara explains: It is apparent that the period of time that they stated is the time required for an external wipe, and not for a full internal examination. Therefore, if she did an internal examination and found blood, one cannot be certain that she was already menstruating during intercourse and thereby render the husband liable to bring a sin offering. Rather, this is Rabbi Abba’s dilemma: What is the halakha as to whether a woman should wipe herself immediately after engaging in intercourse? Since this action can be performed quickly, if she were to find blood her husband would be liable to bring a sin offering.

5 ה

איכא דאמרי הכי בעא מיניה אשה מהו שתבדוק עצמה כדי לחייב בעלה אשם תלוי אמר לו לא תבדוק ותבדוק ומה בכך א"כ לבו נוקפו ופורש

Some say that this is the dilemma that Rabbi Abba raised before Rav Huna: What is the halakha as to whether a woman should examine herself immediately after engaging in intercourse, in order to render her husband liable to bring a provisional guilt offering brought by one who is uncertain as to whether he committed a sin that requires a sin offering? Rav Huna said to him: She should not examine herself. Rabbi Abba asked: And let her examine herself; what would be the problem with that? Rav Huna answered: If so, the heart of a scrupulous husband might strike him with pangs of conscience over sins that he could transgress, and he will separate from his wife out of fear that she is impure.

6 ו

ובשעה שהיא עוברת וכו' אמר ר' אמי אמר רבי ינאי וזהו עדן של צנועות א"ל רבי אבא בר ממל לר' אמי תנא תני צריכות ואת תני צנועות אמר ליה שאני אומר כל המקיים דברי חכמים נקרא צנוע

§ The mishna teaches: And she is also required to examine herself at a time that she is about to engage in intercourse with her husband. Rabbi Ami says that Rabbi Yannai says: And this examination performed before intercourse is known as: The examination cloth of virtuous women, as this examination is not strictly required. Rabbi Abba bar Memel said to Rabbi Ami: The tanna teaches that women are required to perform this examination, and yet you teach that only virtuous women perform it. Rabbi Ami said to him: Yes, as I say that anyone who fulfills the statements of the Sages is called virtuous. Rabbi Ami did not mean that this examination is beyond the letter of the law. He was simply praising those who abide by the established halakha.

7 ז

אמר רבא ושאינו מקיים דברי חכמים צנוע הוא דלא מקרי הא רשע לא מקרי אלא אמר רבא צנועות עד שבדקו בו עצמן לפני תשמיש זה אין בודקות בו לפני תשמיש אחר ושאינן צנועות בודקות ולא איכפת להן

With regard to Rabbi Ami’s claim, Rava says: And according to your opinion, with regard to one who does not fulfill the statements of the Sages, he is not called virtuous. But this indicates that he is not called wicked either. This cannot be correct, as one who does not heed the instructions of the Sages is certainly wicked. Rather, Rava said: Virtuous women are those who do not reuse the examination cloth that they used to examine themselves before this intercourse. Even if no blood was found on it, they do not examine themselves with it prior to another act of intercourse, as once it was used once, it is not as clean as before. And those who are not virtuous women reuse the same examination cloths and examine themselves with them and they are not particular about this matter.

8 ח

גופא אמר רבי זירא אמר רבי אבא בר ירמיה אמר שמואל אשה שאין לה וסת אסורה לשמש עד שתבדוק אמר ליה ר' זירא לרבי אבא בר ירמיה אין לה וסת בעיא בדיקה יש לה וסת לא בעיא בדיקה

§ The Gemara returns to the matter itself: Rabbi Zeira says that Rabbi Abba bar Yirmeya says that Shmuel says: With regard to a woman who does not have a fixed menstrual cycle, it is forbidden for her to engage in intercourse until she examines herself. Rabbi Zeira said to Rabbi Abba bar Yirmeya: Does Shmuel mean that if she does not have a fixed menstrual cycle she is required to perform an examination, but if she has a fixed menstrual cycle she is not required to perform an examination? This is difficult, as the mishna teaches that even a woman with a fixed menstrual cycle is required to perform an examination before she engages in intercourse.

9 ט

א"ל יש לה וסת ערה בעיא בדיקה ישנה לא בעיא בדיקה אין לה וסת בין ערה בין ישנה בעיא בדיקה

Rabbi Abba bar Yirmeya said to him: The mishna means that if she has a fixed menstrual cycle and she is awake, she is required to perform an examination; if she is sleeping she is not required to perform an examination before intercourse, as this would involve much effort. If she does not have a fixed menstrual cycle, then whether she is awake or sleeping, she is required to perform an examination.

10 י

אמר רבא ולימא ליה יש לה וסת לטהרות בעיא בדיקה לבעלה לא בעיא בדיקה אין לה וסת אפילו לבעלה נמי בעיא בדיקה ומדלא א"ל הכי ש"מ קסבר שמואל כל לבעלה לא בעיא בדיקה

Rava says: And let Rabbi Abba bar Yirmeya say a different answer to Rabbi Zeira: Shmuel means that if she has a fixed menstrual cycle, then in the case of a woman who handles pure items, she is required to perform an examination for the sake of intercourse as well. If she does not handle pure items, then for the sake of intercourse with her husband alone she is not required to perform an examination. By contrast, if she does not have a fixed menstrual cycle, then she is required to perform an examination even for the sake of intercourse with her husband. Rava concludes: And from the fact that Rabbi Abba bar Yirmeya did not say this answer, one can learn from it that Shmuel holds that in any case where an examination is only for the purpose of intercourse with her husband, she is not required to perform an examination.

11 יא

ת"ר חמרין ופועלין והבאין מבית האבל ומבית המשתה נשיהם להם בחזקת טהרה ובאין ושוהין עמהם בין ישנות בין ערות בד"א שהניחן בחזקת טהרה אבל הניחן בחזקת טומאה לעולם היא טמאה עד שתאמר לו טהורה אני

§ The Sages taught in a baraita: With regard to donkey drivers and laborers who return home, and those who come home from the house of mourning or from the house of feasting for a wedding, their wives remain in a presumptive status of purity. And therefore they may come and remain with them, i.e., engage in intercourse with them, whether they are sleeping or awake. The baraita clarifies: In what case is this statement said? When the husbands left their wives in a presumptive state of purity. But if the husbands left them in a presumptive state of impurity, she remains forever in a status of impurity, until she says to him: I am ritually pure.

12 יב

והא שמואל במאי מוקי לה אי בשיש לה וסת קשיא ערה ואי בשאין לה וסת קשיא בין ערה בין ישנה

The Gemara asks: But according to Rabbi Abba bar Yirmeya, with regard to what case does Shmuel interpret this baraita? If the baraita is dealing with a woman who has a fixed menstrual cycle, it is difficult, as Shmuel holds that such a woman who is awake is required to perform an examination, whereas the baraita indicates that no examination is necessary. And if the baraita is referring to a woman who does not have a fixed menstrual cycle, it is also difficult, as Shmuel holds that she always is required to perform an examination, whether she is awake or sleeping.

13 יג

לעולם בשיש לה וסת וכיון שתבעה אין לך בדיקה גדולה מזו אמר ליה רב פפא לרבא מהו למעבד כי הא מתניתא

The Gemara answers: Actually, the baraita is referring to a case where she has a fixed menstrual cycle, and since her husband came home from his travels and requested of her that they engage in intercourse, there is no greater examination than this. Since she had time to consider the matter while he was asking her, she would have remembered had she sensed the onset of her menstrual cycle, whereas under regular circumstances she might not have time to recall. Based upon this explanation, Rav Pappa said to Rava: What is the halakha with regard to acting in accordance with this baraita? Perhaps it is necessary to wake her and ask her whether she is ritually pure.