תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר וְהִזִּיר וְהֵבִיא אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא הֵבִיא הִזִּיר רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל בְּנוֹ שֶׁל רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן בֶּן בְּרוֹקָה אוֹמֵר וְהִזִּיר וְהֵבִיא אֵימָתַי הִזִּיר בִּזְמַן שֶׁהֵבִיא the verse therefore states: “And he shall consecrate to the Lord the days of his naziriteship, and he shall bring a lamb in its first year for a guilt-offering,” indicating: Even though he has not brought his guilt-offering he has nevertheless consecrated his days for the start of a new term of naziriteship. The opinion of Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Beroka, is as follows: The verse states: “And he shall consecrate to the Lord the days of his naziriteship, and he shall bring,” which means: When has he consecrated his days of naziriteship, i.e., when does his new term of naziriteship begin? It begins when he has already brought his guilt-offering.
מַאן תְּנָא לְהָא דְּתָנוּ רַבָּנַן אִשָּׁה שֶׁנָּדְרָה בְּנָזִיר וְנִטְמְאָה וְאַחַר כָּךְ הֵפֵר לָהּ בַּעֲלָהּ מְבִיאָה חַטַּאת הָעוֹף וְאֵינָהּ מְבִיאָה עוֹלַת הָעוֹף The Gemara poses a question: Who is the tanna who taught this that the Sages taught: With regard to a woman who vowed to be a nazirite and became ritually impure, leading her to designate a bird for a sin-offering, a bird for a burnt-offering, and a sheep for a guilt-offering, and afterward her husband nullified her vow of naziriteship for her, she brings the bird sin-offering and she does not bring the bird burnt-offering?
אָמַר רַב חִסְדָּא רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל הִיא Rav Ḥisda said: It is the opinion of Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Beroka. According to the opinion of the Rabbis, the burnt-offering is a gift, and she would bring it despite the fact that her naziriteship was nullified. According to Rabbi Yishmael, the burnt-offering is part of the atonement process, and since her naziriteship was nullified, there is no longer a need for atonement.
מַאי קָסָבַר אִי קָסָבַר בַּעַל מִיעְקָר עָקַר חַטַּאת הָעוֹף נָמֵי לָא לַיְיתֵי אִי קָסָבַר בַּעַל מִיגָּז גָּיֵיז עוֹלַת הָעוֹף נָמֵי לַיְיתֵי לְעוֹלָם קָסָבַר בַּעַל מִיעְקָר עָקַר וְרַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל סָבַר לַהּ כְּרַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר הַקַּפָּר The Gemara asks: What does he hold? If he holds that the husband uproots a vow entirely when he nullifies it, and she is considered not to have vowed at all, she should not bring the bird sin-offering, as she was never a nazirite, and she does not need atonement. Conversely, if he holds that the husband severs the vow from that point onward, but it did take effect beforehand, she should also bring the bird burnt-offering, as she requires atonement for becoming impure while she was a nazirite. The Gemara answers: Actually, he holds that the husband uproots the vow, and why is she obliged to bring a sin-offering? Rabbi Yishmael holds in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Elazar HaKappar.
דְּתַנְיָא רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר הַקַּפָּר בְּרַבִּי אוֹמֵר מָה תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו מֵאֲשֶׁר חָטָא עַל הַנָּפֶשׁ וְכִי בְּאֵיזוֹ נֶפֶשׁ חָטָא זֶה אֶלָּא שֶׁצִּיעֵר עַצְמוֹ מִן הַיַּיִן וְקַל וָחוֹמֶר וּמָה זֶה שֶׁלֹּא צִיעֵר עַצְמוֹ אֶלָּא מִן הַיַּיִן נִקְרָא חוֹטֵא הַמְצַעֵר עַצְמוֹ מִכׇּל דָּבָר עַל אַחַת כַּמָּה וְכַמָּה As it is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Elazar HaKappar, the esteemed one, says: What is the meaning when the verse states with regard to a nazirite: “And make atonement for him, for he sinned by the soul” (Numbers 6:11)? And with which soul did this person sin by becoming a nazirite? Rather, in afflicting himself by abstaining from wine, he is considered to have sinned with his own soul, and he must bring a sin-offering for the naziriteship itself, for causing his body to suffer. And an a fortiori inference can be learned from this: Just as this person, in afflicting himself by abstaining only from wine, is nevertheless called a sinner, in the case of one who afflicts himself by abstaining from everything, through fasting or other acts of mortification, all the more so is he described as a sinner. According to this opinion, Rabbi Yishmael holds that since the woman afflicted herself by abstaining from wine she must bring a sin-offering, even though, due to her husband’s nullification, she did not actually become a nazirite.
וְהָא בְּנָזִיר טָמֵא כְּתִיב וַאֲנַן אֲפִילּוּ נָזִיר טָהוֹר קָאָמְרִינַן קָסָבַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר הַקַּפָּר נָזִיר טָהוֹר נָמֵי חוֹטֵא הוּא וְהַיְינוּ טַעְמָא דִּכְתִיב בְּנָזִיר טָמֵא הוֹאִיל וְשָׁנָה בַּחֵטְא: The Gemara raises a difficulty with Rabbi Elazar HaKappar’s dictum: But this verse, labeling the nazirite a sinner, is written with regard to an impure nazirite, and we are saying that even a pure nazirite is a sinner. The Gemara answers: Rabbi Elazar HaKappar holds that a pure nazirite is also a sinner. And this is the reason that the statement that a nazirite is a sinner is written in reference to an impure nazirite rather than a pure one: Since he repeated his sin, as his impurity causes him to start his naziriteship again, he thereby deprives himself for a longer period. He should have taken extra care to prevent this from happening.
יָצָא וְנִכְנַס עוֹלִין לוֹ מִן הַמִּנְיָן קָתָנֵי עוֹלִין לוֹ מִן הַמִּנְיָן מִשּׁוּם דְּיָצָא חָל עֲלֵיהּ נְזִירוּת אָמַר שְׁמוּאֵל כְּגוֹן שֶׁיָּצָא וְהִזָּה וְשָׁנָה וְטָבַל § The mishna taught that if one took a vow of naziriteship while in a cemetery, left the cemetery, and then entered it again, the days he spent outside do count as part of his tally of his term of naziriteship, and he is obligated to bring the offerings of ritual impurity upon reentering the cemetery. The mishna teaches: They do count as part of his tally. The Gemara questions the meaning of this linkage: Does naziriteship take effect for him because he merely left the ritually impure place? He is still ritually impure, and he cannot begin counting his term of naziriteship until after he has undergone the purification process. Shmuel said: The mishna is referring to a case where he left and received the sprinkling of the ashes of the red heifer on the third day, and he again received the sprinkling on the seventh day and immersed, after which he entered the cemetery a second time. Since he is now ritually pure, his naziriteship takes effect.
אֶלָּא נִכְנַס הוּא דְּעוֹלִין לוֹ מִן הַמִּנְיָן לֹא נִכְנַס אֵין עוֹלִין לוֹ מִן הַמִּנְיָן לָא מִיבַּעְיָא קָאָמַר לָא מִיבַּעְיָא יָצָא אֶלָּא אֲפִילּוּ נִכְנַס עוֹלִין לוֹ מִן הַמִּנְיָן The Gemara poses another question: According to the precise reading of the mishna, his term of naziriteship starts only if he reentered the cemetery; however, is it only if he returned and entered the cemetery that those days count as part of his tally, but if he did not enter, and remained outside the cemetery, those days do not count as part of his tally? Why should the start of the naziriteship be dependent upon his reentering the cemetery? The Gemara answers: The tanna is speaking utilizing the style of: It is not necessary, as follows: It is not necessary to state this halakha, that those days count as part of his tally, in the case of one who left the cemetery and began his naziriteship, but even if he entered the cemetery again immediately after his purification, those days count as part of his tally, and he will be obligated to bring the offerings of ritual impurity upon his reentry.
אֲמַרוּ לֵיהּ רַב כָּהֲנָא וְרַב אַסִּי לְרַב מַאי טַעְמָא לָא מְפָרְשַׁתְּ לַן כְּהָלֵין מִילֵּי אָמַר לְהוֹן אָמֵינָא דִּלְמָא לָא צְרִיכִיתוּ: Rav Kahana and Rav Asi said to Rav: What is the reason you did not explain it to us with these words of Shmuel, as explained above? He said to them: I said to myself that perhaps you do not require that explanation, as I thought it was apparent that this is the proper explanation of the mishna.
רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר לֹא בּוֹ בְּיוֹם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וְהַיָּמִים הָרִאשׁוֹנִים יִפְּלוּ עַד שֶׁיִּהְיוּ יָמִים רִאשׁוֹנִים אָמַר עוּלָּא לָא אָמַר רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אֶלָּא בְּטָמֵא שֶׁנָּזַר אֲבָל בַּנָּזִיר טָהוֹר שֶׁנִּטְמָא אֲפִילּוּ יוֹם אֶחָד סוֹתֵר § The mishna also taught an additional halakha: Rabbi Eliezer says: This halakha does not apply to one who entered the cemetery on that very day that he left it, as it is stated with regard to the halakhot of an impure nazirite: “But the first days shall be void” (Numbers 6:12), which indicates that he does not bring the offerings unless he had his “first days” of ritual purity, during which he observed his naziriteship. Ulla said: Rabbi Eliezer said this halakha, that one day of naziriteship in purity is not sufficient to obligate him to bring offerings if he becomes impure, only with regard to an impure person who took a vow of naziriteship, but a pure nazirite who became impure, even if he was only pure for one day of naziriteship, it negates that day of his tally and he must bring the offerings of a impure nazirite.